Epiphany Truth Examiner


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Jer. 40—52. 



IN CHAPTERS 40-44 the Lord describes various of Bro. Russell's experiences as the Lord's prophet to the nations following the outbreak of World War Phase I, and after Labor as Satan's then chief agent in its religious aspects (Nebuzar-adan, Mercury chief warrior, 40:1) had freed him, now exalted, from his abasement (Ramah, height), from restraints on his service (chains … hand, 1, 4), in which it had found him among the captive nominal people of God (among … captive … Judah), then being led captive into confusion (captive unto Babylon). Labor having been apprized, through Bro. Russell's writings in sermons, among other papers, appearing in the Labor Tribune, tracts and books, of his forecasts as to the time of trouble, by word and act showed to him that it viewed the trouble upon their sphere of executorship as having come as God had through him announced it (said, The Lord … pronounced this evil upon this place, 2). It averred, repeating the same thought, by word and act that God had caused it (brought it, 3) according to His word pronounced through Pastor Russell (as he hath said), because God's nominal people in rank and file had transgressed and not obeyed God (sinned … not obeyed); hence, it averred, the trouble came (therefore … come upon you). It by word and act freed him from the restraint upon his service (loose … chains … hands, 4) and gave him the liberty of going into captivity with God's nominal people in confusion (seem good … into Babylon), in which case it would care for him, or not so to do (seem ill … forbear), but to

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remain in the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit and do there as he pleased (good and convenient … thither go). Before he put his decision into effect (not yet gone back, 5), it encouraged him to associate himself with the non-Truth party which had become favorable to features of the Truth and its Spirit (Go back also to Gedaliah), and which Satan was forced by circumstances to make take a leading roll toward features of the Truth and its Spirit (whom the king … governor … Judah), and to associate himself with the people in harmony with that party (dwell … people). It also gave him liberty to do anything else that he preferred (or … convenient). It privileged him to have whatever was needed for his work (victuals; literally, for the way) and as a reward increased favor on all hands (reward) and let him do as he pleased (let him go). 

Bro. Russell associated himself with the aforesaid non-Truth party (unto Gedaliah, 6), which was carefully watching matters (Mizpah, watchtower), and associated with such as were sympathetic with it and in harmony with him (among the people … land). When the leading warrior groups among Truth people and their adherents (captains of the forces … fields … men, 7) and certain clericalists (Ishmael) learned that Satan by Labor (heard … Babylon) was forced to give power to the above-mentioned non-Truth party sympathetic with features of the Truth and its Spirit (Gedaliah … governor in the land), leaving in its care all sorts of Truth people who were not made captives in confusion (captive to Babylon): the strong (men), the weak (women), the immature (children) and the spiritually destitute (poor), they approached (came, 8) this party in watchfulness (Gedaliah to Mizpah), first of all nominal-church clericalists (Ishmael, God hears; Nethaniah, gift of Jehovah). At that time, known to God, but not yet manifested, there began to come to the fore through their uncleanness the prominent leaders of the five groups of crown-losers in America. So marked was their uncleanness that Bro. Russell between Oct.,

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


1914, and June, 1915, said to the Bethel family: "If 10% of you gain the kingdom, I will be surprised." These groups later became manifest as (1) Societyites and (2) Standfasts bereft of Truth and its Spirit (Johanan [Jehovah is gracious] and Jonathan [Jehovah gives] the sons of Kareah [baldness]), (3) the Dawnists (Seraiah, prince of Jehovah; Tanhumeth, comfort), (4) the Kohathites (sons of Ephai, fainting; Netophathite, dropping), and (5) the P.B.I. (Jezaniah, Jehovah hears; a Maachathite, depressed, in allusion to their being one of the groups displaced from the chief prominence as the first born of the Levites). The pro-Truth group sympathetic with features of the Truth and its Spirit solemnly assured these six groups (Gedaliah … sware, 9) that they could undismayed be subservient to the encroachers (serve the Chaldeans). They encouraged these six groups to continue in as much of the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit as they had (dwell in the land) and cooperate with Labor, really Satan, in the changed order of affairs (serve the king of Babylon), promising them prosperity (well with you). 

This group assured these six groups that it would be very watchful while subservient to the encroachers (dwell at Mizpah … Chaldeans, 10) who would be active among them (come to us). It encouraged them to gain simpler truths (wine), graces growing amid toward experiences (summer fruits) and the Spirit of understanding (oil), putting them in their minds, hearts and wills (vessels), and to be active in their particular developing groups (cities … taken). Crown-losers, the Lot class (Jews, 11), that were in autocratic Romanism (Moab), in clericalistic Protestantism (Ammonites), in the symbolic field (Edom) and in all sects (all the countries), learning that Labor, really Satan (king of Babylon), had permitted real Truth people to have Truth privileges (remnant of Judah) in the charge of the non-Truth party that was sympathetic with features of the Truth and its Spirit (Gedaliah), even all these as antitypical Lot came in among Truth people, especially 

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between Oct., 1914, and Nov., 1916 (Jews … came … Judah, 12), to that group, all of them watching carefully the signs of the times (Gedaliah unto Mizpah), and gained much of the simpler truths (wine) and the graces developed amid favorable conditions (summer fruits). Those who were developing into the Societyite group of leaders among Societyite Levites as losers of more and more of the Truth and its Spirit (Johanan … Kareah, 13) and all the other leaders of the other four developing Levite groups who were fighting in Truth campaigns (captains … fields) watchfully (Mizpah) approached the watchful group of non-Truth people who sympathized with features of the Truth and its Spirit (came to Gedaliah), declaring positively (said, 14) to these that the clericalist leaders (Baalis [lordly], king of the Ammonites) had charged their clericalist confederates (Ishmael) to refute them in their pro-Truth stand (slay thee). But these refused to believe the leaders in the five developing Levite groups on this subject (believed them not). Thereupon the leaders (Johanan, 15) of the developing Societyite Levite group privately (secretly) asked these earnestly (I pray thee) to permit them to refute these clericalistic confederates (slay Ishmael) in a way that would not become public (no man shall know it), reasoning with them that there was no reason to allow such to refute them (wherefore should he slay thee) unto the dispersion of the supporting Truth people (Jews … scattered) and the perishing of the faithful (remnant in Judah perish). They charged the leaders of the developing Societyite Levites (Gedaliah … said unto Johanan, 16) not to do it (not do this thing), adding that they were misrepresenting these clericalistic confederates (speakest falsely of Ishmael). 

The clericalistic confederates who were close to the last favored movement of God's people (Ishmael … son of Elishama [my God hears] … royal … king, 41:1), on Sept. 21, 1914, the beginning of the seventh lunar month, supported by partisans in each of the ten 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


Protestant denominations (ten men with him), took an oppositional but hypocritical stand toward the watchful non-Truth people sympathetic with features of the Truth and its Spirit (Gedaliah … Mizpah). They hypocritically accepted their sharing with them their features of the Truth (eat bread). Thereupon these clericalistic confederates and their supporters in the ten denominations (Ishmael … ten men, 2) made a fatal attack with their theories on their hosts (smote Gedaliah with the sword), completely refuting them in their weak hold on the Truth (slew him), whom Satan by Labor had given executorship as to the Truth and its Spirit (king … governor over the land). Not only did they refute these, but all the newcomers of the watching Lot class that supported them (Jews with him … Mizpah, 3) and the encroaching warriors (Chaldeans … there … war). This refutation work was so secretly done that even on the next day none knew of it (second day … no man knew it, 4); for on that second day there came from the Federation of Churches (Shechem, shoulder, 5), Romanism (Shiloh [peace, in allusion to Romanist unity]) and the civil power (Samaria, guard) justified ones (fourscore [10 X 8, i.e., reckonedly perfect ones in the eighth 1,000-year day; for faith justification reckons one as living beyond the Millennium, in the eighth 1,000-year day], in deep mourning over the evils that World War Phase I had wrought in the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit, illy affecting their views, graces and persons [beards … clothes … cut themselves]). These were contemplating consecration (offerings) and the yielding up of their choice human powers (incense) among God's people (house of the Lord). The clericalistic confederates came from the condition of watchfulness (Ishmael … Mizpah, 6) to greet them (meet them), pretending that they also were deeply grieved by the same calamities (weeping … went). At their greeting of those justified ones (met them) they invited them to fellowship with

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the non-Truth party that sympathized with features of the Truth (Come to Gedaliah). 

Coming into the condition of watchfulness (came … city, 7), the clericalistic confederates refuted them in their weak hold on the Truth (Ishmael … slew them), putting them into the condition of slander (into the pit), even they and their supporters so did (he … with him). But certain ones from each of the ten Protestant denominations (ten … them, 8) pleaded for mercy (Slay us not), alleging that they held to the doctrine and practice of the nominal church (treasure in the field), richer (wheat) and poorer (barley) Truth with the Spirit of understanding (oil) and joyous hopes (honey). This moved the clericalistic confederates to spare (forbear) and not refute them (slew them not). The slanders into which they put the refuted ones (pit … dead bodies, 9), refuted because of their sympathy with antitypical Gedaliah (slain … Gedaliah), were those with which the Unitarian movement (Asa, physician) in fear charged the Calvinistic movement (Baasha, bravery)—blasphemies against God, Christ and the Spirit. The clericalistic confederates made these slanders replete with the refuted ones (Ishmael … filled … slain). Thereupon they made all of those who had fellowshipped with antitypical Gedaliah in watchfulness captives, by convincing them of the truth of their errors (Ishmael … captive … people … Mizpah, 10), even the powers of combinism (king's daughters) and the other watchful ones (people … Mizpah), given by Labor to antitypical Gedaliah (Nebuzar-adan … committed … Ahikam). These the clericalistic confederates made captives (captive) and started to lead them over to Protestant clericalism (departed … Ammonites). But when the leaders of the developing Societyite Levites (Johanan, 11) and the leaders of the other four sets (captains) of armed developing Levites associated with the former and all their supporters heard of the wrongs that the clericalistic confederates had committed (heard … evil … done), they gathered all their 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


supporters into a campaign, in their temporary part in smiting Jordan, against the clericalistic confederates (fight with Ishmael, 12) and came upon them among the many peoples (great waters) in the nominal church as the nominal kingdom of God (Gibeon, hill). When the clericalistic confederates' captives recognized (saw Johanan … all … forces … him, 13) the purposes of these, they rejoiced (were glad). 

These captives of the clericalistic confederates (people … captive from Mizpah, 14) turned away from them (cast about) and returned to their faith associates (went unto Johanan). But the clericalistic associates eluded (escaped, 15) the leaders of the developing Societyite Levites (Johanan), together with associates from all Protestant denominations, except the Unitarians and Fanatical sects (eight men), and went over to the clericalistic Protestants (Ammonites). Thereupon the leader group of the developing Societyite Levites and the four leader groups of the other developing Levite groups (Johanan … captains, 16) associated with the former (with him) took the delivered captives (remnant … recovered from Ishmael), after the clericalistic confederates had refuted antitypical Gedaliah (smitten Gedaliah), even warriors (men of war) and weak (women) and immature (children) and servile (eunuchs) ones, whom the leader group of developing Societyite Levites had recovered from the nominal church (brought again from Gibeon). These left that set of experiences (departed, 17) and entered into an experience of sorrowing (dwelt … Chimham, pining) near the sphere of the Bible (Bethlehem, house of bread), purposing to enter into selfish and worldly matters (into Egypt). This they sought to do because of the encroachers (Chaldeans, 18), whom they feared (afraid of them), because the clericalistic confederates had refuted antitypical Gedaliah (Ishmael … slain Gedaliah), who had by Satan through Labor been put into executorship of features of the Truth and its Spirit (governor in the land). 

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Jer. 42 treats of the crown-losers, leaders and led, double-mindedly desiring to know the Lord's will at Bro. Russell's mouth as to whether to occupy themselves with the Truth and its Spirit or to occupy themselves with selfish and secular things. The setting will become clearer, if we keep in mind the thought that the first smiting of Jordan was in progress and that antitypical Elisha drew back from it into selfish and secular matters or double-mindedly gave up smiting to do gleaning work and thus drew back from the progressive Truth and its Spirit as exercised by antitypical Elijah. Jer. 42 ignores antitypical Elijah and refers to the crown-losers' part in the premises. All the crown-lost leaders (captains, 42:1), especially those who became leaders of the developing Societyite and P.B.I. crown-losers (Johanan … Jezaniah, Hoshaiah, salvation of Jehovah), and all the crown-lost ledlings (all the people … least … greatest) drew near (came near) to Bro. Russell (said unto Jeremiah, 2) in his office as teacher to the nations (prophet), entreating him to entertain their petition acceptably (supplication be accepted), namely, to pray for all of them (pray for us), now reduced to a few (remnant … few of many), even as he knew (eyes do behold us). They requested that the Lord show them as to how they should conduct themselves (shew us … we may walk) and what they should do (we may do). Bro. Russell after hearing them (I have heard, 4) promised to do as they asked (I will pray … your words), assuring them that if the Lord would make it known to him (what … answer you), he would tell it them (declare it) without withholding any of it from them (keep nothing back). Thereupon all of them declared to him (said to Jeremiah, 5) that God would be a truthful and loyal witness as between them and Bro. Russell (true and faithful witness), if they would not do according to all God's message to them through him (do not … all things … God shall send thee to us). Regardless as to whether it were good or bad (good … evil, 6), they promised to 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


obey the Word of God (obey the voice … God), to whom they were sending him (send thee), in order that they might prosper (well with us) as they obey the Lord's Word (obey the voice … God). In the fulness of time for natures lower than the Divine the Lord's answer came to Bro. Russell (after ten days that the word … came unto Jeremiah). 

Thereupon by Towers, sermons, table talks, etc., treating of the Great Company, he called the leaders of the developing Societyite crown-losers (called he Johanan, 8) and the leaders of the other four developing groups of crown-losers cooperating with them (captains … with him) and all the other crown-losers without exception (people from the least … greatest), declaring Jehovah's pertinent message (said, Thus saith … God, 9), as from the One to whom they had sent him with their earnest request (whom … to present your supplication), telling them if they would continue in the Truth and its Spirit (abide in this land, 10) God would strongly develop them in grace, knowledge and service (build you) and not take from them the Truth, its Spirit and its ministry (not pull you down), would nourish them with the advancing Truth (plant you) and not remove the Truth from them (not pluck you up), since He would change the procedure used against His people (repent … evil … done unto you). By Bro. Russell He exhorted them not to fear Satan working through Labor (Be not afraid … Babylon, 11), whom they did fear (are afraid). Jehovah repeated the exhortation not to fear him (be not afraid of him, saith the Lord), because He was on their side to rescue and deliver them (with you to save … deliver) out of his power (from his hand), since He will exercise kindnesses to them (shew mercies unto you, 12), with the result that Satan in Labor would be kind to them (he may have mercy upon you) and let them return to the Truth, its Spirit and its ministry (cause you to return … land). On the contrary, through Bro. Russell in Towers, sermons, table talks, etc., as to the

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Great Company, God said that if they will not live in the Truth, its Spirit and its ministry (not dwell in the land, 13) nor obey the word of their covenant God (neither obey the voice … God), declaring by word or act to this effect (No, 14), but by word or act showing that they would become selfish and worldly (go … Egypt), as very many of them did after Oct., 1914; [e.g., J. F. Rutherford went back to the practice of the law, many colporteurs took up selfish and secular pursuits, many Bethelites did the same; and the most of the rest of them left off smiting Jordan and did gleaning work], believing that thus they would escape spiritual warfare (see no war), and calls to it (not hear … the trumpet), not lack Truth as food (hunger of bread), but thus be safe and comfortable (will we dwell), to such God called to hear His pertinent message (hear the word of the Lord, ye remnant, 15). Jehovah's pertinent word as their covenant God (Thus saith … God of Israel) was to the effect that if they were determined to become and remain selfish and worldly (set … enter into Egypt … sojourn there), then the warfare which they feared (sword … feared, 16) would involve them (overtake you … Egypt), and the lack of Truth as food, which they feared (famine … afraid), would pursue them (follow close after you) in selfishness and worldliness (in Egypt), and there would they cease to be of the Little Flock and fall into the Great Company (there ye shall die). 

This would be the lot of all who are determined to go back into selfishness and worldliness (So … all … set … go into Egypt, 17). Spiritual warfare, famine and siftings would make them cease to be in the Little Flock (they shall die by … pestilence). None of such would continue in the Little Flock (none … remain) or escape from the three aforesaid evils that God would see would overtake them (escape … I will bring upon them). Solemnly did God declare (thus saith … the God of Israel, 18) that as His anger and wrath had been expressed in those three evils upon the 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


supporters of the sphere of executorship of His favored movement, combinism (poured … inhabitants of Jerusalem), so would His wrath be expressed in those three evils against those new creatures who would become selfish and worldly (when ye shall enter into Egypt). To the enlightened faithful they would become abhorrent (execration), a disagreeable surprise (astonishment), objects of cutting-off (curse) and of censure (reproach) and would no more be in the sphere of the Little Flock in Truth, Spirit and service (see this place no more). God by Bro. Russell's ministries exhorted concerning these (concerning … remnant of Judah, 19) that they become not selfish and worldly (Go ye not into Egypt) and asked them to be fully assured that He had during the lapping time of the Parousia into the Epiphany (this day) solemnly warned them (admonished you). God further declared to them that they had in their hearts acted hypocritically (ye dissembled in your hearts, 20) when they requested Bro. Russell to seek from God the needed information as to their course (Pray for us) and promised to do all that God would say, and that he accordingly would declare to them (according … we will do it). Summing it up, Bro. Russell said that he had in that lapping period (I have this day, 21) told them God's will (declared it); he charged them with disobedience to God's Word (not obeyed the voice of … God) and his teachings given him by God to bring to them (nor any thing … sent me unto you). Therefore he gave them sure proof to their certain knowledge (therefore know certainly, 22) that they would cease to be of the Little Flock and fall into the Great Company (ye shall die), and that through controversy (sword), lack of Truth as food (famine) and crazing sifting errors (pestilence) in the sphere of selfishness and worldliness which they crave to inhabit (place … go and to sojourn). Surely the Epiphany has witnessed the fulfilment of Bro. Russell's warnings against the crown-losers' becoming selfish and worldly; for they have been 

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refuted by the Epiphany Truth in controversy (sword), lacked the advancing Truth and lost much of the Parousia Truth (famine) and have been spiritually crazed by sifting errors (pestilence). 

The foregoing teachings our Pastor gave orally and in writing; for he both spoke and wrote much on the Great Company's privileges and shortcomings during the lapping of the Parousia and Epiphany into each other. As he finished each feature of such teachings on and to crown-losers (end … words … God, 43:1), since it was God who sent him to declare all of these teachings (God had sent … these words), the leaders of the developing Gershonites in Britain and America (Azariah [the father of Jezaniah, 40:8] help of Jehovah; Hoshaiah, saved by Jehovah, 2) and the leaders of the developing Societyite Merarites (Johanan) and all the other self-exalting crown-lost leaders (proud men) by acts, not by words, charged Bro. Russell with false teaching on the subject, by their acts declaring that God had not charged him to counsel them not to turn to selfish and worldly matters, which they claimed they had to do under the then existing circumstances (not sent thee … not into Egypt), to busy themselves therein (sojourn there). On the contrary, they charged that his (faithful) helpers (Baruch … Neriah, 3) stirred him up to oppose them (setteth thee on against us), in order to betray them into the hands of the encroachers (deliver … Chaldeans), to make them die as Little Flock members (put us to death) and to make them captives in confusion (captives in Babylon). Accordingly, the leaders of the developing Societyite Merarites and the leaders of all the other developing Levite groups (Johanan … all captains, 4) and all the rest of the crown-losers (all the people) disobeyed the words of God (obeyed not the voice), to remain faithful in the Truth, its Spirit and ministry (dwell … Judah). But the leaders of the developing Societyite Merarites (Johanan, 5) and the leaders of all the other developing Levite groups (captains) took all the rest of the 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


crown-losers and unfaithful Youthful Worthies, delivered as they had been from all denominations (returned from all nations) in which they had been scattered (driven), in order to dwell in the Truth, its Spirit and ministry (land of Judah), namely, strong (men, 6), weak (women) and immature (children) ones and the powers of combinism (king's daughters), even everyone whom Labor, as chief agent of Satan in his new order (Nebuzar-adan), had committed to the care of non-Truth people sympathetic with features of the Truth and its Spirit (Gedaliah); yea, they even in their minds took Bro. Russell (Jeremiah) and the faithful pilgrims, colporteurs, volunteers and conversationalists (Baruch) along with them; and these latter went not with them as seekers of self and the world, but as seekers to help the crown-losers. Those leaders misled the crown-losers in a selfish and worldly course (came … Egypt, 7). In this they disobeyed God's counsel, given them through Bro. Russell, to be faithful to the Truth, its Spirit and its ministry. Accordingly, they took up with the higher forms of selfishness and worldliness (Tahpanhes, head of the land). 

The Lord charged Bro. Russell with a pertinent message while mentally he was studying those who were acting out the higher forms of selfishness and worldliness (word … Jeremiah in Tahpanhes, 8). God charged him to take large truths (great stones, 9) and to mingle these with counterfeit living stones, i.e., crown-losers (clay) whom God was about to give Great Company flesh-destroying afflictive experiences (brick-kiln) in the beginning of the sphere of Azazel's work (Pharaoh's house) operating through their higher forms of selfishness and worldliness (Tahpanhes), and to do this orally and in writing in the sight of the crown-lost ones (sight … Judah). Furthermore, he was to declare as God's pertinent message (Thus saith … God, 10) that He would cause Azazel, the ruler of confusion (Nebuchadrezzar … Babylon), who in this matter would render God a service (my servant), to

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establish his authority (throne) over these truths as they would be misused by the Great Company in their uncleanness, e.g., on militarism, clericalism, Babylon, etc., and by them establish a false church as a part of the visible phase of his kingdom (spread his royal pavilion over them); that when Azazel would engage in these activities (cometh, 11) he would afflict the sphere of selfishness and worldliness (smite Egypt) and give over unto second-death conditions second-deathers (deliver … for death to death), crown-losers unto Azazelian captivity (for captivity) and those who are to be refuted in controversy to controversy, by giving them error to defend which Truth teachers would refute (for the sword to the sword). The Lord would arouse destructive measures against the sects of false teachers in the sphere of selfishness and worldliness (fire … gods of Egypt, 12) and would destroy them (burn them) in Armageddon and deliver those teachers into captivity (captive). And Azazel would invest himself with authority over the sphere of selfishness and worldliness (array … Egypt), as a feeder and tender of followers invests himself with authority over them (as a shepherd … garment), and would prosper in this work to a completion (go forth … peace). Through the unclean Great Company he would utterly refute the doctrines of the Romanist Church (break … Beth- [house] shemesh [sun, in allusion to the papacy as the counterfeit sun, 13]), which is in the sphere of selfishness and worldliness (land of Egypt), and the sects of the great Protestant leaders (houses … gods … Egyptians) he would destroy in Armageddon (burn with fire). 

In Jer. 44 Bro. Russell is typed as giving his messages from God (word … Jeremiah, 1) during the lapping of the Parousia into the Epiphany. This message concerned all the crown-losers who had turned to the sphere of selfishness and worldliness (Jews … Egypt), particularly in their three prospective groups: the antitypical Merarites (Migdol, tower), Gershonites (Noph [dwelling of Vulcan, the artificer, in allusion to

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


their forming corporations]) and Kohathites (Pathros [region of the south, in allusion to their being nearer the symbolic sun, the New Testament, than the other two groups]) and the self-exalting leaders of these three groups (Tahpanhes). God by Bro. Russell called their attention as witnesses (Ye have seen, 2) of the calamities that God had brought upon the sphere of His favored people's executorship (evil … Jerusalem) and upon their denominations (cities of Judah), reminding them of their desolation and bereftness of inhabitants (desolation … therein). Next he pointed out their sins as the reason for this evil (wickedness, 3), sins that had aroused God's displeasure (provoked me). These sins consisted in their yielding their choice human powers and services (incense … serve) to the idols of selfishness and worldliness (other gods), which neither those powers and denominations nor the crown-losers while yet in Babylon nor their predecessors in the beginning recognized (knew not, neither they … fathers). Despite these sins, God betimes sent them star-members and their special helpers (my servants, 4) with the entreating message (saying) not to do the abhorrent things hateful to God (do not … hate). But none of these listened nor desired to listen (hearkened … ear, 5) to give up their evils (turn … wickedness) in yielding their choice powers to the idols of selfishness and worldliness (burn … gods). As a result God's wrath and displeasure were exercised (fury … poured forth, 6) and were aroused against the denominations of His favored people and upon the teachings of His sphere of executorship (cities of Judah … Jerusalem). Hence these made them ruins and wrecks (wasted and desolate) unto the time of His speaking (this day). 

God expostulated with the crown-losers (saith … God, 7), asking why they were so greatly sinning against their existence (great evil against your souls), which must result in cutting off from among them strong (men), weak (women), immature (child) and infantile (suckling) ones from the Little Flock (Judah),

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unto none of them remaining therein (none to remain), since they enwrathed Him (provoke me to wrath, 8) by their selfish and worldly works (works), devoting their choice human powers to the idols of self and the world (other gods) in the sphere of selfishness and worldliness (Egypt), to which they had given themselves up to practice (gone to dwell), with the result that they were being cut off from the Little Flock (cut yourselves off), and that they were objects of condemnation and blame (curse and reproach) amid all parties in society (all nations of the earth). God asked them, through Bro. Russell's talks and writings, whether they had forgotten the sins of their predecessors (forgotten … fathers, 9), of the movements of God's more favored people (kings of Judah), of the latter's supporters (wives) and their own violations of their covenant of sacrifice (own wickedness) and those of their supporters (your wives), which they had committed in the sphere of God's favored people (land of Judah) and in the teachings of God's sphere of executorship for His favored people (streets of Jerusalem). God reminded them that they had not yet abased themselves (humbled … day, 10), nor exercised reverence (feared), nor kept duty and disinterested love (law), nor His doctrines (statutes), which God had made known to them and their predecessors (set … before your fathers). God emphatically (Behold, 11) declared (saith … God) that He would oppose them (face against you) and cut them off and all their kind from the Little Flock (Judah). He declared that as to the rest of His favored people (remnant of Judah, 12) who were giving themselves over to live a life of selfishness and worldliness (go … Egypt to sojourn), He would lay hold on them (take) and deliver them over to the destruction of their fleshly minds (consumed), by controversy (sword) and by lack of spiritual food (famine); and they would all die from the Little Flock (die), from the least to the most influential (least … greatest), by controversy (sword) and lack of spiritual food 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


(famine); and they would be most evilly cast off (execration), a cause of disagreeable amazement (astonishment) and objects of cutting off and blame (reproach). 

God declared that He would stripe (punish, 13) such living in selfishness and worldliness (dwell … Egypt), even as He striped the sphere of executorship of His favored people (Jerusalem), by controversy (sword), lack of spiritual food (famine) and sifting errors (pestilence). This would result in none of such gaining exemption (escape, 14) or continuing in the Little Flock (remain) or being reinstated therein (return … Judah), regardless of how they would long for it (desire to return to dwell there); for none of them would return to the Little Flock, the only ones remaining in the Little Flock being the faithful—those who were saved from going into the sphere of selfishness and worldliness (none … escape). All of the leaders (men, 15) who knew that their supporters (wives) had yielded their choice human powers in sacrifice to the idols of self and the world, and all the weak ones (women) who heard this message of God by Bro. Russell (stood by), even very many selfish and worldly livers (dwelt in … Egypt), even the developing Kohathites (Pathros), by their course responded to Bro. Russell that his Divinely-given teachings (spoken … name of the Lord, 16) they would not heed (not hearken), affirming by their acts that they would surely fulfill their expressed views of things (do whatsoever … our mouth, 17), i.e., use their choice human powers to serve a mingling of religion and self and the world (incense … heaven) and speak on the simpler things of such combinationism (drink offerings unto her), even as they, their predecessors, their movements and their leaders in the sects of Christendom and in the teachings of the sphere of executorship (streets of Jerusalem) had done, alleging by their course that in those times they had had an abundance of supplies (plenty of victuals), had prospered (well) and had experienced no calamity (saw no evil). Falsely by their conduct 

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they alleged that since they had ceased to use their choice powers, i.e., left the nominal church and its ways, for such combinationism (left off to burn incense … heaven, 18) and to speak simpler things in its favor (pour out … her), they lacked everything (wanted all) and had been devoured by controversy (sword) and by lack of spiritual food (famine). By their course they asked whether when they thus served the nominal church in its combinationism (burned … poured out unto her, 19) they presented its deeper and simpler teachings (cakes … drink offerings) without the cooperation of their leaders (without our men). 

Their conduct giving Bro. Russell such answers, he replied, orally and in writing, e.g., in the article on The Hour of Temptation, in Z '16, 327; Reprints VII, 5981, (said to all the people, 20) to the leaders (men), their supporters (wives) and all others so replying (given him that answer), in questions as to whether God did not recall (remember) and bring to memory (came … mind) their choice human powers that they had offered in the sects of Christendom, i.e., before coming into the Truth (incense … Judah, 21) and in the teachings of the sphere of executorship of God's favored people, as well as those of their predecessors (fathers), their movements (kings), their leaders (princes) and the unofficial brethren (people of the land). Such memories brought it about that God could no more endure (no longer bear, 22) their wicked acts (evil of your doings), their abhorrent works (abominations … committed). Hence He drove such out of the sphere of the Truth, its Spirit and its ministries (land a desolation), an object of disagreeable amazement (astonishment), a cutting off (curse), and bereft of inhabitants up to the present (without … day). God repeats the crown-losers' wrong-doings committed while they were still in Babylon (burned incense … sinned … not obeyed, 23), since they conducted not themselves according to duty and disinterested love (law), true doctrine (statutes) and Bible histories and types (testimonies),

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


which resulted in the calamities that befell the favored people, whose evil course the crown-losers in principle were then imitating (evil … you … day). Additionally Bro. Russell asked all the people, including those favored ones and the weak ones (people … women … Judah, 24), to give attention to the Truth (Hear the word), even those of them who had turned to a life of selfishness and worldliness (Egypt). 

God's message (Thus saith, 25) to them was that they (Ye) and their supporters (wives), having by word (mouths) and act (hand) promised to keep their vows, saying that they would certainly execute their pledges (surely perform our vows), even to use up their choice human powers in serving a combination of religious and selfish and worldly things (burn incense … heaven) and set forth easier teachings in their interests (drink offerings unto her), delivered into Azazel's hands, would undoubtedly execute their pledges unto a completion (surely … vows). Solemnly (I have sworn … name, 26) God declared His word as to all such (Judah … Egypt), that His Word (name) in the Little Flock Truth would no more be declared by them in deed and truth (Judah … Egypt), in making it exhibit the God of wisdom, power, justice and love as His due truth exhibits it (the Lord liveth). Emphatically (Behold, 27) God declared that He would give them attention only for punishment (evil) and not for blessing (not good). All such would be deprived of Little Flockship (Judah … Egypt shall be consumed), by controversy (sword) and lack of spiritual food (famine), until they would no more exist as Little Flock members (an end of them). Yet the few that are delivered in controversy (escape the sword, 28) would go back to the sphere of the Truth, its Spirit and ministry (Judah) from the sphere of selfishness and worldliness (Egypt). And the remnant of God's people that gave themselves up to selfishness and worldliness (Egypt to sojourn) would recognize what word would abide—the Truth or error (mine or theirs). God gave 

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them a token (sign, 29) that He would punish them in their sphere of selfishness and worldliness (punish … place), to the end that they would know that His Truth would surely abide against them in calamity (stand … for evil). Another work would He do: He would deliver (give, 30) Satan (Pharaoh- [king] hophra [priest of the sun]) in his capacity of ruling in selfishness and worldliness in the world empire (king of Egypt) into the power of inimical religious forces who would successfully seek to overthrow him in that empire (enemies … seek thy life), even as God had delivered combinism (gave Zedekiah [righteousness of Jehovah] king of Judah) into the power of Satan as ruler in religious confusion (Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon), its mortal enemy (enemy … life). 

Bro. Russell as God's mouthpiece (Jeremiah, the prophet, 45:1) gave a message to the faithful pilgrims, colporteurs, volunteers and conversationalists (Baruch, blessed; Neriah, light of Jehovah) who had spread the message of the time of trouble (written … book) as they learned it from him (mouth of Jeremiah) in 1897, when the unionistic movement was the chief movement among God's more favored nominal people (Jehoiakim [Jehovah makes stand]; Josiah [Jehovah heals] king). The message was the following (saying): God Himself as the covenant God of His people (God of Israel, 2) gave a special message to these pilgrims, colporteurs, volunteers and conversationalists (saith … unto thee, Baruch). The message reminded them that they had said that sorrow was their portion (say, Woe is me, 3), since Jehovah had added sorrow upon mourning to them (added grief to my sorrow). They had also said that in their expressions of sorrow they became discouraged (fainted in my sighing) and that they found no peace (find no rest). Hence God charged Bro. Russell to tell them (Thus shalt thou say, 4) that the more favored movement of His people, the sphere of its executorship and their share in its sphere of Truth, its Spirit and its ministry, which God had established 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


(built), He would tear down (break down); and what God as a symbolic Gardener had sowed He would pull up, even the dwellers in these spheres, naming the container for the things contained (whole land). The Lord then by Bro. Russell cautioned these against self-exalting ambitions (seekest thou great things for thyself? 25). He exhorted them not to do so, but to abase themselves (seek them not). The great things were among that movement and its sphere of executorship. These should not be sought, because they must suffer much trouble when the great tribulation would afflict all flesh (evil upon all flesh), as God had forecast (saith the Lord). But God gave the faithful pilgrims, colporteurs, volunteers and conversationalists as a faithful class a special promise amid the troubles—their New Creatures would be preserved alive in all conditions and experiences that would fall to their lot (life … prey … goest). None of the faithful would perish! 

From Jer. 46 to 51 God types the messages that Bro. Russell as His prophet to the world would deliver to and on the various parts of Satan's visible empire (word … to Jeremiah the prophet against the Gentiles, nations, 46:1). It will be recalled that all through his ministry to the public, 1874-1916, he forecast evils to come upon every part of that empire in its visible phase. But it will also be recalled that this was especially done from Sept. 21, 1914, to Oct. 24, 1916, in his lectures, sermons and B.S.M.'s, as some of his subjects show: Why Financiers Tremble; The Overthrow of Satan's Empire; Clergy Ordination Proved Fraudulent; The Day of Vengeance; Distress of Nations Preceding Armageddon; The World on Fire; Earthquakes in Prophecy; Babylon's Doom, etc. Perhaps it is because of his special emphasis on these subjects from Sept. 21, 1914, to Oct. 24, 1916, that God placed the types of his announcing the overthrow of the various parts of Satan's visible empire at the end of the book of Jeremiah; but this is not to be understood as meaning that he did not announce these things before; for 

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the first part of Jeremiah prophesies many things typical thereof, as we have seen in our study of those parts of Jeremiah. These prophecies begin with the type of Bro. Russell's forecasts of the overthrow of the secular features of Satan's empire (Against Egypt, 2), particularly in that feature of it in which Satan's political and financial warriors (army of Pharaoh- [king, or sun] necho [conqueror]) met defeat in a strong, disastrous struggle (Carchemish, fort of burning) among the peoples of Christendom (Euphrates, stream; Rev. 16:12; 17:15), in an encounter with Satan as the ruler of religious confusion (Nebuchadnezzar, whom Mercury protects), which struggle began in 1897 and continued for years (fourth year of Jehoiakim … Judah). Bro. Russell, forecasting the conflict between the secular and religious mighty ones, told of the respective leaders, charging their warriors to arm themselves with protective theories (buckler and shield, 3) and thus enter the fray (draw near to battle), and to prepare their theories (Harness the horses, 4), whose propagandists were to advocate these with protected views (helmets), with well-written controversial pen-products and with protection for their vital points (brigandines—coats of mail). Bro. Russell forecast the thoughts of the defeated secularists exposed in the crookedness of their financiers and politicians, as they seek a reason for the trouble (dismayed, 5) of the secular warriors and their retreat (away back) and their being crushed (beaten down) and in flight (fled apace), without even turning to look at their opponents (not back) in their fear of further exposures made by the "muckrakers" (fear was round about). Even the swift in debate cannot get away (flee away, 6), nor the strong in controversy deliver themselves (escape), but shall be tripped and fall into one sharp but Divine exposure after another (stumble … north) in the presence of the peoples (Euphrates). 

People ask, Who is this that advances with overspreading devastation (cometh … flood), whose peoples 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


are advancing overflowingly (waters … rivers)? It is the grasping politicians and financiers that seek overflowingly to devastate (Egypt … flood, 8), whose peoples are advancing overflowingly (waters … rivers). They say that they will advance and cover society (go … cover the earth) and overthrow the religious government (destroy the city) and its people (inhabitants). Let their theories enter the fray (Come up, ye horses, 9); let their organizations boast (rage; literally, boast themselves); let their warriors enter the fight (mighty men come forth). Let those black with sin (Ethiopians) and oppressors (Libyans, oppressors) who act defensively (shield) and the less sinful (Lydians, swarthy) who act aggressively (bow) enter the fight, since this is the day of Jehovah (day … God, 10), a time of recompense (vengeance) for Him to punish His enemies (avenge … adversaries), and controversy will destroy (sword shall devour); it will be satisfied (satiate) and surfeited with their gore (drunk with blood), because Jehovah is preparing a slaughter near the borders of confusion (north country) in the presence of the peoples (Euphrates). Many will agitate reform measures for healing the politicians and financiers (Gilead, heap of witness, and take balm … O … Egypt, 11), but these will all be useless (vain … many medicines), because their political and financial ills are incurable (not be cured). The exposures of the disgrace of the politicians' and financiers' crookedness have been published among the nations (nations … shame, 12), and the secular order's consequent lamentations fill society (filled the land). Its warriors have contradicted one another in their defense measures (mighty … mighty) and have alike been refuted (both together). 

Bro. Russell at God's charge also forecast how the confused religious feature of Satan's empire would fight against its secular feature and defeat it (word … Jeremiah … king of Babylon … smite … Egypt, 13). It would be that it should be told in the latter feature (Egypt, 14), among politicians (Migdol, tower) and 

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scheming financiers (Noph, dwelling of Vulcan), yea, even among the most prominent of these two (Tahpanhes, head of the land), that they should hold their ground (Stand) and ready themselves (prepare thee); for controversy would work injury among them (sword … about thee). If one should ask why the secular warriors were utterly refuted (Why … swept away? 15), the answer would be that they could not maintain their position (stood not), because the Lord put them to flight, inasmuch as the religious warriors used Divine ethical principles in denouncing their crookedness (Lord did drive them). God caused many of them to be refuted (made many to fall, 16), they even refuting one another (one fell upon another). They agitated that they retreat from the field of battle, hiding themselves in their own spheres (go again … people), and to their natural spheres (land of our nativity), since the controversy trampled them down (oppressing sword). They proclaimed that Satan in his secularists is desolated (Pharaoh [king, or sun] … a noise [literally, a desolation], 17), that he has caused the time of his prosperity to pass away (passed the time appointed). God pledged (I live … Lord, 18) that as surely as the Kingdom of God will stand in its heavenly phase (Tabor, height) and in its earthly phase fruitfully minister to the rebellious race (Carmel, fruitful, by the sea), so these troubles will overtake the secular phase of Satan's empire from its religious phase (he come). The secularists should ready themselves to go into restraint (Egypt, furnish thyself … captivity, 19); for the financiers shall come to ruin all through plunder (waste), poverty (desolate) and loss of their supporters (without an inhabitant). Satan's secular order had many good qualities and accomplishments (very fair heifer, 20); despite this an overthrow was coming upon it from his religious order (destruction … north). Its hirelings were prosperous (hired men … like fatted bullocks, 21), but they were to be made to retreat from the battle (turned back) and to flee as one company 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


(fled away together). The reason why they could not maintain their ground (not stand) is that the predicted time of trouble and vengeance overtook them (day of their calamity was come … visitation). Its proclamation (voice, 22) spells death like a serpent (like a serpent); for the religious sphere of Satan's empire shall proceed like trained warriors (march with an army) and attack the secular phase destructively (with axes, as hewers of wood). Its great ones they shall utterly refute (cut down her forest, 23), God affirmed (saith), however widespread they are (cannot be searched), since they are more numerous than locusts, yea, not to be counted (more than … innumerable). 

The secularists will be refuted (daughter … confounded, 24). They will be surrendered to the erroneous religionists (delivered … north). God as the perfect One of His covenant people declared (God of Israel saith, 25) that He would strike the many that were at home in secularism (No, abode) and Satan and his secular order (Pharaoh and Egypt), their mighty ones (gods) and rulers (kings), even Satan in his secular order and all that confide in it (trust in him). God would see to it that they would be given into the power of their destroyers (deliver … hand … lives, 26), even into the power of Satan working through confused religion (hand of Nebuchadrezzar) and into the power of such religionists (servants); yet these secularists would in the Millennium (afterward) inhabit the new secular order of the new earth (inhabited; Is. 19:22-25), even as the garden of Eden was once inhabited by sinless Adam and Eve (as in the days of old), God affirmed (saith the Lord). Amid these circumstances God exhorts Fleshly Israel not to be in dread (fear not … Jacob, 27) and spiritual Israel not to be daunted (dismayed, O Israel), for God would deliver Fleshly Israel from their world-wide dispersion (from afar off) and Spiritual Israel from symbolic Babylon's captivity (thy seed … captivity). Fleshly Israel will surely return to Palestine (shall return) and find God's favor 

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Millennially (be in rest and at ease) and none will then cause them dread (none … afraid). Again God exhorts believing and obeying Fleshly Israel to be no longer in dread (Fear thou not, O Jacob my servant, 28), promising them His favor (for I am with thee). He assures them that He will completely destroy as nations those peoples among whom Israel was dispersed by God (full end … driven thee); but He promises not to destroy them as a nation (not make a full end of thee), though He will reprove them with doctrine (correct thee in measure, i.e., literally, doctrine), nevertheless God will not entirely acquit them, but give them needed punishment (not leave … unpunished). 

Jeremiah 47 types Bro. Russell's teachings, given him by God as His mouthpiece, against sectarians (word … Jeremiah … Philistines, villagers, 1), before Satan in the secularists (Pharaoh) refuted sectarian Protestantism (Gaza, strength). Jehovah forecast that peoples would come from the religious powers (waters … north, 2) and would be a devastating flood, devastating the sphere of sectarianism (overflow the land), the sectarian religious government of sectarianism (city) and those who abide therein (dwell therein). Then sectarian leaders would lament (men shall cry) and the ledlings would cry aloud (inhabitants … howl). At the agitation of the warlike threatenings (noise of the stamping, 3) of the foundations of confused religion's strong doctrines (hoofs … horses), at the course of its organizations (rushing of his chariots) and at the menace of its means of progress (rumbling of his wheels) winners to sectarianism would not interest themselves to rescue their winlings (fathers … back to their children), because of their weak powers (feebleness of hands). This was on account of the coming of the day when all sectarians were to be plundered (day … spoil all Philistines, 4), even to be cut off from its mercenary helping neighbors (cut off from Tyrus [rock, Romanism as proselyter] and Zidon [fisher, Protestantism as proselyter]), and every other

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


surviving helper (helper that remaineth); for Jehovah would plunder the sectarians (spoil the Philistines) as the remnant of the sphere of reigning ones (Caphtor, crown). Bereftness of the Truth and its Spirit has come to Protestant sectarianism (Baldness … Gaza, 5). Wholly cast off has Catholicism become (Ashkelon [balance] is cut off), with the rest of their depressed ones (remnant of their valley). They ask how long these will injure themselves (cut thyself). They cry out as to God's controversy (sword of the Lord, 6), When will it cease (how long … quiet)? They plead that it may come to an end in quietness and silence (put … scabbard … still). But Bro. Russell and his supporters asked how it could cease, since God had charged it to work against Catholicism (Lord … charge against Ashkelon, 7) and against those living close to rebellion against God (sea shore). As to these God had appointed this controversy (appointed it). 

Moab and Ammon as descendants of Lot and his daughters were more nearly related to the Israelites than most other of their neighboring nations. As the Romanist hierarchy and priesthood and the Protestant clergy were nearer related to spiritual Israel than most others of the nominal people of God, we understand Moab to represent Romanist autocracy, particularly as exercised by its hierarchy; and we understand Ammon to represent Protestant clericalism. Accordingly, Jer. 48 types Bro. Russell's forecasts of the evils coming upon Romanist autocracy, especially as exercised by the Romanist hierarchy. It will be seen that 27 proper nouns occur in this chapter pertinent to places and things in Moab. Evils are in this chapter pronounced against Moab in these 27 places and things. These 27 we understand to represent the 27 countries and conditions in which the Romanist hierarchy has exercised its autocracy and in which it was forecast to come to grief and woe. Ten of these are the ten language nations of Europe, three of them are Canada, U. S. and Latin North America and ten of them are the ten Romanist

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South American countries. The other four are certain of their teachings, i.e., (1) eternal torment (Chemosh, burning), (2) the Romanist Church as having certain good qualities (Sibmah, fragrance), (3) it as being the teacher of the world (Kir-heres, city of the [counterfeit] sun), and (4) human immortality (Jazer, helped). We are unable in every case with certainty to identify these 27 types with their antitypes. Rev. 17:16 tells us that the ten language nations of Europe will greatly afflict the Romanist Church and hierarchy. We have seen that Mexico has been doing the same; and certain South American countries are beginning a fight on hierarchical autocracy. Before Armageddon is over this passage, Jer. 48, will have reached its fulfilment in every one of these countries and conditions, in the complete overthrow of Romanist autocracy, particularly that of its hierarchy. With these preliminary remarks we are ready to begin the explanation of Jer. 48. 

God Himself speaks against Romanist autocracy, especially in its hierarchy (Against Moab thus saith … God, 1): Woe to it in its relation to Spain, its forecast of better things (Nebo, prophet), because in its hierarchy it is plundered (spoiled). The hierarchy in the Austro-Hungarian Empire (Kiriathaim, double city) is nonplussed (confounded) and the hierarchy of Germany (Misgab, high tower) is nonplussed (confounded) and in terror (dismayed). In part this has already had a fulfilment in the last fifteen years; but in Armageddon it will be completely fulfilled. Instead of the hierarchy's being in honor, it will be in disgrace (no more praise, 2). In the Slavic nations (Heshbon, device) they have been plotting injury against the autocratic hierarchy (devised evil), encouraging its satellites to cut it off from being a compact order (let us cut it off … nation). Its Scandinavian hierarchy shall be overthrown (cut down, O Madmen, dungheap from Rome's view, in allusion to its being almost wholly Protestant) and controversy shall hostilely follow it (sword shall pursue thee). The English and Scottish 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


hierarchy (Horonaim, double cave, 3) shall lament (voice of crying) its spoliation and great ruin (spoiling … destruction). In Armageddon the autocratic Romanist hierarchy shall be utterly destroyed (Moab is destroyed, 4); its "laity" are in great lamentation (little ones … a cry to be heard). As it for years has sought exaltation in France (Luhith, abounding in boards [corruptible humanity], 5), so continual crying has it uttered (continual weeping); and in the degradation that it will experience in Britain (going down to Horonaim) its foes have listened with relish to its cries over the destruction of its powers, privileges and prerogatives (enemies … cry of destruction). Its members urge one another to betake themselves to flight to preserve their existence (flee, save your lives, 6) and to hide themselves in out-of-the-way places (heath … wilderness). Since this autocratic hierarchy has relied on its activities (trusted in thy works, 7) and wealth (treasures), it shall be captured (taken). Its doctrine of eternal torment (Chemosh, burning) shall fall a captive in the hands of its attackers (into captivity), together with its sacrificers and leading proponents (priests and its princes). The plunderer shall invade every country in which the autocratic hierarchy is (come upon every city, 8); none of them will escape this invasion (no city shall escape). Its oppressed laity shall fall off from it (valley also shall perish) and the higher laity shall cease from its control (plain shall be destroyed), even as God has forecast (spoken). People will advocate that help be given the autocratic hierarchy to escape by flight (give wings … away, 9); for the countries that favored it will be overthrown in Armageddon and left unpopulated (desolate). 

This hierarchy is under a special curse (cursed be he, 10), because it has taught error, whereas it claimed to do God's work in truth (deceitfully). And he who withholds his controversial weapon from fully refuting it will be devoted to punishment (cursed … sword from blood). This hierarchy has had an easy time from 

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shortly after it had arisen, i.e., from the time of Constantine onward (ease from his youth, 11). It has rested on its errors (settled on his lees). It has not been undergoing changes from doctrine to doctrine (from vessel to vessel), nor fallen into the hands of enemies as their captive (gone into captivity), which resulted in its continuing to retain its ambitions and reputation (taste … scent is not changed). Therefore God in due time (days come, 12) will arouse errorists (wanderers) to lead it ever into deeper errors (cause him to wander), and these will show the emptiness of its teachings (empty his vessels) and refute its doctrines (break their bottles). This hierarchy will be ashamed of its doctrine of eternal torment (ashamed of Chemosh), even as Protestantism has been ashamed of sectarianism (Israel … Beth-el), in which it trusted (confidence). Its enemies ask it how it can boast that its members are strong and powerful controversialists (mighty … war, 14). This hierarchy shall be plundered (Moab is spoiled, 15) and compelled to recede from its union of state and church (out of her cities). Its choice controversialists have gone down into defeat (chosen … down to the slaughter), a declaration of Jehovah of armies (saith … Lord of hosts). Bro. Russell declared the nearness of this hierarchy's fall (calamity … near, 16), and that its troubles would come speedily (affliction hasteth fast). Let all its special supporters lament it (all … bemoan him, 17); and let all who recognize its real character (know his name) cry out: How is this strong support (strong staff) and beautiful power (beautiful rod) overthrown (broken)! Let those who are in Italy (Dibon, pining, 18) come down from their honorable station and be athirst (in thirst); for the plunderer of the hierarchy shall invade them (spoiler … thee) and will devastate their forts (destroy thy strong holds). Let the hierarchy of Paraguay (Aroer, ruin, 19) take their station and watch (stand … espy). Let them inquire of fugitives and delivered ones (fleeth … escapeth) as to what has occurred (What is done?). 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


The hierarchy is nonplussed (confounded, 20); for it is crushed (broken down). Let it lament and shout (howl and cry). Let even Venezuela be told of it (Arnon, murmuring), that this hierarchy is plundered. 

Condemnation has come upon the republics (plain country, 21); the hierarchy in Colombia (Holon, stronghold), in Latin North America (Jahazah, down-trampled place) and in the U. S. (Mephaath, splendor), in Italy (Dibon, 22), in Spain (Nebo) and in Greece (Beth-diblathaim [double cake, in allusion to Greece changing from a monarchy to a republic, and vice versa]); upon it in Austria-Hungary (Kiriathaim, 23), in Canada (Beth-gamul [weaned child, in allusion to its non-dependence on the United Kingdom]) and in Ecuador (Beth-meon [house of dwelling, in allusion to their security]); also upon it in Chile (Kerioth [city, in allusion to its being a compact people under the influence of Democracy, 24]) and in Turkey (Bozrah [sheepfold, in allusion to its containing Christians, Jews and Mohammedans]), even upon the hierarchy in all its 23 countries in Europe and in the Americas and in certain heathen lands where it is established (all the cities … far and near). This hierarchy's power (horn, 25) is overthrown (cut off); its priests (arm [the agents of the hierarchy]) are made powerless (broken). This God forecast (saith the Lord). People are exhorted to give it experiences, such as flattery, prominence and favor that would make it intoxicated as to its position (drunken, 26), because it exalted itself against God in His person, character, word and works (magnified … Lord). It shall be made filthily to repudiate many of its claims (wallow in his vomit) and be an object of mockery (in derision). This is because God's true people have been objects of mockery to the autocratic hierarchy, as the history of Romanist persecutions proves (Israel a derision unto thee, 27); for real Spiritual Israel was not an evildoer, though the hierarchy treated it as though it had been (found among thieves). Whenever this hierarchy spoke of it, it shook itself in derision 

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(since … skippedst for joy; literally, shook thyself with excitement, i.e., wagged the head). The subjects of this hierarchy have been exhorted to leave it in its relations to the countries (leave the cities, 28) and take their refuge in Christ (dwell in the rock) and be like those filled with the Spirit who dwell in the secret place (dove … nest … hole's mouth; Ps. 91:1). All have heard of this hierarchy's arrogance (heard of the pride of Moab, 29), which is very great (exceeding proud), and of its self-exaltation (loftiness), pride (arrogancy), haughtiness (pride) and superciliousness. 

God declares that He knows its vindictiveness (I know his wrath, 30), which shall cease (not be so), its devices, which are erroneous (lies). Therefore the people shall howl for it (I howl for Moab, 31), for every bit of it (all Moab), and lament for the great ones (men) of the Romanist Church, the counterfeit sun, doomed to annihilation (Kir- [city] heres [sun]). As the counterfeit of the true Church as the true vine, the Romanist Church (Sibmah, fragrance, 32 [fragrant to her own, as the vine of the earth]) will illicit the weeping of her members, with the sorrows that the doctrine of human immortality (Jazer, helped) has had over it. It has spread everywhere among the rebellious race (plants … over the sea), even to the human rebellion on immortality (Jazer). The plunderer has seized the tender growths of her immature ones (summer fruits) and her winlings (vintage). Happiness and rejoicing (joy and gladness, 33) are taken away from her large sphere of work (plentiful field) and from her hierarchy (Moab). God has caused the simpler truths to fail from her theological and catechetical schools (winepresses); none shall seek to extract them with delight (tread with shouting), which shall cease (no shouting). From Russia, the planning sphere (Heshbon, device, 34), even to the highest of Argentina (Elealeh, ascent to God) and Bolivia as oppressed ones (Jahaz, trampled-down place), their lamentation has gone forth. From Uruguay (Zoar, little) even to the United Kingdom (Horonaim) 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


their voice has gone forth (uttered their voice) as a well developed cow (heifer of three years); for the peoples of Brazil (waters of Nimrim, clear waters) shall be bereaved of the autocratic hierarchy (desolate). Additionally God will cause to cease the priesthood of the hierarchy that offers the mass in the Romanist churches (offereth in the high places, 35) and the one who yields his choice human powers for its creeds (incense to his gods). God's will, will cause messages to go out as to this hierarchy (heart … Moab like pipes, 36) and as to the great ones of the Romanist Church (men of Kir-heres), because the wealth thereof is destroyed (riches … perished). The Spirit of the Truth will be lacking (bald, 37), as well as the Truth itself, to these (beard clipped). Their works will be devastated (cuttings) and their services in mourning (sackcloth). 

Bitter wailings shall be everywhere the portion of the prominent ones of this hierarchy (lamentation … housetops, 38) and of their lowly ones (streets thereof); for God has destroyed this hierarchy as an undesired instrument (vessel … pleasure), as He said (saith the Lord). People shall lament (howl, 39), mourning over its overthrow (How is it broken down), exclaiming over its retreat in disgrace (turned the back with shame). Thus it will be mocked (a derision) and be an object of chagrin to all its supporters (dismaying … about him). God declared that its enemies with power and sharp sight will busy themselves with it (fly as an eagle, 40) and spread out their secular and religious views over it (spread his wings over Moab). This hierarchy in Chile is captured (Kerioth [city] is taken, 41) and its strongest positions are unexpectedly attacked (strong holds are surprised). And the courage of the mightiest hierarchs will be in terror, like that of a travailing woman (hearts … as the heart of a woman in her pangs). This hierarchy shall be utterly annihilated (destroyed … people, 42), because it exalted itself against Jehovah (magnified … Lord). Terror (fear, 43), slander (pit) and deceived hopes (snare) 

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shall be the portion of the hierarchy (shall be unto thee … Moab), God declares (saith the Lord). Those avoiding the fear-spreading objects shall become involved in slander (fleeth … fall into the pit, 44) and those who arise above slander (getteth out of the pit) shall cherish disappointing hopes (taken in the snare); for God (saith the Lord) is determined to bring upon the autocratic hierarchy the great tribulation (bring … year of visitation). The fugitives were in danger from the Slavic countries (fled … shadow of Heshbon, 45), because of force (force). A destruction shall come forth from the plotting Slavic nations (fire … Heshbon), even from Peru (flame … Sihon, rooting out), and shall destroy this autocratic hierarchy among their outposts (devour the corner of Moab) and the royal authority of the pope, the head of this unruly hierarchy (crown … tumultuous ones). Woe comes to this hierarchy (Woe … O Moab, 46); the people held by the fear of eternal torment cease to be (people of Chemosh perisheth); the strong (sons) and weak ones (daughters) are captives (taken captives). But in the Millennium God will free them from this captivity, as well as from that of sin, error, death and the grave (bring again the captivity … latter days, 47). God affirms it (saith the Lord). Thus has the fate of the Romanist hierarchy been forecast (thus … judgment of Moab). 

The fourth class against whom God by Bro. Russell gave woeful forecasts is Protestant clericalists (Concerning Ammon, of [my] people, 49:1). God asks whether Spiritual Israel had no warriors (Israel no sons?) and whether it had no one, a star-member, who was heir to the mouthpieceship of the Truth (no heir?). Why then did the eternal torment theory (Melcom [see margin; Molech], their king) become heir of God's Protestant people (Gad, happy), and the eternal torment advocates control the Protestant denominations (dwell in his cities)? In view of the blasphemies coming upon God by that theory God will raise up a sharp controversy against Protestant clericalism, which entrenched 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


itself within that doctrine (war … in Rabbah [great] … Ammonites, 2), and with that doctrine clericalism shall become an uninhabited ruin (desolate heap); and the clericalistic sects shall be destroyed (daughters … fire). Then, in the Millennium, Spiritual Israel shall inherit their members (heir … his heirs), God affirms (saith the Lord). Let the clericalists as plotters (Heshbon, 3) roar in their anguish (howl), for the eternal torment theory is overthrown (Ai [ruin] is spoiled). Let the supporters of clericalism (daughters of Rabbah) put on mourning as a garment (cry … sackcloth). Let them mourn as they make mental flights hither and thither amid the pertinent but misinterpreted passages on the wages of sin (run … hedges); for Melcom (Molech, the eternal torment doctrine) shall be captured by the Truth teachers on sin's penalty (their king … captivity) and its sacrificers and leading exponents with it together (priests … together). Why did its advocates glory in the people that it oppressed by it (gloriest … valleys, 4), its means of oppression (flowing valley), even after they were forced to give up that doctrine (backsliding daughter)? They trusted in it as in a great store of wealth (trusted … treasure), denying that any could successfully attack them thereon (Who shall come unto me?). God forecast (saith, 5) that He would cause them dread (fear upon thee) from their attackers (that be about thee) and that they as defenders of clericalism and eternal torment would all be put to rout (driven … right forth), none would be able to rally unto the controversy the erring fugitives (gather … wandereth). But in the Millennium (afterward, 6) God will deliver these supporters of clericalism and eternal torment (bring … Ammon), as He affirmed (saith the Lord). 

The fifth class or group of whom God made woeful forecasts through Bro. Russell is Christendom (Concerning Edom [red, in allusion to the bloodguiltiness of Christendom], 7). God charges that wisdom is lacking in statecraft (Teman, desert) and that wise plans are 

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lacking in those claiming to be discreet (counsel perished … prudent). One asks whether their knowledge has ceased (wisdom vanished). Capitalists (Dedan [low, as to their crookedness], 8) are prophetically bidden to flee their former ways (Flee), to reform their ways (turn back) and to lay deep, firm foundations in integrity (dwell deep); since God was going to bring the great tribulation (calamity) upon Christendom, antityping that upon Israel (Esau, red), even the time of trouble (time … visit him). As grape-gatherers leave some gleanings (grape-gatherers … gleaning grapes, 9), so will the tare-binders leave God's people out of their bundles; but when the revolutionists and anarchists (thieves) come upon Christendom they will destroy unto completeness (destroy … enough). God will make Christendom naked by His exposures of its evils (Esau bare, 10). Even its most shameful acts will be made public (uncovered his secret places), against which it will be unable to defend itself (hide himself). Its products are plundered (seed is spoiled) and its dependent (brethren) and independent countries (neighbors) of heathendom. Yet God promises to preserve its orphans (fatherless children … alive, 11) and urges that its bereaved groups trust in Him (widows trust in me). God says that those who had determined (judgment, 12) not to undergo the woeful experiences of the great tribulation (drink of the cup) will certainly undergo them (assuredly drunken). Should wicked Christendom go unchastised (go unpunished)? Not so (not go unpunished)! It will surely experience that trouble (surely drink); for by Himself has God solemnly given His word (sworn, 13) that churchianity (Bozrah, sheepfold) shall become without inhabitant (desolation), an object of blame (reproach), a ruin (waste) and one denounced as punishable (curse); and all its sects will pass eternally out of existence (wastes). 

God's people have heard a report from God (heard a rumor, 14), and the Congress of Religions at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893 sent a message to heathendom,

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


which in effect invited them to prepare to gather and send attackers to fight churchianity and pervert her members to their views (ambassador … heathen … against her … battle). God forecast that He would abase Christendom among the heathen (small … heathen, 15) and make it to be disregarded by the people (despised among men). The terror that it had aroused and its pride misled it (deceived thee … pride, 16). Christendom has dwelt in great heights and power sustained by God (dwellest … the rock), the mightiest and most exalted part of the present order (height of the hill); yet though exalted to the highest heights (high as the eagle), God will debase it thence (bring thee down), Jehovah affirms (saith). It shall come to ruin (desolation, 17), to the astonishment of all passers-by (goeth by … astonishment), who shall hold it in sharp disapproval because of its evils (hiss … plagues thereof). Its ecclesiastical overthrow will be the antitype of Sodom's (consuming, 18) overthrow, and its secular overthrow, that of Gomorrah's (submission) overthrow, whose neighboring cities' overthrow types the overthrow of Christendom's heathen dependencies (neighbor cities). None shall inhabit it after this overthrow, as none inhabited its types (no man … son of man dwell in it). With lion-like strength and courage (like a lion, 19) will conservative labor come up on account of the threatening pre-Armageddon masses of the race under the curse (swelling of Jordan, descender), assailing Christendom's strong position (habitation of the strong); but by its outbreak in Armageddon will God make Christendom beat a sudden retreat (suddenly make him run away). God raises questions as to whom He has chosen as the commander of His army (chosen … appoint over her). Who is like Him (like me)? Who will set limits of time to God (appoint me a time) and whom will God make His representative shepherd (shepherd … before me)? Except to the question as to who would give God a time limit, the answer to all these questions is: Our

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returned Lord. God desires the people to hear His pertinent plan against Christendom (hear the counsel … against Edom, 20) and His designs against Christendom's state and capital (inhabitants of Teman). The least member of the Christ beyond the veil will lead them into a trap (least … draw them out) and will bring ruin upon Christendom's state, church and capital (habitations desolate). Society will be in great commotion at their overthrow (earth … noise of their fall, 21) and at the cry of their fall destruction itself will be effected (cry … heard in the Red sea). Our returned Lord will come against Christendom in a mighty course (come … eagle, 22), and give His special adverse attention to the nominal church as the sheepfold (wings over Bozrah); and in that period, the Epiphany, the courage and strength of the great warriors of Christendom (heart … men of Edom) will be fearful, like that of a woman in birth pangs (heart … pangs). 

Against a sixth thing God made forecasts through Bro. Russell: Radicalism (concerning Damascus, activity, 23). Its strong ones (Hamath, fortress), even to its weakest ones (Arphad, border), are ashamed (confounded; literally, ashamed), because they have heard an evil report as to Radicalism (heard evil tidings), which has discouraged them (faint-hearted). Distress is upon its rebellious ones (sorrow on the sea) and they cannot be pacified (cannot be quiet). Radicalism has become weak (waxed feeble, 24) and turns to flight (turneth herself to flee), as can be seen in the Axis and will later appear in Russia and her satellites. Terror (fear), distress (anguish) and griefs (sorrows) have captured it (seized … taken), as a woman in birth pangs (woman in travail). Radicals cry out, How is praiseworthy Radicalism forsaken (city of praise not left, 25), the party of our delight (city of my joy)! Her youths give up in their teachings (young … streets, 26) and her warriors are overthrown in the time of trouble (cut off in that day), God declares (saith). God says that He will work destruction to Radicalisms powers 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


(fire in the wall of Damascus, 27) and completely destroy the theories of a reformed Radicalism (palaces of Ben- [son] hadad [honor]). 

The seventh group against which God by Bro. Russell made forecasts is the European nations, especially Britain (Kedar [dusky, in allusion to Europe's sinfulness] and the kingdoms of Hazor [court]). Kedar, the second son of Ishmael, primarily symbolizes the ten-tribed kingdom of Israel, and Nebaioth (Is. 60:7), his firstborn, primarily symbolizes the two-tribed kingdom of Judah; Kedar also symbolizes, secondly, the European nations, typed by the ten-tribed kingdom of Israel, and Nebaioth secondly symbolizes America, typed by the two-tribed kingdom of Judah. Hence we consider vs. 28-33 to be a prophecy with reference to the European nations, with special references to Britain, concerning which our Pastor often wrote, as prophesied in this section. Kedar was a tribe of Arabia, and the kingdoms of Hazor were Arabian kingdoms. Satan, reigning in confusion, has by the two phases of the World War smitten Europe (Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon shall smite). God charged that an invasion should be made against Europe (go up to Kedar) and that the British commonwealth of nations be plundered (spoil … east). Their spheres of activities (tents, 29) and their subjects are to be led away (taken away). Their attackers will take away their protections (take … curtains), their theories (vessels) and their organizations (camels). These nations will be in distress (cry) and dismay everywhere (Fear is on every side). They seek in flight to avoid the trouble (Flee … far off, 30), and exhort one another to work out deep schemes (dwell deep), since Satan has planned against them (king of Babylon … against you) and formed a plot against them (conceived a purpose). Variously they seek to get Britain on their side, some by alliances, others by conquest (get you … wealthy nation, 31), which is safely situated (dwelleth without care), not having fortifications other than their surrounding seas (gates nor bars),

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being thus separate from continental Europe (dwell alone). Their organizations will become prey (camels … booty, 32) and their great wealth plunder (spoil). God will completely dissolve their empire and its possessions, on which the sun never sets (scatter into all winds … utmost corners), and will bring misfortune upon it from all sides (calamity from all sides). This we see started after World War Phase I, in making that empire a commonwealth of nations, instead of an empire. Now we see it working in India, Palestine, Egypt, etc. This mighty empire will become utterly uninhabited (dwelling for dragons and desolation, 33). None shall be its citizens (no man … dwell). 

The eighth group against which God by Bro. Russell made forecasts is the nominal Protestant Church (against Elam, age, 34), especially after April, 1904 (beginning … Zedekiah). God forecast that He would break the nominal Protestant Church's offensive weapon, its creeds (I will break the bow of Elam, 35), which were her chief strength (chief of their might). God would bring upon her four great controversies: (1) on eternal torment; (2) human immortality; (3) consciousness of the dead and (4) probation limited to this life (four winds, 36), striking her in the four great parts of the symbolic heavens (four quarters of heaven). By all these controversies she would be put to disorderly flight (will scatter them to [literally, by] all those winds) and her outcasts will find no sect where they would not seek a refuge (no nation … outcasts of Elam shall not come). God was determined to cause the Protestant Church to be affrighted before her opponents, the Truth people (dismayed before their enemies, 37), and before those who seek to destroy her—infidels (seek their life), and to bring calamity upon it (evil upon them), even His displeasure (my fierce anger), and to send controversy to them unto their overthrow (sword … consumed them). God would establish His authority among them (set my throne in Elam, 38) and would cut off from them their ruling 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


power and leaders (destroy … king and the princes), He declares (saith). But in the Millennium (latter days, 39) He would restore them to favor out of their captivity (bring again the captivity of Elam). 

In Jer. 50 and 51 we have a ninth group of which God made forecasts by Bro. Russell, even symbolic Babylon (word … spake against Babylon … Chaldeans by Jeremiah the prophet, 50:1). By Babylon here, not literal, but symbolic Babylon is meant, as can be seen from a comparison of parts of this prophecy with Revelation, written prophetically long after literal Babylon was overthrown, e.g., Jer. 50:15; Rev. 18:6, 7; Jer. 51:6; Rev. 18:4; Jer. 51:7; Rev. 17:4; Jer. 51:9; Rev. 18:5; Jer. 51:13; Rev. 17:1; Jer. 51:45; Rev. 18:4; Jer. 51:48; Rev. 19:1-3. Moreover, many of its sayings are parallels of Isaiah's prophecies of symbolic Babylon. While mystic Babylon primarily represents the Romanist Church (Rev. 17:1-6, 15, 16, 18), it is also a family name including her daughter systems, the Protestant sects (Rev. 17:5); and in this wide sense the entire nominal church under the name of Babylon in Jer. 50, 51 is discussed prophetically. Jehovah charged that the widest publicity should be given to the fact that the nominal church as Babylon would be captured (Declare … publish … conceal not, say, Babylon is taken, 2). God's people are charged to set forth the pertinent truth as a flag (set up a standard). The pope (Bel, i.e., Baal, Lord, representatively) is nonplussed and confounded and the entire hierarchy will be utterly destroyed (Merodach [death, in allusion to its forecast annihilation; 2 Thes. 2:8]). Her creeds (idols) are nonplussed (confounded) and her erroneous teachings will be utterly refuted (images … pieces). For out of the religious sphere Spiritual Israel will arise against her in controversy (north … nation against her, 3), which will utterly refute her teachings, spirit and service (land desolate), which will finally become without inhabitants (none shall dwell therein). 

These will leave (remove … depart) her Antichrist systems (man) and secular governments (beast). In

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that period, the Parousia and the Epiphany (days … time, 4), the Great Company (children of Israel) and the Little Flock (Judah) with much sorrow (weeping) will come into the Truth (come … together), seeking the Truth as God's manifested presence (go, and seek … God). They will inquire how to win out in the high calling (ask the way to Zion [sunny, in allusion to its being the light of the world in this and in the next Age; Is. 60:14], 5), with their favor (faces) given to her (thitherward), exhorting one another to become one with God (join … Lord) in a faithfully and eternally kept covenant (perpetual covenant) never to be forgotten (not be forgotten). Scattered in the various wards of Babylon God's people have indeed been a wandering flock (lost sheep, 6). Their pastors there taught them false doctrines and practices (caused … stray). They turned them astray into the kingdoms of this world (turned them … mountains), resulting in their going from kingdom (mountain) to republic (hill) as their abiding place, forgetting the Millennial Kingdom as their real abode (forgotten their resting place). All the pastors who won them as sheep ruined their hearts and minds like wolves (found … devoured, 7). Their persecutors considered themselves guiltless (offend not), under the delusion that these were heretics who deserved persecution, having sinned against God (sinned against God), who is the personification of righteousness (habitation of justice), even God, who was the hope of their predecessors (hope of their fathers). 

God bade them to leave the nominal church's precincts (Remove … midst of Babylon, 8) and the sphere of the encroachers' teachings, spirit and service (land of the Chaldeans [encroachers, in allusion to the nominal church's warriors encroaching on the sphere of the Truth, its Spirit and ministries]). And let them consider God's people thus leaving them as stubborn, self-willed ones among their adherents (he goats before the flocks). God's determination was to bring against the nominal church conglomerations of hostile groups 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


(against Babylon … nations, 9), i.e., Socialists, Communists, Syndicalists, Anarchists, Infidels, Skeptical Scholars, Spiritualists, Christian Scientists, Heathen Propagandists, as well as Truth people, all of whom will busy themselves with nominal-church teachings and practices (from the north country). These will enter into hostile teachings against her (array against her) and as a result of these hostilities she will be captured (shall be taken). Their sharp sayings will be those of expert controversialists (arrows … mighty expert man) and none of these will return from the controversy without damaging her and gaining booty (return in vain). Her sphere of teaching, spirit and practice will become plunder (Chaldea … spoil, 10) and her plunderers will be content with their efforts (spoil … satisfied). Because Babylonians were full of joy (glad … rejoiced, 11) when spoiling God's people (destroyers of mine heritage), were enriched (fat … heifer at grass) and gloried over their feats (bellow as bulls); those that mothered them will be greatly nonplussed (mother … confounded, 12) and disgraced (ashamed), since God will make Babylon the most backward of the systems, an isolated one (wilderness), an unproductive one (dry land) and an uninhabited one (desert). God's wrath will make her uninhabited (not inhabited, 13), and she will be wholly peopleless (wholly desolate). All who contemplate her (goeth by Babylon) will be astounded and will deride her for her evils (hiss at all her plagues). God sets attackers in rank against her (in array against Babylon, 14) on all sides (round about). Let all who can shoot sharp sayings (bend the bow) utter them against her (shoot at her). Withhold no sharp saying (spare no arrows), because she sinned against God (against the Lord). 

God charges her enemies to attack her on all sides (Shout against her round about, 15). She asks for mercy (given her hand). The bases (foundations) of her positions, her perverted Scriptural explanations have been overthrown (fallen). Her powers are 

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overpowered (walls are thrown down), because of God's vindication of His character, person, plan and work (vengeance of the Lord). Be avenged upon her (take vengeance). Let God's people do to her as she did to them (as she … do unto her). Frustrate the efforts of her proselyters (Cut off the sower, 16) and her intakers (handleth the sickle) when increases of members are sought (time of harvest). For fear of the arguments of the controversialists (fear of the oppressing sword) each one deserts the field of battle for refuge (turn … people) and goes to his congenial sphere (flee … own land). Spiritual Israel is like sheep driven hither and thither (scattered sheep, 17). Strong ones have driven it from its pasture (lions … away). First the papacy consumed it (Assyrian, steps) and finally Satan by confusion has severed its members from one another (king of Babylon … bones). Hence the God of Spiritual Israel declared (saith … God, 18) that He would punish Satan as the ruler of confusion and his sphere of teaching, spirit and service (king … land), as He punished the papacy (as the king of Assyria); and God would bring Spiritual Israel again to the Truth, its Spirit and service (bring Israel … habitation, 19); and it would feed again in fruitfulness (Carmel) and richness (Bashan, their soil); and its very being would be contented with the two-phased Kingdom (Ephraim, doubly fruitful) and the Oathbound Covenant (Gilead, heap of witness). In the Parousia and Epiphany (those days … time, 20) the Great Company's error will be sought (iniquity … sought), but it will be free therefrom (none); and the sins of the Little Flock (sins of Judah), but they shall not be found (not be found); for God will pardon His remnant (pardon … reserve). An exhortation will go out to invade the teaching, spirit and service of the Great Company in the Truth as guilty of double rebellion, once in the nominal church, then in the Truth (Go … Merathaim, doubly rebellious, 21), and against the exposed ones (Pekod, opened). God charges that

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


these spheres be utterly destroyed (utterly destroy after them) and that they keep His pertinent charge (all … commanded thee). There is the evidence of controversy in the sphere of Babylon's teaching, spirit and service (in the land, 22) and of great ruin (great destruction). As the oppressor of all society (hammer … society, 23) the nominal church is divided and severed (cut asunder and broken). She has become uninhabited among all groups (desolation … nations). 

God has prepared a trap for her (laid a snare, 24) and she has been caught therein (taken). She knew it not (wast not aware) and was captured (found), because she fought against God (striven … Lord). God caused His controversial weapons to be available against her (opened his armory, 25), and brought them forth to the combat (brought forth the weapons) in His displeasure (indignation); for this is the occupation of God in the sphere of His enemies' teaching, spirit and work (work … God … land of the Chaldeans). God gathers against her foes from afar (Come … utmost border, 26). Break open her treasures (open her storehouses). Make her piles of ruin (as heaps) and annihilate her (destroy her utterly). Reduce her to nothing (nothing … left). Kill all her powerful men (slay all her bullocks, 27); bring them down to slaughter (down to the slaughter). Distress is theirs (woe unto them); for the day of their punishment has come (day … of their visitation). The proclamation of those that fled and escaped from her teachings, spirit and work is heard (voice … flee and escape … land of Babylon, 28), announcing in the true Church God's vengeance for His true Church (declare in Zion … vengeance of his temple). Let the shooters of sharp sayings gather against the nominal church (call … archers against Babylon, 29), even all who shoot out sharp sayings (bend the bow). Besiege her on all sides (camp … about). Let them allow none to escape (none thereof escape). Give her retribution as she deserves (according to her work … that she hath done, do unto her); 

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for she has dealt in pride against Jehovah (against … Israel). Therefore her youths shall be slain in her teachings (young … fall in the streets, 30) and her warriors shall be overthrown in the day of the Lord (that day), God affirms (saith). God emphasizes (Behold, 31) the fact that He is her Opponent (against thee) in her great pride (most proud); for her time of punishment has come (thy day … time … visit thee). Her proudest, the pope and his hierarchy, will be trapped into a fall (most proud … fall, 32). Nor will any one lift them up (none shall raise him up). God will raise up destruction in their national churches (fires in his cities), destroying everything on all sides (devour … about him). 

God declared (saith, 33) that the Great Company (Israel) and the Little Flock (Judah) were trodden down together (oppressed together). Their captors held them tightly (captives held them fast), refusing to liberate them (refused … go). Their Deliverer is powerful (Redeemer is strong, 34). Jehovah is His character (Lord … name). He will detailedly defend their case (thoroughly … cause), that He may give the Truth, its Spirit and its work prosperity (rest to the land), but disturb Babylonians (disquiet … Babylon). A controversy is upon the oppressing Babylonians (sword … Chaldeans, 35), God declares (saith), and upon all other Babylonians (inhabitants of Babylon), upon her leaders and counselors (princes … wise men). It is upon her teachers of error (liars, 36); and they shall become foolish (dote), upon her warriors (mighty men), and they are terrorized (dismayed), upon their teachings (horses, 37), upon their organizations (chariots) and upon their mixed multitudes (mingled people … midst of her). They shall become fearful like women (become as women). A controversy is upon her stores (sword … treasures), which will be stolen (robbed). She is getting no new truths (drought … waters, 38) and her old teachings have evaporated (they shall be dried up); for they are merely the 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


sphere of the creeds (land of graven images). They are of an unsound mind for their creed idols (mad … idols). Bereft of human accepters, only unruly but destroyed monarchies (wild beasts of the desert, 39) and unruly destroyed republics (wild beasts of the islands) shall be with her in destruction. Dim memories (owls) that inhabit wastes, but no humans, will ever be there (no more inhabited). Nor will any feel at home in her forever (neither … dwelt in … generation). Antitypical of God's overthrowing Sodom and Gomorrah and the neighboring cities, which have remained without inhabitant, will be the overthrow of the nominal church and the governments of Christendom and of heathendom, which will remain uninhabited (no man abide there, 40), nor shall any feel at home there (son of man dwell therein); for God's Parousia and Epiphany people shall come from the religious sphere (from the north, 41), even a great people, as God views matters (great people), and many movements, like Socialism, Communism, Syndicalism, Anarchism, Infidelism, etc., from the lower spheres of society (many kings … coasts of the earth). They will shoot sharp sayings (bow, 42) and pen-products (lance). Cruel will they be (cruel) and without pity (not shew mercy). Their message will shout rebellion (roar like the sea); they will set forth teachings (ride upon horses) and be prepared for controversy (put in array), like men for battle (like … battle), against the nominal church (daughter of Babylon). 

Satan has heard tell of them (king … report of them, 43), and resultantly his powers became weak (hands waxed feeble). He was seized with deep distress (anguish took hold of him) and intermittent pains, like birth pangs (pangs as … travail). The returned Christ in great power (like a lion, 44) will come upon her from the aroused race under the curse (swelling of Jordan) in an attack upon strong mystic Babylon (habitation of the strong). God will make her attackers in both phases of the World War retire from her temporarily

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(suddenly run away from her). The returned Christ is God's choice to become her conqueror (chosen … appoint over her), the One like God (like me). None can limit God in time (appoint me a time). Christ is the real Pastor, who will officiate on God's behalf (shepherd … stand before me). God's plan (counsel, 45) and designs (purposes) against the nominal church (Babylon) and its sphere (land of the Chaldeans) of teaching, spirit and work, is to use the least of the brethren beyond the veil to drag them out of their place (draw them out) and to make their place without inhabitant (habitation desolate). At the tumult of the nominal church's capture (noise … Babylon, 46) society is affected (earth is moved) and the clamor is heard among the sects (cry … nations). 

God by Bro. Russell had so much to say against the nominal church and her coming destruction that the subject overflows into and through chapter 51. Hence he forecasts that He would arouse against her (raise up against Babylon, 51:1) and her members (dwell in the midst), as enemies of His, a destructive war (destroying wind), that He would send against her such as would arouse this war (fanners, that will fan her, 2) and despoil her sphere of teaching, spirit and works (empty her land); for in the time of trouble they would oppose her (day of trouble … against her) on all sides (round about). Let the shooter of sharp sayings (archer, 3) shoot his against hers (bendeth) and her armored ones going forth to combat (lifteth himself … brigandine). God charges that these shooters of sharp sayings spare not her fighting youth (young men), but utterly refute them and all others (destroy ye utterly all her host). Thus the refuted will fall (slain shall fall, 4) in the sphere of the oppressors' teachings, spirit and work (land of the Chaldeans), together with those who are pierced through by her teachings (thrust … streets); for God has not abandoned (forsaken, 5) His mistreated crown-losers (Israel) and crown-retainers (Judah), despite the fact that 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


their sphere of Truth, its Spirit and its work had many faults against God (filled with sin … Israel). God invited them to come out of her (Flee out … Babylon, 6) and rescue themselves from her punishment (deliver … soul), urging them not to suffer severance from Him in her sin and error (not cut off in her iniquity), since this was the time of God's recompense (Lord's vengeance). He was intent on punishing her (recompense). She was a Divinely appointed mouthpiece of Christ (golden cup … hand, 7), but she intoxicated all society with error (earth drunken). Every church and governmental system drank of her error (drunken of her wine), which made them insane (nations are mad). She suddenly fell in 1878 from her mouthpieceship (suddenly fallen, 8) and will be destroyed in Armageddon (destroyed). Make loud lamentations for her (howl for her). Let reformers seek to heal her malady, if possible (balm … pain, if … may be healed). Reformers sought to cure her (would have healed, 9), but she did not respond to curing efforts (is not healed). Incurable, let her be deserted by all who would seek their own sphere (forsake … go … own country); for her condemnation cries to God for punishment (judgment reacheth unto heaven), even sky-high (to the skies). God has vindicated His faithful (brought forth our righteousness, 10). These encourage one another to tell among the faithful His Word and work (declare in Zion the work … God). Prepare sharp sayings (Make bright the arrows, 11) and defensive arguments (gather the shields); for God has enthused the opponents of Babylon (raised up … kings of the Medes); His purpose is to destroy mystic Babylon (device … destroy it), because it is the recompense of the Lord for His people as His Temple (vengeance … temple). 

Let Babylonians set up their creeds as their flag upon their powers (Set up the standard … Babylon, 12) and strengthen their guards (watch strong) and lay ever so many traps (ambushes); for God has planned and will perform His purpose against them (devised 

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and done … spake … Babylon). Though sustained by many peoples (dwellest upon many waters, 13), and abounding in wealth (abundant in treasures), Babylon's limit has been reached (end is come) and the limit of her avarice (measure … covetousness). Solemnly by Himself has God pledged (sworn by himself, 14) that He will fill her with attackers as devourers (fill thee with men … caterpillars) and they will mightily agitate against her (shout against thee). He organized society on pertinent strong principles (made the earth by his power, 15) and in principle the present order in knowledge (world by his wisdom) and the powers of spiritual control by wisdom (heaven by his understanding). When He made known His word (uttereth his voice, 16) there was much Truth in the powers of spiritual control (waters in the heavens). He caused vestiges of Truth to come forth from society, e.g., in some of its laws (vapors … ends of the earth). He caused flashes of Truth to come with His Word (lightnings with rain); and from His store of Truth He brought forth controversy (wind out of his treasures); but the increase of knowledge has made all the unregenerate cruel (brutish by his knowledge, 17); and every doctrinal inventor is nonplussed by his creation (founder … graven image); for the creeds are erroneous (image is falsehood); and they have no life in them (no breath in them). They are empty (vanity, 18), the product of untruth (work of errors), and in the time of controversy they will cease to stand (visitation they shall perish). Fleshly Israel's teachings are quite unlike theirs (portion … not like them, 19); for God is the Creator of all things (he … all things); and Spiritual Israel is His inheritance (rod of his inheritance) and His character is Jehovah (his name). The returned Jesus is His instrument of battle and His weapon of war (battle axe … war, 20); for by Him God will utterly overthrow the sects (break in pieces the nations) and destroy the governments (destroy the kingdoms). 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


By Christ will God utterly refute erroneous doctrines and teachers (horse and his rider, 21) and all Satanic organizations and their directors (chariot and his rider). By Him will God utterly destroy the antichrists and false churches (man and woman, 22), the wise (old) and immature (young) and the young leaders and ledlings (young man and maid). By Christ will God utterly overthrow the false pastors and their flocks (shepherd and his flock, 23), the grower of fruits and his assistants (husbandman … oxen) and leaders and rulers (captains and rulers). And by Christ will God recompense (render, 24) the nominal church (Babylon) and all supporters of the oppressors (inhabitants of Chaldea) for all the wrongs (evil) that they have committed in the true Church (Zion) in the sight of God's people (in your sight). This is a solemn declaration of God (saith). Emphatically (Behold, 25) did God declare His opposition to the destructive kingdom of Satan (against thee, O destroying mountain), which undermined all society (destroyest all the earth). He will stretch Christ out against it (stretch out mine hand), will cast it down from its strong positions (roll thee down from the rocks) and make it a destroyed kingdom (burnt mountain). Nothing shall be taken from Satan's kingdom for a corner stone (stone for a corner, 26), nor for a foundation stone (stone for foundations) for Christ's Kingdom; but every feature of that kingdom will lie desolate (desolate for ever). God proclaims that His people should set up the Truth as a standard throughout society (Set … standard in the land [literally, earth], 27). Issue forth the message (blow the trumpet) everywhere (among the nations). Arouse the peoples against the nominal church (prepare the nations against her). Prepare Socialism (Ararat, highland), Communism (Minni, portion) and Anarchism (Ashchenaz, fire that spreads) against her. Make one a leader against her, even the returned Christ (captain), and cause teachings (horses) to attack her as destroyers (as rough caterpillars). Let the pertinent

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groups be prepared (Prepare against her the nations, 28), with the main pilgrims of the Church in the flesh (kings of the Medes, middle land), auxiliary pilgrims (captains) and elders (rulers, i.e., chairmen), with every truth, its spirit and work (all the land of his dominion). Society (land [earth], 29) shall quake and grieve (tremble and sorrow), because every design of the Lord will succeed (purpose … performed) against the nominal church (Babylon), in order to desolate her teachings, spirit and practices (land … desolation without an inhabitant). Her warriors have refrained from the controversy (mighty … forborne to fight, 30), hiding in their retreats (remained in their holds). Their power to fight for their creeds has ceased (might hath failed); they have become weak (as women). They have destroyed her creeds as resting places (burned her dwelling places). Her doctrines and practices are wrecked (bars are broken). 

One news-carrier shall hasten to meet another (post … meet another, 31) and one herald to meet another (messenger to meet another), to announce to Satan (shew the king) that his religious government is on its religious side captured (city … end). Its weak supporters are captured (passages are stopped, 32), the weak obstacles are put aside (reeds … fire) and the warriors are in terror (men of war are affrighted). God declared (thus saith, 33) that the nominal church is like a threshing floor (Babylon … threshing floor). The time has come by hard trials to sever the wheat from her straw (time to thresh her). It is not long until her harvesting will be undertaken (time … come). The true Church complains that Satan (Nebuchadrezzar, 34) has consumed her (devoured me), trodden her down (crushed me), poured out all her contents (me an empty vessel), obliterated her voraciously (swallowed … dragon), gorged himself with her good things (belly with my delicates) and driven her out (cast me out). The true Church (Zion, 35) will wish that the wrongs done her New Creatures and her humanity 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


be vindicated upon the nominal church (violence … be upon Babylon) and the murder of her leaders be vindicated upon her sphere of teaching, spirit and practice (blood … Chaldea). This will Zion leaders also say (Jerusalem say). To the true Church God answered (saith, 36) that He would take her part (plead thy cause) and vindicate her (vengeance for thee) and would end Babylon's rebellious people (dry up her sea) and her teachings (springs dry). The nominal church will become ruins (heaps, 37), a desolation (dwelling place for dragons), an object of disagreeable surprise (astonishment) and of disapproval (hissing), bereft of all her members (without inhabitant). Her sects will rage fiercely (roar like lions, 38) and howl angrily (lions' whelps). God will make them feast in their anger (heat … feasts, 39) and will fill them with misunderstandings (drunken) in their hilarity (rejoice), that they may be eternally annihilated (sleep, and not wake). Their weak (lambs, 40), strong (rams) and stubborn (he goats) ones will God lead to their death (slaughter). Miserably is the nominal church captured (Sheshach, abasement, 41). Once praised throughout society (the whole earth), she is dumbfounded (praise … surprised). She is an object of disagreeable amazement among all groups (astonishment … nations). The race in the rebellion of Armageddon (sea) has risen against her (come up, 42). She is overwhelmed by its many attacks (covered … waves). All her denominations (cities, 43) are without members (a desolation), unfruitful soil (dry land), an isolated condition (wilderness), an uninhabited sphere (a land wherein no man), nor does any human travel there (man pass). 

God will punish the pope (Bel, 44) in the nominal church. God will cause him to repudiate his beliefs (out of his mouth … swallowed). No more shall groups of humans have recourse to him (nations shall not … more). Yea, the whole power of the nominal church shall collapse (wall … fall). God invites His people to leave her (go … of her, 45) and save themselves

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from His deep wrath upon her (deliver … soul … anger). He cautions them against cowardice (heart faint, 46) and fear over the trouble's prevailing agitations (fear for the rumor); for there will first be war agitations (one year), then revolution agitations (another year). There will be violence (violence), one government (ruler) against another (ruler). In due time (days come, 47) God will execute sentence (do judgment) against her creeds (graven images), and all society will be nonplussed (confounded) and all her refuted ones (slain) will fall in her (fall … her). Then the prospective spiritual powers (heaven, 48) and the prospective new society (earth), with all in harmony therewith (all … therein), will speak against her (sing; literally, shout), because plunderers from the religious sphere shall attack her (spoilers … from the north). As she caused the refuted of Spiritual Israel to fall (slain of Israel to fall, 49), so in her shall all the refuted of society fall (fall … all the earth). Let the Lord's people who have escaped refutation (escaped the sword, 50) not only leave her (go away), but progress (stand not still), keeping the Lord in mind while yet far from His separated people (afar off), and think on the Kingdom (Jerusalem … mind). Nominal-church members will acknowledge themselves to be nonplussed (We are confounded, 51) by the reproaches heaped upon them (reproach). Yea, disgrace has become theirs (shame … faces), because wicked aliens have joined the churches (strangers … sanctuaries) of the nominal temple (Lord's house). God again forecasts that He will execute His sentence upon the creeds (do judgment … images, 52); and refuted ones everywhere shall utter painful cries (wounded shall groan). Despite the nominal church's exalting herself to the heavens (mount up to heaven, 53), and making the greatest of her strength still stronger (fortify the height of her strength), yet plunderers shall invade her (spoilers come unto her). 

Jeremiah—Type and Antitype. 


Great cries of distress come from her (cry cometh, 54) and large destruction (great destruction) from her sphere of teaching, spirit and practice (from the land); it is because God has plundered her (Lord hath spoiled, 55) and silenced her message (destroyed … voice); for when her unruly ones speak forth (waves do roar) their messages (like great waters), the sound of her message is given (voice is uttered). Because the Truth people as a plunderer attacked her, even the nominal church (spoiler … upon Babylon, 56) and utterly refuted her warriors (mighty men are taken), their weapons were all broken (bows broken); for the God of justice will surely recompense (God … requite). God will bring her leaders and scholars, subordinate leaders, executives and warriors unto an intoxicated condition (make drunk … mighty, 57). These being New Creatures will for their gross evils go into the second death (sleep, and not wake). This the God of perfect wisdom, power, justice and love declares (saith … Lord). He declares that her great powers shall be utterly destroyed (broad walls … utterly broken, 58); her exalted entrances shall be ruined (gates … fire). In vain will her members seek to prevent this (labor in vain) amid the destruction (folk in the fire) and will become exhausted (be weary). 

The following is the message that Bro. Russell, between April, 1907, and April, 1908 (fourth year, 59), gave to the colporteurs and volunteers (Seraiah, prince of Jehovah; Neriah, light, or lamp of Jehovah; Maaseiah, work of Jehovah), as to what they should do toward Babylon for [not with] Combinism (Zedekiah). These brethren were peaceable leaders (Seraiah was a quiet prince). The message consisted of Vol. IV and tracts on the tribulations coming on the nominal church (Jeremiah … book all the evil … upon Babylon … words … against Babylon, 60). He commissioned these colporteurs and volunteers (said to Seraiah, 61) to acquaint themselves thoroughly with the pertinent teachings (see, and shalt read all these words) when

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they would enter their work as to the nominal church (comest to Babylon). They should then acknowledge that God had given this whole message as to mystic Babylon (Lord, thou hast spoken against this place, 62), to destroy it (cut it off), to make it depopulated (none shall remain) of antichrists (man) and governments (beast), even to make it peopleless eternally (desolate for ever). He then charged them that after they had ended reading all this literature (end of reading, 63), they should unite with it the Lord's Spirit (bind a stone to it) and spread it everywhere among the peoples supporting the nominal church (cast it into the midst of Euphrates), and that they should add their verbal declaration to the written message (thou shalt say, 63), declaring that thus the nominal church shall sink into death amid the peoples that once supported her (Thus shall Babylon sink) and shall never recover from the tribulation that God will bring upon her (not rise … I bring upon her); for the people will be weary of her (be weary). This ended Bro. Russell's arraignment of the nominal church (far the words of Jeremiah). Jer. 52 will be explained in our book on Samuel, Kings and Chronicles; for it belongs there, where its parallels are given.