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1 Sam. 25:1—2 Sam. 1; 1 Chron. 10



IT WILL BE recalled that in the preceding chapter in our study of our Pastor, except for the first and last verses of 1 Sam. 25, we omitted the exposition of the rest of the chapter, skipping to chapter 26, while chapter I ended the study with 1 Sam. 27:6. Those parts of 1 Sam. 25 were omitted, because they do not refer to Saul, a part of the chapter's subject. Accordingly, in this chapter, whose subject includes the said omitted matter, before proceeding with 1 Sam. 27:7, etc., we will expound 1 Sam. 25:2-43. This section treats antitypically of our Pastor's relations to the Society as a corporation as it was represented in its evil and good directors, David therein representing our Pastor, Nabal its evil directors and Abigail its good directors. Among others, prominent among its evil directors were Mr. J. B. Adamson, one of the four leaders of the Combinationism sifting (1891-1894), Mrs. M. F. Russell, the leader of the Reformism sifting (1901-1904), and Mr. Giesey, its vice-president from about 1906 to 1909 and the chief non-pilgrim leader of the Contradictionism sifting (1908-1911). These three are referred to, not as the only evil directors of the Society, but merely as examples of such. At first these three, as well as later manifested like-minded evil directors, were well disposed, unworldly minded and fruitful Truth servants (Maon, [habitation, i.e., in the wilderness] … in Carmel [fruitful], v. 2). All of them were very influential for the Truth among many crown-retainers (3,000 sheep) and a number of crown-losers (1,000 goats); and they made the crown-retainers fruitful

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(shearing his sheep in Carmel). Their characters eventually became foolish, frequently acting oppositionally as directors against Bro. Russell's suggestions (name … was Nabal [folly], v. 3); but closely associated with them were good directors, who dispensed joy among God's people (wife Abigail [father of joy]). They were well instructed in the Truth (good understanding) and well developed in Christlikeness (beautiful countenance); but the evil directors became ultimately illy disposed toward the real interests of the work (churlish) and workers of iniquity (evil in his doings), despite their having once been in the Little Flock (of the house of Caleb [dog, in allusion to the Little Flock's being counted unreasoning sectarians by the nominal church]). 

(2) While our Pastor continued in his unworldly, wilderness, condition he became aware that antitypical Nabal was gaining good results from the Little Flock (David heard … shear his sheep, v. 4); and, naturally, as that Servant and the Society's President, he desired to share therein. Accordingly, he dispatched the fullness of his helpers (sent out ten young men, v. 5) to the fruitful sphere (get you up to Carmel) of antitypical Nabal, to make peaceably in his name a request (greet [literally, ask] in my name), charging them to treat prosperous Nabal, his household and all his possessions helpfully (say … Peace … thee … house … all that thou hast, v. 6), assuring them that he had learned of their having helpers to gather in their fruit of labor (thou hast shearers, v. 7) and informing them that he had seen to it that their Little Flock caretakers (shepherds) while working with Bro. Russell and his associates were by them neither put to shame (hurt [literally, shamed]) nor did they suffer loss while they were there (neither … missing … in Carmel). He suggested that antitypical Nabal ask his helpers whether this were not so (Ask … shew thee, v. 8). He also requested that they show favor to all his helpers (young men find favor) at that so favorable time

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


(a good day), by giving of their prosperity to his and him, who served them as a son serves his father (give … thy servants … son David). Bro. Russell's associates, accordingly, coming to antitypical Nabal, by their acts and words requested for him a share in their prosperity in the Lord's cause (came … spake … those words in the name of David, v. 9). Having made the request, they in quietness awaited an answer (ceased [literally, rested]). Among the fruits that Bro. Russell desired of these was that they yield to God's cause what faithfulness to their office required; but this is exactly what the evil directors, one and all, in disregard of, and disrespect to his office and prominence as a member of God's people, refused to give (Who is David? And who is the son of Jesse? v. 10). They compared him with many power-graspers and lords over God's heritage, so numerous in the Parousia times (many servants now … break … from his master). Why, reasoned they, should they yield the fruit of their prudence and work, destined for their personal helpers, to Bro. Russell and his assistants, of whose origin as alleged servants of God they had no assurance (Shall I take my … and give … whom I know not whence they be? v. 11). 

(3) This churlish answer drove Bro. Russell's helpers away from antitypical Nabal back to him, declaring to him the unfriendly answer (turned … came and told him, v. 12). The disloyalty of these, whose office required them to be faithful to the Lord's interests at the expense of their own interests, and who were using their offices for the advantage of themselves and their favorites, angered Bro. Russell, and influenced him to charge his supporters to prepare themselves with arguments to attack and refute these unfaithful directors (David said … Gird … sword, v. 13), which they and he did (they girded … sword; and David also). The abler proceeded to the conflict and the less able remained to conserve previous gains (went up … 400 men; and 200 abode by the stuff). But some of antitypical Nabal's helpers heard their churlish answer, so 

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derogatory of Bro. Russell, and informed the faithful directors of the Society (one … told Abigail, v. 14) of Bro. Russell's spiritual request through his messengers, of their courteous address and of the discourteous and reviling answer that antitypical Nabal gave them (David sent … to salute our master; and he railed on them [literally, flew upon them]). These helpers also declared that Bro. Russell's assistants had been good to the helpers of antitypical Nabal, neither abusing them, nor permitting any loss to befall them all the while that they were together in the service (very good unto us … not hurt, neither missed we any thing, as long as … with them … in the fields, v. 15). Furthermore, they declared that amid the trials as to error and the Truth Bro. Russell's assistants defended them (a wall … night and day, v. 16), as long as they tended God's sheep (all the while … keeping the sheep). Then they warned the faithful directors to take care (know and consider what thou wilt do, v. 17); for doubtless retribution would be meted out on the unfaithful directors and all their supporters (evil … against our master … his household); because so evil were these mis-directors that one could not speak to them (such a son of Belial … not speak to him). 

(4) Sensing the danger with which the spirit and works of these mis-directors toward Bro. Russell were fraught, the faithful directors of the Society hastened to ward off this danger (Abigail made haste, v. 18), taking an abundance of deeper and easier truths (loaves … wine) in a well-prepared condition (sheep ready dressed and … parched corn); and well sweetening themselves with the graces and virtues of the Christian character (clusters of raisins and … cakes of figs), they caused these to be forwarded by their implements of service, the Truth literature (laid them on asses). They charged their supporters to precede them in their assurances of loyalty to, and support of Bro. Russell (Go on before me, v. 19), and told them that they would later give him the same assurances (I come after

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


you); but they secreted their purpose from the mis-directors (told not her husband). While faithfully proceeding with the assistance of their instruments of service: Towers, tracts, Volumes (rode on the ass, v. 20), and being therein unobserved as to their kingdom service by Bro. Russell (came down by the covert of the hill), Bro. Russell and his helpers being also unobserved by them, engaged in the same general service (David and his men came down), they approached and met one another in spirit and service (she met them). Bro. Russell, feeling deeply the wrongs that the mis-directors inflicted upon him, bewailed the unfruitfulness of the labors that he had so freely, lovingly and usefully bestowed upon these ingrates (in vain have I kept all that … pertained unto him, v. 21); for they returned him evil for his good (requited me evil for good). Then he pledged solemnly, by what he knew God would do to his enemies who were his enemies for the Truth's sake (so … do God unto the enemies of David, v. 22), that he would quickly cut off all the mis-directors and theirs by the sword of Truth (if I leave … by the morning light), as defilers of the Lord's people's powers of the Divine Truth and its arrangements (any that pisseth against the wall). When one realizes the many sore trials that the Satanic spirit and acts of these mis-directors gave him, we need not be surprised that Bro. Russell at first had decided to take summary measures against them with a public use of the sword of the Truth used by him and his warriors. 

(5) The faithful directors, on seeing Bro. Russell and his ablest supporters (Abigail saw David, v. 23) intent on attacking the mis-directors quickly, left all ministering with the Truth literature (hasted, and lighted off the ass) and approached him very humbly and respectfully (fell … on her face, and bowed). Humbly they asked that the blame be imputed to them for the mis-directors' wrongs, which, if more on the watch, they could probably have prevented (fell … said, Upon me … this iniquity, v. 24). Then 

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deferentially they requested to be heard on the subject (I pray thee, speak … hear), asking that Bro. Russell do not take these worthless and foolish mis-directors too seriously (not … regard [literally, lay not to heart] this man of Belial, even Nabal, v. 25); for their character is one of folly (as his name is, so is he … folly); and they reminded him that they were not cognizant of the errand of Bro. Russell's messengers (thine handmaid saw not … whom thou didst send). Recognizing that the Lord had restrained Bro. Russell from personally cutting off the mis-directors prematurely (the Lord hath withholden thee from … blood … avenging … hand, v. 26), they assured him solemnly that the Lord would do with the mis-directors what He always had done and would do with his enemies for the Truth's sake (the Lord … liveth … now let thine enemies … be as Nabal). Then they asked that Bro. Russell and his assistants share in the fruit of their labors (this blessing … be given unto the young men, v. 27). Furthermore, they asked forgiveness for their neglect which in part occasioned the mis-directors' guilt (forgive the trespass, v. 28), assuring him of their faith in God's giving to him faithful supporters, because he was a warrior for God and a righteous man (the Lord … a sure house … fighteth the battles of the Lord, and evil … not … in thee all thy days). They likewise expressed the wish that, if an opponent should rise against him, his life might be by God preserved (man is risen … to seek thy soul … my lord … in … life with the Lord, v. 29) and that his enemies' lives might be expelled violently (souls of thine enemies … sling out … of a sling), so that after receiving the Divinely-promised rewards (v. 30) he would not have occasion to feel guilty and to regret a too hasty and needless overthrow of the mis-directors in anger or revenge (no grief … offense … shed blood causelessly … avenged himself, v. 31). Finally, they asked to be favorably regarded when the Lord would reward him (Lord … dealt well … remember thine handmaid). 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


(6) Bro. Russell was favorably impressed with their reasoning and appreciation, and fully recognized them as sent by the Lord to him (Blessed be the Lord … Sent thee … meet me, v. 32). He also praised their advice and them for their restraining him from cutting off prematurely and personally in anger and revenge the mis-directors (blessed … advice … thou … kept me … from … blood … avenging … with mine own hand, v. 33). Solemnly ascribing this restraint to God, he declared that if they had not quickly intervened, surely none of the mis-directors' supporters who defiled the Truth and its arrangements as the power of God's people would long have survived in the Truth (the Lord … liveth … kept me back … except … to meet me … not been left to Nabal … light … against the wall, v. 34). Then accepting the fruit of their service (David received … she had brought, v. 35), he let them leave in prosperity (Go in peace to thine house), assuring them that as a personal favor to them he had granted their request (hearkened to thy voice … accepted thy person). When the faithful directors came in contact with the mis-directors they found them feasting very freely on their errors (Abigail came to Nabal … he held a feast … like … a king, v. 36), full of the elation that self-exalting errors effect in symbolic drunkenness (merry … very drunken). Wisely the faithful directors said nothing amid such circumstances (told him nothing). But when the mis-directors had sobered up in recovering from their symbolical drunken elation (in the morning, when the wine was gone out of Nabal, v. 37), the good directors told them what had occurred (his wife told him these things), which ended their spiritual life; and, consequently, they became dead to the Truth and its service (heart died … as a stone). In fulness of time they were dropped as directors, not by Bro. Russell, illegally declaring their positions vacant, but by the majority of the voting shares being cast against them at the next annual elections, as in the antitype these

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evil directors were manifested as such at different times; for God sent them in due time a strong delusion, and thus smote them with a symbolic plague (2 Thes. 2:11; ten days after the Lord smote Nabal, v. 38); and as siftlings and sifters they died to the Truth movement, as well as directors of the Society (he died). 

(7) At each time a member of antitypical Nabal ceased to be a member of the Society's Board Bro. Russell rejoiced and praised God for undertaking the cause of his reproach with such (David … said … Blessed … pleaded … reproach … Nabal, v. 39) and for making it unnecessary for him to undertake it personally (kept … evil), knowing that the Lord had caused the evil of the mis-directors to recoil upon themselves (returned the wickedness of Nabal upon his own head); and as each one of these mis-directors was displaced Bro. Russell sought to draw the faithful directors into close oneness to himself (David sent … Abigail, to take her to him to wife). He used confidants who proposed such close oneness to the faithful directors as they were fruitfully engaged (servants … come to Abigail … saying, David sent … to take … wife, v. 40). These with becoming respect (bowed herself … to the earth, v. 41) humbly desired the lowly work of cleansing by the water of the Word the conduct of Bro. Russell's assistants from filthiness of the flesh and spirit (handmaid … wash the feet of the servants of my lord). With becoming zeal and promptness these, ministering with, and supported by the Truth literature (hasted and arose and rode upon an ass, v. 42) and accompanied by their full supporters (five damsels of hers that went after her), followed the course suggested by Bro. Russell's helpers (went after the messengers of David) and entered into the suggested oneness (became his wife). In addition to his becoming one with the Society as a corporation, as represented by the faithful directors, practically all of whom for the most time were such, Bro. Russell took into oneness with himself the People's Pulpit Association, as a corporation

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


represented by all its members, the pilgrims (David also took Ahinoam [my brother is pleasant, in allusion to the agreeableness of the pilgrims to Bro. Russell], v. 43). These pilgrims were like seed, in that God sowed them here and there as bringers forth of fruit among the brethren (of [literally, from] Jezreel [God sows; this is the Jezreel that was in Judah, not the one in Issachar where Ahab and Jezebel lived]). These two, among a number of corporations and associations that Bro. Russell used for the work, were the special corporations for his working purposes, though he used the name of his British corporation, I.B.S.A., as a name for the Truth people more than either of these (they were also both of them his wives). It will be noted that, like the rest of the parts of 1 Sam. so far studied as typing our Pastor, this chapter types a public aspect of his work: corporations for public work. 

(8) We now take up the part of 1 Sam. where we left off in our previous study, in so far as it types our Pastor, i.e., 1 Sam. 27:7. Up to the time of the next episode Bro. Russell had for 16 months been doing the public work connected with the Photo-Drama, in more or less contact with the sectarian unorthodox, as he was also so regarded by the so-called orthodox, i.e., from Jan., 1914, to May, 1915 (the time … was a full year and four months, v. 7). Thereafter he and the brethren made special attacks in themselves (David and his men … invaded, v. 8) against all forms of selfishness (Geshurites [bridge]), of worldliness (Gezrites [better, Gerzites [waste]) and of sin (Amalekites [laborious, i.e., what causes the symbolic labor of the curse, sin]), which evils from time immemorial tend to, and dwell in the borders of Satan's empire (of old the inhabitants … Shur [fortress] … Egypt [two fortresses]). They wrought through destruction on the sphere of the teachings and spirit of selfishness, worldliness and sin (David smote the land, v. 9) and spared them not, neither in their strong nor weak forms (left neither man nor woman alive), and separated from

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these their justified humanity (sheep), their consecrated humanity (oxen), their teaching, oral and written (asses), their organizations (camels) and their qualities (apparel); and, ending this personal work in themselves, they betook themselves to the sphere of service where the sectarian unorthodox were active (came to Achish [serpent]). These by their attitude inquired as to their activities for that time (Whither have ye made a road today? v. 10), and were by Bro. Russell given to understand that they had inveighed against the doctrines of the chief so-called orthodox (south of Judah [praise]), their practices (south of the Jerahmeelites [God shows mercy]) and their talents, attainments, etc. (Kenites [smiths]). But Bro. Russell did such thorough work in slaying his selfishness, worldliness and sins, regardless of whether they were strong or weak (saved neither man nor woman alive, v. 11) and did it so secretly, without sounding "a trumpet in the synagogues," that his real work was not revealed to the sectarian unorthodox (to bring tidings … lest … tell on us). This was Bro. Russell's custom as to his inner conflicts,—to secrete them from the sectarian unorthodox (so was [not shall be, as the italics put it] his manner … while … in the country of the Philistines). The sectarian unorthodox accepted this explanation of Bro. Russell's, which was true enough, for they saw such things done in his writings (Achish believed David, v. 12), and congratulated themselves therefore, believing that he would make himself so stenchful and hateful to the orthodox as to make him adhere always to the sectarian unorthodox, who desired his able service (Israel utterly abhor … my servant for ever). 

(9) The evolutionary and higher critical sectarians, commonly called modernists, the extreme left wing of nominal-churchists, as the special opponents of the extreme right wing of nominal-churchists, commonly called fundamentalists, together with the sectarian unorthodox, as the middle-of-the-roadsters, as allies of

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


the modernists, gathered their forces for a campaign from 1914 onward (in those days … Philistines gathered their armies for warfare, 1 Sam. 28:1) against the orthodox, especially the fundamentalists, in practically all nominal-church denominations (to fight with Israel). The unorthodox sectarians, as middle-of-the-roadsters, felt sure of the willingness of Bro. Russell and his warriors, who had more in common with the fundamentalists than with the modernists and unorthodox middle-of-the-roadsters, to side with them against the fundamentalists (Achish said … Know thou assuredly … go out with me to battle, thou and thy men). By Bro. Russell's and his fellow-warriors' attacking the errors held by the fundamentalists they gave the sectarian unorthodox middle-of-the-roadsters the impression that it was apparent to them that he and his would fight on their side (David said … know … do, v. 2). This made the former decide to appoint the latter as their bodyguard perpetually (Achish said … I make thee keeper of mine head for ever). This was after the crown-lost leaders were (by the Samuel class's passing beyond the vail, lamented and respected by the people of God) deprived of all hope of help from them, and after the crown-lost leaders had cut off from the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit spiritualists and occultists (Samuel was dead … lamented … buried … Saul had put away … familiar spirits … wizards … land, v. 3). The modernists and unorthodox middle-of-the-roadsters rallied together for controversy on the subjects of evolutionary higher criticism and theological liberalism as related to the causes and ethics underlying the World War then on, i.e., unorthodoxy (Philistines … pitched in Shunem [two resting places], v. 4); while the fundamentalists, under crown-lost leaders, rallied about the subject of the World War's relations to the creedal view of man's fall from perfection and the virgin birth, atoning death, human resurrection and second advent of Jesus, which five points may be summarized under two heads: their doctrine 

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of the First Adam and their doctrine of the Second Adam as related to the World War (Saul … Israel … pitched in Gilboa [bubbling fountain]). 

(10) The errors that they taught on these five or two subjects as related to the World War made them vulnerable to many an argument of the modernists and unorthodox middle-of-the-roadsters, as the sequel shows. As the crown-lost leaders studied and came to understand the position of the enemy (when Saul saw the host [literally, camp] of the Philistines, v. 5), they were filled with dismay and greatly dreaded the coming encounter (he was afraid, and his heart greatly trembled). They sought from their study of the Bible, facts and reason to secure arguments that would refute the position of the modernists and middle-of-the-roadster unorthodox as to their view of the World War (Saul enquired of the Lord, v. 6), but the Lord did not bless their studies with responses (the Lord answered him not), neither by detailed views of His entire plan (dreams), nor by harmonious blending of the involved doctrines (Urim), nor by Divinely-enlightened teachers (prophets). This moved them to charge some of their supporters (said Saul unto his servants, v. 7) to find out some practicers of spiritism and occultism (Seek me a woman that hath a familiar spirit) from whom they could make inquiries on pertinent matters (enquire of her). For a long time prominent church leaders, like the Revs. Dr. I. K. Funk and Dr. Heber Newton, and Mr. W. E. Gladstone, Sir Oliver Lodge, Conan Doyle, etc., had become believers in spiritism and occultism; for the nominal-church doctrine of the consciousness of the dead is a bridge over which the whole nominal church is prepared to go over to spiritism. And certainly since 1914 large numbers of ministers and prominent laymen have accepted it as a proof of the consciousness of the dead, i.e., of a future life, e.g., large numbers of the Church of England clergymen, a committee of whom recently reported favorably on it to the Archbishop of Canterbury. By him they were 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


commissioned to continue their investigations and report again thereon to him. Ivan Panin, the great Biblical Numericist, for years has advocated spiritism. So many nominal-church leading clergymen and laymen advocated spiritism that the crown-lost leaders had at their hand those who could tell them the position of mediums (servants said … a woman … a familiar spirit at En-dor—eye, or fountain, of the abode [of the dead]. 

(11) In shame at seeking information from such a source the crown-lost leaders disguised themselves, to hide their identity (disguised … other raiment, v. 8), while they and their clerical and lay assistants made the pertinent preliminary investigations (he went, and two men) and while they secretly consulted the mediums (came to the woman by night). They politely requested these to use their arts, by the aid of the supposed dead (I pray thee, divine unto me by the familiar spirit), to produce whom they desired, at first concealing who it was (bring … whom I shall name unto thee). Not knowing the identity of their questioners, the mediums stressed their questioners' knowing (thou knowest, v. 9) the theological danger of their work, as being cut off by the crown-lost leaders (what Saul hath done) from the sphere of the nominal church's teachings and spirit, together with spirit mediums and clairvoyants (cut off … familiar spirits … wizards, out of the land). Being suspicious that their inquirers were seeking to lay a trap for them to their being cut off, they in the form of a question made this as an accusation (wherefore … a snare … to die?). Most solemnly by God they assured these that no harm would befall them for complying with their request (Saul sware … no punishment … for this thing, v. 10). Accepting their solemnly given promises, these asked of them as to whom they should call and consult for them (Whom shall I bring up unto thee? v. 11), and were told the names of star-members (he said … Samuel). When these mediums saw the demon impersonators of various star-members, they cried out with much demonstration 

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(saw [the representation of] Samuel, she cried … voice, v. 12). Thereupon recognizing their inquirer, they demanded why they had deceived them, declaring that they were church leaders (deceived me … Saul). 

(12) The crown-lost leaders told them not to fear (king said … not afraid, v. 13), but to declare what they had seen (what sawest thou?). The reply was that they had seen spirits (ye shall be as gods, alleged spirits are alleged to be gods, angels, Gen. 3:5) coming up out of the earth (I saw gods ascending out of the earth [not descending from heaven. The word elohim may mean either gods or a god; here it should be rendered, a god; for Saul asked in v. 14 as to his, not their form]). Deeply interested, the crown-lost leaders asked how the spirit looked (What form is he of? [literally, What is his form?], v. 14). They answered that the form was that of a wise, well-experienced man of special authority (old man … with a mantle [Evidently the medium in the type was a clairvoyant medium]). The crown-lost leaders, pressed by their fears and desires, and taking it as a fact that this was antitypical Samuel (perceived [recognized as a fact]), gave them special respect and obeisance (face to the ground and bowed). The demons who at the various seances where antitypical Saul inquired impersonated antitypical Samuel, knowing their minds, demanded why they had been disturbed to be summoned thus (Why hast thou disquieted me, to bring me up? v. 15). The crown-lost leaders gave as their reason (Saul answered) that they were distressed: (1) by the modernists' and unorthodox middle-of-the-roadsters' controverting them (Philistines make war against me); (2) by God's turning away from them (God is departed from me); and (3) by their getting no more any instruction from Him by the ministry of Divinely-illuminated teachers, nor by detailed views of His plan (answereth me no more, neither by prophets, nor by dreams). Hence, remembering their past ministries, they were calling up antitypical Samuel to obtain the 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


needed instruction from them (called … make known unto me what I shall do). 

(13) Browbeating them to make them all the more subservient, the demons demanded tauntingly why they asked information from them, alleged departed star-members, who were God's past mouthpieces, since God had forsaken them and had become hostile to them (v. 16). Such a demand, of course, would all the more unman the poor distressed and harassed crown-lost leaders already at wits-end corner. Evidently siding with their enemies, and knowing what the real antitypical Samuel had told antitypical Saul, the demons declared that God would work in His own interests, which were against those of the crown-lost leaders, even as He had announced through antitypical Samuel (the Lord hath done to him [literally, for Himself] as he spake by me, v. 17, i.e., dispossess the crown-lost leaders of their office and give it to their friend, Bro. Russell (rent the kingdom out of thine hand … to thy neighbor … David). Knowing the reason that antitypical Samuel had given antitypical Saul for God's rejection of them, the demons gave it to the down-hearted crown-lost leaders, saying that their refusal to obey the Lord to the extirpation of their sins and their failure to persuade antitypical Israel to do the same with their sins was the cause of their sad situation (obeyedst not … nor executedst his fierce wrath upon Amalek, v. 18); they announced this as the reason for God's then setting them aside and then taking Bro. Russell as leader in their place (therefore hath the Lord done this thing unto thee this day). The demons proceeded to forecast: (1) the surrender of the so-called orthodox, including the fundamentalists and antitypical Saul, and their subjection to the modernists and middle-of-the-roadster unorthodox in nominal-church circles (deliver Israel with thee into the hand of the Philistines, v. 19); (2) the refutation of antitypical Saul, Jonathan, Ishui and Melchi-shua at that time (tomorrow shalt thou and thy sons be with me) and (3) the

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defeat of the orthodox warriors by the modernists and the middle-of-the-roadster unorthodox (deliver the host of Israel into the hand of the Philistines). Demons by the surrounding conditions, as in this case, can approximate near future events, but, like this one, make mistakes in detail matters, like the time of the future event; for the lateness of the hour of departure from Endor (vs. 8, 20) and the distance from Endor to the armies and the drawing of the armies up in battle array made the battle come off at least two days later. 

(14) The effect of this unfavorable forecast upon the already sorely harassed crown-lost leaders was most unfortunate. It prostrated them to the very depths of despair (words of [the alleged] Samuel … Saul fell straightway all along on the earth [literally, fell his full length to the earth], v. 20); and they were in disastrous fear (sore afraid). They were bereft of their mental and moral strength as a consequence of getting no meat in due season during the bulk of the Parousia (eaten no bread all the day) nor during the Epiphany (nor all the night). To the deeply troubled, weak and Truth-famished crown-lost leaders (sore troubled, v. 21) the spiritists and occultists came (the woman came unto Saul), claiming that they had responded to their request (hath obeyed thy voice … hearkened unto thy words), and that they had done this at personal peril (put my life in my hand). Therefore they requested that the crown-lost leaders reciprocate and accept for head and heart spiritist doctrines that they would set before them (let me set a morsel of bread before thee; and eat, v. 22), promising that this would give them strength of heart and mind for their mental journeys (thou mayest have strength, when thou goest on thy way). The great teachers of the nominal church, of course, in disdain refused to study and accept the doctrines of spiritism (he refused, and said, I will not, v. 23); but the clerical and lay nominal-church investigators of spiritism, together with the advocates of spiritism and occultism, constrained him thereto (servants

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


… woman compelled [literally, made a breach, i.e., in his decision]). Accordingly, they consented (hearkened unto their voice), recovered from their despair (arose from the earth), and betook themselves to more comfortable mental position as to spiritism (sat upon the bed). Spiritists and occultists busied themselves in securing from their libraries, etc., the best and ablest written works on the subject (woman had a fat calf … killed it, and took flour … kneaded … did bake unleavened bread, v. 24). Among others, the following were the leading works that they offered the now willing crown-lost leaders and their assistants (brought before Saul, v. 25) to study and accept, which they did (they did eat): Richet's Thirty Years of Psychical Research, Meyer's Human Personality and Its Survival of Bodily Death, Doyle's History of Spiritualism, Flammarion's After Death, Lodge's Raymond or Life or Death, Hull's Encyclopedia of Biblical Spiritualism and Proceedings of Psychical Research Society. These and other works, studied and accepted, fitted them to proceed in error (went away that night). 

(15) In the meantime the modernists and middle-of-the-roadster unorthodox rallied their position in strength (Philistines gathered … to Aphek [strength], 1 Sam. 29:1) and the orthodox with the fundamentalists rallied their position in the creeds developed in the union of state and church as to the ethical relations of the World War, i.e., creeds containing a combination of religious and secular truths and errors (Israel pitched by a fountain which is in Jezreel [seed of God, in the sense that state and church originated from God's Truth]). The leaders of the modernists and the middle-of-the-roadster unorthodox, who were over smaller and larger numbers of warriors, moved on to battle (lords of the Philistines passed on by hundreds, and by thousands, v. 2). And Bro. Russell and his Truth warriors advanced, as the least opposed to the orthodox and the fundamentalists of their opponents, with the middle-of-the-roadster unorthodox (David and his men

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passed on in the rereward with Achish); for as opponents of the orthodox and fundamentalistic nominal church, Bro. Russell and his fellow warriors in a certain sense, and in the esteem of the former were modernistic and middle-of-the-roadster unorthodox. The leaders of the modernists (princes of the Philistines, v. 3) questioned the right of the Truth people in their public work aspects to be warriors on their side (What do these Hebrews here?). The middle-of-the-roadster unorthodox replied with a question, as though dealing with a self-evident thing, to the leading modernists (Achish said unto the princes of the Philistines), Was not this Pastor Russell, who had been a prominent controversialist under the crown-lost leaders, but had given them up; and for a long time had been with antitypical Achish, with whom they had even up to the present found no fault (Is not this David, the servant of Saul … with me … years … no fault … unto this day?)? In displeasure at antitypical Achish, the leading modernists demanded that antitypical Achish dismiss the despised Pastor Russell to his Achish-assigned mental position away from their hosts (wroth with him … said … Make this fellow return … to his place … appointed him, v. 4). Fearing that in the controversy he would turn on them, they declined to have him take part in it (not go … battle, lest … he be an adversary), thinking that thereby he would re-ingratiate himself with the crown-lost leaders (wherewith … reconcile … master?). This should by no means be allowed; for it would be at the expense of modernists' lives (with the heads of these men?). 

(16) Remembering the Pastor's worsting the evolutionists among them, the modernists reminded antitypical Achish that he was the one whom the various sects of the nominal church hailed amid their triumphant responsive conduct as a mightier warrior than antitypical Saul (David, of whom they sang … in dances, Saul … thousands, and David … ten thousands? v. 5). Antitypical Achish, calling the Pastor, solemnly 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


assured him of their confidence in his integrity and of his acceptableness in all his controversial doings (Achish … said … Surely … upright … going … coming … in the host is good in my sight, v. 6). He further assured him that such was the case from the beginning to the present (not found evil in thee … unto this day). Despite this, the leading modernists distrusted him (the lords favor thee not). But they reasoned that it would be better that he disassociate himself from the anti-orthodox side, and return prosperously to his mental and occupational position (return, and go in peace, v. 7), lest he arouse the determined disfavor of the leading modernists (displease not the lords of the Philistines). But the Pastor protested that he had done nothing amiss (what have I done? v. 8), asking what fault had antitypical Achish found in him during the whole period of his supporting him (what hast thou found … so long as I have been with thee unto this day?) that should debar him, who was ready to battle for antitypical Achish, from fighting against the orthodox, especially in their fundamentalist representatives as enemies of the middle-of-the-roadster unorthodox, whom he acknowledged as leader (that I may not fight against the enemies of my lord the king). Antitypical Achish again assured him that they favored him, even as a messenger of God (Achish … said … thou art good in my sight, as an angel of God, v. 9). Despite this, the leading modernists forbade that he should enter the controversy on their side (the princes … said, He shall not go up with us to the battle). Accordingly, antitypical Achish bade him to take an early departure with his co-warriors (rise up early … with thy master's servants that are come with thee, v. 10). He repeated the charge (early … morning … light, depart). Thereupon Bro. Russell and his co-warriors left on a mental journey immediately and went back to the sphere of the teachings and spirit of the middle-of-the roadster unorthodox (David and his men … early to depart … into the land of the Philistines, v. 11). Thus 

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typical and antitypical David and their co-warriors were spared from fighting against their own people. And the antitypical Philistines advanced to attack the creedal position of the orthodox, especially their fundamentalist representatives in its combination of secularism and churchism (Philistines went up to Jezreel). 

(17) From the sphere of controverting certain errors held by the so-called orthodox, particularly by the fundamentalists among them, Bro. Russell and his co-warriors, in due time, in Sept., 1914, turned their main attention as to the public to the Drama work in theatres, auditoriums, etc., not regarded in most nominal-church circles as sufficiently "holy" for religious services (David and his men … to Ziklag [boggy] on the third day, 1 Sam. 30:1). Here the war-wagers as sinner propagandists (Amalekites) in attempting to justify the World War's sinful course and to subject to their sinful theories and practices the Bible view of things, attacked the nominal-church people (invaded the south) and the sphere of the pertinent principles of God's plan as set forth in the Photo-Drama (Ziklag); and in the absence of its warrior defenders made havoc with it in the eyes of many, e.g., by tightening finances, which curtailed its exhibition, by moving some theatre and auditorium owners to refuse to make, and others to break, contracts for letting their places for Photo-Drama exhibitions, by manipulating newspaper attacks thereon and by enacting boycotts against it (smote Ziklag and burned it), thereby restraining their organizations (taken the women captives, v. 2), but did not by their arguments refute either of them, nor the Society and the Association members (slew not any, either great or small), but more or less diverted them in their supporters from the Photo-Drama work into the war theories then advocated (carried them away) and betook themselves to other activities (went on their way). Bro. Russell and his co-warriors became aware of the evil effect of these sinners and their sins as to their sphere of work, their organizations and their stronger 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


and weaker supporters (David and his men … city … burn … wives … sons … daughters … captives, v. 3). Of course, this greatly pained Bro. Russell and his co-warriors (wept, v. 4) to a completion (no more power to weep). The Society and Association in their adherents were more or less carried away, some on one, others on the other side, by the arguments of the contending war groups (taken captives, Ahinoam … Abigail, v. 5). Naturally, Bro. Russell was pained (David … distressed, v. 6) and the friends were minded to present arguments against Bro. Russell's position of support given the liberals (people spake of stoning him), because they were distressed at their stronger and weaker adherents' being carried away variously by the sinful theories of the warring nations (grieved … his sons … daughters). But Bro. Russell took courage from the Lord (encouraged himself in … God). 

(18) He asked the priesthood (said to Abiathar the priest, v. 7) to bring forward the pertinent parts of God's Spirit, Word and providences (bring … ephod), which they did (brought … ephod to David). Bro. Russell scrutinized these in an effort to learn God's will as to whether he should follow and overtake in thought these sinner war-wagers and their propagandists (David enquired … Lord … pursue … overtake them? v. 8). The response through the Spirit, Word and providences was to the effect that he should pursue and overtake them and would regain all the captives and booty (Pursue … overtake … recover all). The conflicts for which these preparations were made are those implied in smiting Jordan, fighting Gideon's First Battle, confessing the sins over Azazel's Goat, binding the kings and princes, pronouncing the judgment written, etc. The pursuit was begun by all of Bro. Russell's co-warriors, those who were crown-retainers and those who were crown-losers (David went … 600 … with him, v. 9), until they came to the obstacles of the symbolic slippery, muddy conditions that made the figurative march very difficult, and which brought the 

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weaker crown-losers to desist from further advancing to the battle (brook Besor [sedgy, wet, muddy condition in which flags grow]), where these weaker crown-losers ceased from a part in the campaign, symbolized by the smiting of Jordan, etc., and thus were left behind by the crown-retainers and certain strong crown-losers (where those that were left behind stayed). By their superior strength the crown-retainers and certain strong crown-losers continued the pursuit (David pursued, he and 400 men, v. 10), but the faint crown-losers went no further toward the battle (200 abode behind … so faint … could not go over the brook Besor). 

(19) Certain secular writers, engaged in secular matters, in their pen products, as well as personally, were brought to Bro. Russell's attention (found an Egyptian in the field and brought him unto David, v. 11). Because their dissenting writings were unacceptable to both sides of the warrior factions and their supporters, they had been deserted as incurably sick for their purposes by both opposing factions and were famished from lack of refreshment for heart and mind. They were refreshed by certain hard and easy teachings in the Truth literature (gave him bread … and … water). Additionally, the brethren gave them to appropriate the Gospel, good news, (cake of figs, v. 12) as to the hope of the Church and the world (two clusters of raisins). This food for heart and mind revived their discouraged hearts and minds (had eaten, his spirit came again to him). These as a class had been famished unto a completion (not eaten … nor drunk three days and three nights). Bro. Russell asked them to whose side they adhered, and from what mental position did they come (To whom belongest thou? and whence art thou? v. 13). These replied that they were worldlings (I am a young man of Egypt), siding, some of them with one, others of them with the other side of the wicked warring parties (servant to an Amalekite), all of them alike abandoned unto a completion by their former patrons, because they disagreed severally from 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


each of the warring factions (my master left me … sick). They further declared that the writers of each side attacked the other, e.g., the advocates of the Divine Right of kings, clergy and aristocracy and those of the Divine Right of Democracy attacked one another in their propaganda (invasion upon … the Cherethites [executioners], v. 14), upon the views of the better nominal-church people on the World War (upon … Judah), upon the strict views of Truth people on conscientious objection as to participation in war (upon … Caleb) and upon the milder view due for the public to receive from the Photo-Drama (burned Ziklag). 

(20) With an inquiring mind Bro. Russell searched the writings of these, as well as questioned certain individual representatives of these, e.g., certain reporters, both in America and in Britain, as to leading him to a correct view of the exact positions of the war propagandists (Canst thou bring me down to this company? v. 15). These demanded solemn assurances that they would not be either written against destructively nor betrayed to their former employers for revealing their exact positions (Swear … by God … neither kill me, nor deliver me … my master), promising that, if such promise would be given, they would reveal the whole position of the war propagandists (bring thee down to this company). On obtaining the promise, they revealed the position of these (brought him down, v. 16). And certainly the war advocates of both sides were spread out everywhere in society (spread abroad upon all the earth), partaking of their harder and easier views because of their booty (eating and drinking … because … spoil … taken), and responding in conduct thereto (dancing)—for the spoil of teaching and spirit that they had taken from the spheres of the modernists' and liberals' teaching and spirit (land of the Philistines) and that they had taken from the better ones of the nominal church (land of Judah). Thereupon Bro. Russell and his co-workers attacked and thoroughly defeated the advocates of the Divine Right of kings, 

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clergy and aristocracy and of Democracy (David smote them, v. 17) and continued the attack for two years, from the Fall of 1914 to that of 1916 (from twilight [morning of one day] unto the evening of the next day), in what the Bible, as said above, variously and otherwise calls the First Smiting of Jordan, Confessing the Sins of Israel over Azazel's Goat, Gideon's First Battle, Binding the Kings and Princes, Executing the Judgment Written, etc. Details on this battle, among other places, may be found in EC, 69-76; ED, 168-173; EC, 51-55; accordingly, we will not repeat them here. The result was that the propagandists of the Divine Right of clergy, kings and aristocrats and of Democracy were completely refuted, none of them being able to stand their ground as against the pertinent blows of Bro. Russell and his co-warriors (there escaped not a man of them). The only ones of the sinner propagandists who escaped the general refutation were the members of Labor's ranks. Isolated blows were struck at them, which doubtless wounded some of them, but as a class they escaped the refutations, which were seldom offered to them (save 400 young men), because, depending on their organizations, unions (camels), which almost never claimed Divine Right, they evaded the refutations (rode … fled). 

(21) By this fight Bro. Russell recovered all the ground that had by anyone been yielded to the propagandists (David recovered all that the Amalekites had carried away, v. 18) and rescued the adherents of the Society and the People's Pulpit Association (rescued his two wives). The victory and the recoveries in the debate were complete (nothing lacking, v. 19), neither little nor great matters taken but were recovered (neither small nor great); neither those who were more developed brethren (sons), nor those who were less developed brethren (daughters), nor matters of teaching (spoil), nor anything else that the propagandists had gotten (nor anything … taken). Bro. Russell recovered (took, v. 20) the humanity of the 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


justified (all flocks) and of the consecrated (herds) which the propagandists had taken and sent forth before the unjustified with them (drave before those other cattle). These were allotted to Bro. Russell as his share in the gains of the fight (this is David's spoil). As the First Smiting was going to an end in its first enders, Bro. Russell came in his work to deal with the crown-losers (David came to the 200 men, v. 21) whose weak characters prevented them from sharing unto a completion in this symbolic battle with Bro. Russell (so faint that they could not follow David), who were overcome by the difficulties of the way, and had therefore been left behind by the crown-retainers and certain strong crown-losers (whom they made also to abide [literally, and they had let them dwell] at the brook Besor). These responded to Bro. Russell's coming to them with a request (Z '16, 141, 7-10) to give him certain information for card indexing, so that he might be prepared quickly to put them into a service, which proved to be the Second Smiting of Jordan (they went forth to meet David … people … with him). Bro. Russell meant thereby to confer a blessing upon them (David came near … saluted them [literally, asked for them unto prosperity]). 

(22) Some of those who smote Jordan the first time even unto a completion failed to smite it in the Lord's spirit unto a completion, hence were not Little Flock members (all the wicked men and [even] men of Belial [worthlessness], v. 22). Under the impression that the offer implied an opportunity of smiting Jordan the first time, these responded (answered … that went with David) against giving a part therein to the proven crown-losers who stayed behind (went not with us, we will not give … spoil … recovered), except what had been taken from them, e.g., their privileges as to the Society, the Association and those brethren that they had brought to the Lord (save … his wife and his children) that with them they may go to their place (lead them away, and depart). Of this evil spirit Bro. Russell disapproved (Ye shall not do so, v. 23), in a 

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loving manner (my brethren), as not responsive to the gifts of God acquired in the battle (which the Lord hath given us), nor to His providential preservation (preserved us), nor to the victory that He gave them over the invaders (delivered the company that came against us into our hand). Assuring them that no one with a good heart would be persuaded to their opinion (who will hearken unto you in this matter? v. 24), he set forth the teaching that the crown-losers (that tarried by the stuff) and the crown-retainers (that goeth down to the battle) would have similar rewards—the hundredfold blessing in this life for the amount of their sacrifice (his part … part alike). This does not mean that the same amount of reward would be given in this life; for the more one sacrifices in the Lord's Spirit, the larger are the blessings of the hundredfold in this life; and the less one sacrifices in the Lord's Spirit, the less is his hundredfold; for the true sacrificers receive the hundredfold of their sacrifices, which in some are larger, in others are smaller. 

(23) The alikeness is not in quantity, but in proportion, which principle in the antitype worked itself out in the greater quantity, but same proportion, the hundredfold, of the blessing experienced by the Little Flock in connection with its use of the penny distributed to them in the first smiting of Jordan and in the less quantity, but same proportion, of hundredfold blessing experienced by the Great Company in connection with its use of the penny distributed to them in the second smiting of Jordan. This became a doctrine and practice throughout the affairs of God's Parousia and Epiphany (v. 25). After Bro. Russell in thought and act came back to the public work as done in connection with the Photo-Drama in unchurchly halls, theatres and auditoriums (came back to Ziklag, v. 26), he arranged for the second smiting of Jordan, by giving the various pertinent brethren (elders of Judah, even to his friends) taken out of the twelve denominations and out of the faith justified, the thirteen tribes of antitypical Israel of the Gospel Age, the hundredfold, which was the 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


spoil connected with the second smiting of Jordan, in type of which David sent of the typical spoil to the elders, his friends of thirteen different towns (vs. 27-30). The word ve (v. 31), translated and in the clause, "and to all the places where David himself and his men were wont to haunt," should be rendered even; for the spoil was sent but to these thirteen places, which, then, the clause defines as those where David and his men more or less sojourned. 

(24) Early in the World War the battle set in between the modernists and the so-called unorthodox on the one side and the so-called orthodox, especially their fundamentalist representatives, on the other side (Philistines fought against Israel, 1 Sam. 31:1; 1 Chro. 10:1), and unfolded many phases, which made the whole controversy reach over many years, one of the earlier ones of which phases ended before Bro. Russell went beyond the vail; and it is of this phase that 1 Sam. 31 treats. On the side of the orthodox in the pertinent conflict the attempt was to maintain in each denomination its creedal doctrines and practices, as applicable to the principles underlying the World War, against the changes as to the World War's underlying principles that the modernists and unorthodox liberals urged. These desired to adjust orthodoxy to the changes that evolution, higher criticism and liberal social theories were introducing as to the war; and in this conflict during the earlier part of the World War the orthodox met defeat; later phases of the struggle manifested themselves following our Pastor's death; indeed the conflict is not yet over, but at every stage of it so far the orthodox have been defeated. The first stage of the controversy was the argumentative presentation of the pros and cons as to orthodoxy's and liberalism's stand toward the World War, so far as an adjustment of their ethical teachings thereto was concerned; and the result was that in the argument the pertinent orthodox creedal position was surrendered almost wholly to the liberal position (men of Israel fled from before the Philistines), even to most of the orthodox clergy and 

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laymen going over to the camp of the liberals in support of the war (fell down slain in mount Gilboa). The liberals, i.e., modernists and unorthodox sectarians, pressed the argument hard against the crown-lost leaders and their class supporters; and early in the fight refuted the three sets of their supporters: the most faithful of the crown-losers, the linguistic, interpretational, historical and systematic faith-justified scholars, and the preachers and the evangelists (followed hard upon Saul and upon his … slew Jonathan, Abinadab and Melchi-shua, 1 S. 31:2; 1 C. 10:2). 

(25) Especially severely did the argument go against the crown-lost leaders (battle went sore against Saul, 1 S. 31:3; 1 C. 10:3). By sharp blows, especially such as would appeal to the war-crazed emotions of the multitudes against the crown-lost leaders who sought to uphold the principles of right against those of might, as they were being disregarded by the two sets of nations at war, were the crown-lost leaders struck by their liberal opponents (the archers hit him); and, weak, by loving popularity and the praise of men, they were sorely hurt by the multitude's reaction to these blows; for it made them very unpopular, which much weakened their fighting spirit for their principles (he was sore wounded of the archers). This prompted them to appeal to their special supporters to forge some argument that would make them give up the fight as lost (said Saul unto his armor-bearer, Draw thy sword, and thrust me through therewith, 1 S. 31:4; 1 C. 10:4). This they sought so as to forestall the liberals from completing their overcoming them, and thus from being given an opportunity to gloat for their victory over the crown-losers (lest these … thrust me through, and abuse [literally, gloat over] me). The respect that their special supporters felt for them filled them with so great fear of such a deed that they would not forge such an argument (would not … sore afraid). Accordingly, the crown-lost leaders turned their principles that disapproved of the warring nations into qualified approval of their individual national side in the war

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


(Saul took a sword, and fell upon it). Seeing this, their special supporters did the same thing (armor-bearer saw that Saul was dead, he fell … his sword, 1 S. 31:5; 1 C. 10:5), and ceased fighting the popular view in each country (died with him). Thus the crown-lost leaders, the three classes of their main supporters and their special helpers and all other orthodox leaders were forced together into accepting the war position of the modernists and unorthodox sectarians (Saul died … sons … armor-bearer … men, that same day together, 1 S. 31:6; 1 C. 10:6). The rest of the orthodox—those who were close and those who were distant sympathizers—saw that all their leaders and those who fought with them, great and small, gave up (men … on the other side of the valley … other side of Jordan, 1 S. 31:7; 1 C. 10:7); so they also gave up their positions and turned to flight (forsook the cities, and fled); and the liberals took possession of them and held them (Philistines came and dwelt in them). 

(26) The liberals sought after this phase of the controversy to gain, and that to the last degree possible, all the spoils of victory from what was left on the field of controversy by the orthodox, especially by their fundamentalist members (on the morrow … came to strip the slain, 1 S. 31:8; 1 C. 10:8). They found that the crown-lost leaders and their three groups of special supporters were overthrown as to their creedal position (found Saul … sons fallen in mount Gilboa). They, therefore, took from the crown-lost leaders their pertinent view (cut off his head, 1 S. 31:9; 1 C. 10:9) and took away from them all their defensive and offensive arguments (stripped off his armor) and sent these as trophies of conquest to the liberals' sphere of teachings and spirit everywhere (sent [them] into the land of the Philistines round about) in order to announce in their creedal citadels and among their supporters their victory as an accomplished and proven fact (to publish it in the house of their idols, and among the people). The crown-lost leaders' defensive and offensive arguments, as overthrown, they stored in their combinationistic 

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religious circles (put his armor in the house of Ashtaroth [the fair ones, the beauties, the goddess of love], 1 S. 31:10; 1 C. 10:10). His views they stored up in circles holding to the God-man theory (fastened … temple of Dagon, 1 C. 10:10); and the main ones of these crown-lost leaders they made with their power a public spectacle of ridicule (fastened his body to the wall of Beth-shan [quiet house]). But when those whom the crown-lost leaders had delivered from the attackers of their doctrinal views learned of this dishonor shown the memory of their defenders in defeat (inhabitants of Jabesh-gilead [dry rock heap, or height] heard … done to Saul, 1 S. 31:11; 1 C. 10:11), their warriors secretly and perseveringly arranged to rescue, and did rescue, the memories of the crown-lost leaders and their ablest crown-lost, scholarly justified and ministerial and evangelistic supporters from dishonor (all night, and took the body of Saul … of his sons from the wall of Beth-shan, 1 S. 31:12; 1 C. 10:12), and brought them in loving memory to the scenes of their victorious battles for their attacked brethren and destroyed the dishonor (came to Jabesh, and burnt them there). They gathered the memories of these (took their bones, 1 S. 31:13; 1 C. 10:12) and treated them with becoming respect (buried them), as those belonging to a strong and worthy warrior group (under a [oak] tree at Jabesh) and afflicted themselves in mourning unto a Divine completion (fasted seven days). Thus came to complete defeat the crown-lost leaders in the first phase of their conflict with the liberals (Saul died, 1 C. 10:13)—a defeat due to their compromising with their sinful propensities, contrary to the Lord's express charge (transgression … against the Lord … word … kept not) and to their consulting mediums (asking … a familiar spirit, to enquire); for they failed to repent fully, which, if done, would doubtless have moved the Lord to favor their inquiring of Him with answers (enquired not of the Lord, 1 C. 10:14). Hence God cut them off as executives and warriors for the nominal people of God (slew him) and made Bro. Russell such

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


(turned the kingdom unto David), who was a member of God's real people (son of Jesse). 

(27) The last chapter of 1 Sam. and the first chapter of 2 Sam. form, as it were, a typical bridge between the two phases of Bro. Russell's activities as the Lord's executive and warrior leader of His people. In 1 Sam. his activities as such are typed, as they are related to the nominal people of God, while in 2 Sam. his activities as such are typed, as they are related to the real people of God. For this reason, though antitypically pointed out as anointed to his pertinent office as such in the first scene in which David, his pertinent type, appears in 1 Sam., he did not become the antitype of David as king as long as antitypical Saul was such toward the nominal people of God; while in the antitype as soon as he received his anointing as such he became to God's real people the Divinely-appointed executive and warrior leader and acted as such. Hence the death of antitypical Saul, narrated in the last chapter of 1 Sam., forms a link in the chain connecting the two phases of Bro. Russell's ministry above mentioned, and Bro. Russell's attitude toward that antitypical death, narrated in 2 Sam. 1, forms the other link in that chain. Accordingly, the antitypes of David from 2 Sam. 2 onward go back chronologically to the early part of the Parousia, and narrate Bro. Russell's activities as executive and warrior leader as related to God's real people. If our readers will go over the ground so far covered as to the David antitype, they will find everything there stated to fall in line with the thought that we have just given as to Bro. Russell as antitype to David in 1 Sam. Even 1 Sam. 25:2-43 is no exception to this rule; for the Society and the Association as corporations are related to the work toward the nominal as distinct from the real people of God, since during Bro. Russell's life they were merely fronts for him toward the public—he hid himself from the public behind these. That this viewpoint of these corporations is correct appears from their charters as state-granted powers for public work and from the facts of his uses of them. Accordingly, 

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we will close this chapter's presentation on our Pastor by a study of the second transitional link between the above-mentioned two phases of our Pastor as the antitype of David, i.e., as the Lord's appointed executive and warrior leader of God's Spiritual Israel. 

(28) It was, therefore, quite some time after Sept., 1914, that the Saul class in its various members at different times yielded to the liberals' viewpoint on the war situation; as it was in the late Spring of 1916 that the last one of them had entered into such yielding (after the death of Saul, 2 Sam. 1:1). And it was as the first smiting of Jordan began to come to an end in its first enders (David was returned from … Amalekites) that the main attention of the Truth people was given to the Photo-Drama (abode two days in Ziklag). In the fulness of the time of such yielding (on the third day, v. 2) writers on religious and reporters on secular papers came mentally, i.e., in their writings, from the scenes of the conflict (a man came out of the camp from Saul), some in real and some in mock mourning (clothes rent, and earth upon his head), and showed much honor and subserviency to Bro. Russell, who had not yielded one inch to the liberals' pertinent point of view (to David … fell to the earth, and did obeisance). Bro. Russell as a diligent student of the signs of the times (Is. 21:6-9) was questioning these religious writers and secular reporters in their articles, perhaps also in person, as to whence they came with their news (whence comest thou? v. 3). The answer was that they had come as fugitives from the controversial scene of the orthodox and liberals (Out of the camp of Israel am I escaped). Bro. Russell's enquiring mind earnestly searched their reports for the real facts of the case (How went the matter? I pray thee, tell me, v. 4). Then he gathered from the reports that the nominal-church warriors had given up their fight (people are fled from the battle), that many yielded their view and accepted that of the liberals (many … fallen and dead), and that the crown-lost leaders and their most consecrated crown-lost assistants had given up their

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


point of view, and had accepted that of the liberals on the moral issues underlying the World War (Saul and Jonathan … dead). Bro. Russell demanded proof for such an unexpected result as to antitypical Saul and Jonathan (David said … How knowest thou that Saul and Jonathan … dead? v. 5). The religious writers and secular reporters told that they had chanced upon the creedal views as the subject of controversy (I happened by chance upon mount Gilboa, v. 6), that they had seen the crown-lost leaders depending upon their written views, but hard pressed by the liberals' organizations and theory leaders (Saul leaned upon his spear … chariots and horsemen followed hard after him), that the crown-lost leaders had turned their attention upon, and called them (looked … saw … called, v. 7) and that they had responded to the call (I answered, Here am I [literally, Behold me]). 

(29) The religious writers and secular reporters further declared that the crown-lost leaders asked them on which side they stood (Who art thou? v. 8), and were given an answer that implied that they were religious writers and secular reporters on neither side in the controversy (an Amalekite). Then these showed that they were indeed antitypical Amalekites, i.e., wicked ones; for they misrepresented the situation, doubtless thinking thereby to ingratiate themselves with Bro. Russell, whom they knew to be eschewed by the crown-lost leaders; for they in their conceit represented the crown-lost leaders as importuning them to offer arguments that would change their positions, to forestall their being therein changed by the liberals, the so-called modernists, and unorthodox sectarians (Stand … upon me, and slay me, v. 9), for their sharp points had possessed them (anguish [literally, arrow] is come upon me [literally, seized me]), though they still were energetic (my life is yet whole in me). Then the boasting and lying religious writers and secular reporters stated that they gave them a final argument that changed their opinion (I … slew him, v. 10). To excuse their alleged furnishing of the final argument that changed 

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their opinion into that of the liberals, the religious writers and secular reporters alleged that their position was already so shaken by the blows of their adversaries' sharp points that they would still have had to give up their and take their adversaries' views (could not live after that he was fallen). Continuing their fulsome praise of Bro. Russell, they declared that the office of being the Divinely authorized teacher (the crown that was upon his head, Rev. 4:4) and executive (the bracelet that was on his arm) they ascribed to him (I took … and have brought … unto my lord). To their great surprise Bro. Russell, who they thought would glory in his adversary's defeat, and rejoice in being told that he was recognized by the what were actually mis-informers as having his adversary's powers, was so grieved by the news that he did violence to some of his graces, e.g., joy, peace, longsuffering (took hold on his clothes, and rent them, v. 11), which his fellow-warriors also did (likewise all the men that were with him); for they were greatly grieved (mourned, and wept, v. 12) and practiced special self-denial (fasted), because the crown-lost leaders (Saul), their most faithful crown-lost supporters (Jonathan), their fellow-warriors (people of the Lord) and the whole nominal people of God (the house of Israel) were so greatly overcome by their adversaries' controversial arguments as to have given up their own and accepted their adversaries' position (fallen by the sword); for we must remember that Bro. Russell's and their pertinent view was decidedly more in harmony with that of the orthodox than with that of the so-called liberals. 

(30) Still studying these reports of the controversy, Bro. Russell's mind raised the question as to the character of their writers (Whence art thou? v. 13) and from the writings themselves got the answer, that the writers were no friends of the Lord's people, but were aliens to them (son of a stranger) and evil characters (an Amalekite). Getting this answer from the writings, Bro. Russell asked them in their writings how dared they use their power to attack unto perversion to error the 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


ones qualified by God to be the executives and warrior leaders of God's people (How wast thou not afraid … to destroy the Lord's anointed? v. 14). The wickedness of it so impressed Bro. Russell that he charged the sermon distributor, who included the volunteers also (called one of the young men, v. 15), to distribute the sermons in papers and B.S.M.'s, in order to circulate the pertinent truths which refuted the writers in question (Go near, and fall upon him), which they did, to the refutation of these writers (he smote him that he died). The pertinent refutations can be found in the B.S.M.'s, on The World On Fire, Clergy Ordination Proved Fraudulent, etc. Bro. Russell told them that they were responsible for their refutation (Thy blood be upon thy head, v. 16); for their utterances condemned them (thy mouth hath testified against thee), since they claimed that they had by perversions moved the Lord's representative to surrender their own and accept their adversaries' views (I have slain the Lord's anointed). Bro. Russell wrote, scattered here and there in his writings, in deep sorrow his lamentation at the symbolic death of the crown-lost leaders and their most faithful crown-lost assistants (lamented … over Saul and over Jonathan, v. 17). He also charged the brethren to teach it (bade them teach, v. 18), as to the Bible, the propeller of sharp truths (the bow), to the bravest of the Lord's people (children of Judah), and, therefore, set it forth in his writings, especially in the sermons and Towers (written in the book of Jasher [the upright]). 

(31) The Truth (beauty, v. 9) of God's people (Israel) is quenched (slain) in the denominations (high places). Distressing (how) is the overthrow of the strong warriors (the mighty fallen). Let it not be declared among the Romanist liberals (Tell it not in Gath, v. 20), nor let it be announced in the liberals' public places in Protestantism (publish it not in the streets of Askelon), so that the liberal church companies be not jubilant thereover (lest the daughters of the Philistines rejoice), and as unconsecrated ones gloat thereover (uncircumcised triumph). Let no kindly providences 

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nor refreshing truths come upon the kingdoms of the creeds (mountains of Gilboa … no dew, neither rain, upon you, v. 21), neither let such creedal kingdoms be spheres where God is exalted by praise-bringing sacrifices (fields of offerings [literally, heave offerings]). For there the defensive teachings of controverting warriors have become loathsome unto repudiation (shield of the mighty is vilely cast away), even the defensive teachings of the crown-lost leaders have become bereft of the spirit of understanding (the shield of Saul … not … anointed with oil). In former controversies the propelling force, the Biblical teachings, that shot out sharp truths for the most faithful of the crown-losers were not parried off, but took the symbolic life and energy of the opponents (blood of the slain … fat of the mighty, the bow of Jonathan turned not back, v. 22), nor did the crown-lost leaders' controversial discourses, spoken or written, prove fruitless (sword of Saul returned not empty [literally, effectless]). 

(32) In their Truth activities to one another and to many others the crown-lost leaders and their most faithful crown-lost supporters were lovable and agreeable (Saul and Jonathan were lovely and pleasant in their lives, v. 23) and were inseparable at their symbolic death (were not divided). Very quick as to wisdom, and very great as to strength were they (swifter than eagles … stronger than lions). Let God's people mourn over the fallen crown-lost leaders (daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, v. 24), who invested them with the robe of Christ's righteousness (clothed you in scarlet), with the pertinent joys (with other delights [the word other has no corresponding word in the Hebrew]), and adorned their character with Divine graces (put ornaments of gold upon your apparel). Distressing it especially was that these warriors had fallen in the thick of the controversy (How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle! v. 25). Saddest of all that the most faithful of the crown-losers in their denominations were overthrown (Jonathan … slain in thine high places). Bro. Russell was especially grieved

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


over these, his brethren (distressed for thee, my brother, Jonathan, v. 26). Very sweet had they been to him (very pleasant … unto me), and their love was wonderfully agreeable to him (thy love to me was wonderful), far surpassing the love that the churches gave him (passing the love of women). Highly distressing that the mighty warriors—the crown-lost leaders and their most faithful assistants—had fallen from Truth into error (How are the mighty fallen, v. 27), and highly distressing that their arguments for the right had become in their minds destroyed (weapons of war perished). Yea, when we think of these two classes, who, during the Gospel Age had fought so valiantly and effectively for the 12 stewardship and some other truths, and then consider that they in their last representatives yielded in their doublemindedness to their infidelistic foes on matters of war justification as against war guilt, as these applied to the World War, which in its European phase was conceived in sin and born in iniquity on both sides, we feel deep distress over their fall, as did our Pastor, who expressed in his pertinent conversations and writings the antitypes of the typical thoughts of this Psalm. With this we will close this chapter on our glorified Pastor. 


(1) What was skipped in the preceding chapter as to our Pastor in 1 Sam.? Why was this done? Accordingly, what will here be done? Of what does 1 Sam. 25:2-43 treat? What in it are typed by David? Nabal? Abigail? What three, among other prominent evil Society directors, are mentioned? What was an evil activity of each of these? Why are they not, and why are they mentioned? What and how were they at first? How typed? What was their influence among crown retainers and losers? How typed? Whom did they make fruitful? How typed? How did their characters become? How did they express this quality? How typed? Who were closely associated with them? How typed? What did these dispense? How typed? What two good things characterized them? How typed? Ultimately what did the evil directors become? How typed? Despite what? How typed? 

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(2) In what condition was our Pastor in this connection? How typed? Of what did he then become aware? How typed? What did he desire? Why? How typed? Accordingly, what did he do? How typed? To whom and where did he send them? How typed? For what purpose? How typed? How were they to treat all concerned? How typed? Of what were they to assure them? How typed? Of what were they to inform them? How typed? As to this information what did he suggest? How typed? What did he in general request of the mis-directors? How typed? Why just at that time? How typed? What did he in particular request? How typed? In what winsome way did he express this request? How typed? After making the request, what did the messengers do? How typed? What special fruit did Bro. Russell request? What did they refuse to give him? In what spirit? How typed? To whom did they then compare him? How typed? How did they reason? How typed? 

(3) What effect did this churlish reply have on the messengers? How typed? What did the churlish answer imply? What two effects did it have on Bro. Russell? How typed? How did his assistants respond? How typed? What like thing did Bro. Russell do? How typed? What did the abler and less able do? How typed? Who heard the mis-directors' churlish and disparaging reply? How typed? What did they do? How typed? What particulars did they give? How typed? What further did they tell antitypical Abigail? How typed? What else did they declare? How typed? How long was this good done? How typed? What warning did they give the faithful directors? How typed? Why? How typed? How did they characterize the evil to the good directors? How typed? 

(4) What did the good directors sense, and to what did this lead them? How typed? What two kinds of truth did they take with them? How typed? In what conditions were these truths? How typed? With what were they sweetened? How typed? By what did they forward these? How typed? What charge did they give? How typed? What did they add thereto? How typed? How therein did they act toward the mis-directors? How typed? How did they proceed? Assisted by what? How typed? By whom were they not observed in their kingdom work? How typed? By whom were Bro. Russell and his assistants not observed? How 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


typed? What then happened? How typed? What did the wrong move Bro. Russell at first to say? How typed? Secondly? How typed? Thirdly? How typed? What were the various features of the pledge? How typed? As what would he treat them? How typed? What will enable us to understand Bro. Russell's first decision as to the mis-directors and their assistants? How typed? 

(5) What did the faithful directors do on first seeing Bro. Russell and his ablest supporters? How typed? How did they approach him? How typed? For what did they first ask? Why? How typed? Secondly? How typed? How did they desire Bro. Russell not to take the wrong-doers? Why? How typed? Of what did they remind him? How typed? What did they recognize? How typed? What solemn assurance did they give? How typed? What did they request? How typed? For what did they ask forgiveness? How typed? Of what did they assure him? Why? How typed? What wish for him did they express? How typed? For his enemies? How typed? Why did they desire him not to avenge himself? When? How typed? What was their final request? How typed? 

(6) How was Bro. Russell impressed by their reasoning? As what did he then fully recognize them? How typed? What two other things did he praise? How typed? Solemnly ascribing the restraint to God, what did he declare? How typed? What did he accept? How typed? How did he let them leave? How typed? With what assurance? How typed? How did they find the mis-directors engaged? How typed? In what condition? How typed? From what did they then refrain? How typed? From what did the mis-directors come out? How typed? What then did the good directors do? How typed? With what two results? How typed? What occurred in due time? How not? How? When with different evil directors? What did God send them? How typed? As what did they die? How typed? 

(7) What did Bro. Russell do each time a mis-director was dropped from the Board? Why? How typed? What did he know on this subject? How typed? As each mis-director was dropped, what did Bro. Russell do? How typed? Through whom did he send the proposal? How typed? How did they find the faithful directors engaged? How did these respond to the proposal? How typed? What service did they offer? How typed? What two things did they then do? How typed? Who accompanied them? How 

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typed? What course did the faithful directors follow? How typed? Into what did they enter? How typed? How did he become one with these faithful directors? With what other corporation in its members did he enter into oneness? How typed? What did its typical names type as to this relation? Which Jezreel was, and which was not, the one here named? What preeminence did these two corporations have? How typed? Of the other corporations or associations which one was used for a name for the Truth people? What should here be noted? 

(8) What is now to be taken up? Why? How long had Bro. Russell until the next episode been among the sectarian orthodox? How typed? What was specially done thereafter? How typed? Against what three groups of evils? How typed in each case? Since when were these evils? How typed? What is their relation to Satan's empire? How typed? What did they do to the sphere of their teachings and spirit? How typed? What did they work on these three groups of evil? How typed? What did they not spare? How typed? What did they sever from these three groups of evil? How typed in each case? What did they do after ending this work? How typed? What did the sectarian unorthodox by their attitude do? How typed? What did Bro. Russell give them to understand? How typed in each case? What kind of a job did Bro. Russell do with his strong or weak forms of selfishness, worldliness or sins? How typed? How did he do it as to others' awareness? Why? How typed? What was Bro. Russell's custom as to his inner weaknesses in relation to the sectarian unorthodox? How typed? What did these do with his explanation? Why? How typed? Under this impression what did the sectarian unorthodox think and say as to Bro. Russell? How typed? 

(9) Who were the modernists? Who were their extreme opponents? Who were their associates? What did the first and third of these three groups do? How typed? Against whom? How typed? How may the non-modernists among the sectarian opponents of the orthodox be described? Of what did they feel sure? How typed? To whom of the involved controversialists were the Truth warriors more like in faith? How did the middle-of-the-roadsters come to think that the Truth warriors sided with them as against antitypical Saul? How typed? What did this fact prompt the middle-of-the-roadsters to do with the Truth warriors?

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


How typed? After what two things was this? How typed? On what two subjects did the modernists and antitypical Achish rally for controversy? How typed? Under whose leadership did the orthodox rally for controversy? On what five subjects reduced to two? How are these things typed? 

(10) To what did the fundamentalists' five, or two, points expose them? What did the crown-lost leaders do with their opponents' position? How typed? What effect did this study have upon them? From what three spheres of thought did they seek arguments against their opponents? How typed? With what did God not bless their study? How typed? In what three special ways did God withhold this instruction? How typed in each case? To what did God's unresponsiveness occasion them? How typed? Why? How typed? What for a long time had prominent nominal-church leaders been investigating? Who were some of the most prominent of these? For what doctrine did they think spiritism gave proof? Since what time especially did nominal-church leaders resort to spiritism? What are two special illustrations of this trend? In what did this trend result, so far as antitypical Saul was at this point concerned? How typed? 

(11) What did shame at the degrading act of consulting mediums move antitypical Saul to do? How typed? With what two groups did they make their preliminary investigations? How typed? How did they consult the mediums? How typed? What request did they politely make of these? How typed? What at first did they conceal? How typed? In ignorance of the questioners' identity, what did the mediums presuppose of them? How typed? What did they stress? How typed? What did they say that antitypical Saul had done? How typed? What did their suspicion prompt them to surmise? How typed? What assurance did the crown-lost leaders give them? How typed? What did these then do? How typed? What were these told? How typed? What did the mediums see, and how did they react to it? How typed? What did they recognize and demand? How typed? 

(12) What did the crown-lost leaders tell them? How typed? Ask them? How typed? What was the reply? How typed? Interestedly, what did the crown-lost leaders ask? How typed? What proves the correct translation of the next clause? What is the true answer? How typed? What 

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then was asked? How typed? What was the answer? How typed? What was the effect of the answer upon the crown-lost leaders? How typed? How did the demons react to their knowledge of antitypical Saul's mind? How typed? What three reasons did the crown-lost leaders give for seeking their counsel? How typed in each case? What did these three reasons influence them to do? How typed? 

(13) How did the demons respond to the crown-lost leaders' statements? How typed? What was the effect upon them? Siding with the antitypical Philistines, what did the demons say first to them further? How typed? How would this be done? How typed? What knowledge of the contents of antitypical Samuel's final talk with the crown-lost leaders did the demons have? What did they, accordingly, say? How typed? What three forecasts did they make? How typed in each case? How could they approximate future events? What mistake was there in the typical forecast? What proves this to be a mistake? 

(14) What was the first effect of the forecast upon the crown-lost leaders? How typed? The second? How typed? Why were they bereft of mental and moral strength? How typed? During what periods? How typed? What was the state of their minds? How typed? Who came to them while they were in this condition? How typed? What first reason did they give as a preface to their prospective offer? How typed? The second? How typed? What did they, therefore, request? How typed? What promise did they make? How typed? What answer was given? How? How typed? What three groups constrained them to alter their decision? How typed? What did they, accordingly, do? How typed? What two things then followed? How typed? What did the mediums then do? How typed? What are the titles and authors of the ablest books advocating spiritism? What did these and other spiritistic books enable the crown-lost leaders to do? How typed? 

(15) What in the meantime were the modernists and the middle-of-the-roadsters doing? How typed? The orthodox and fundamentalists? How typed? How did the leaders of the former rank comparatively? How typed? As such what did they do? How typed? What similar thing did Bro. Russell and his fellow-warriors do? How and with whom? How typed? How could these have advanced to battle with these antitypical Philistines against antitypical Israel? Who questioned their right so to do? How typed? Who 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


answered and what did they say? How? How typed? What did the leading modernists in displeasure demand? How typed? Why did they demand this? How typed? According to their fears, what might the situation afford him? How typed? To ward off what peril did they demand this? How typed? 

(16) What did the modernist leaders remember of the Pastor? What use of this fact did they make with antitypical Achish? How are these two things typed? Accordingly, what did antitypical Achish say to the Pastor? How typed? What further assurance did they give him? How typed? Despite this, what did they say was the attitude of the leading modernists toward him? How typed? Therefore, what two counsels did they give him? How typed? Why did they counsel these two things? How typed? How did the Pastor protest thereat? How typed? As a part of this protest what did he ask? How typed? In readiness of what did he show himself? How typed? What assurance did this draw from antitypical Achish? How typed? Despite the Pastor's willingness to do battle for antitypical Achish, what did the latter give as the reason for his desisting therefrom? How typed? Accordingly, what did antitypical Achish counsel? How typed? Accordingly, what did the Pastor and his co-warriors immediately do? How typed? From what did this spare typical and antitypical David and their co-warriors? What followed thereupon in type and antitype? 

(17) From what to what did Bro. Russell and his co-warriors turn their attention? Where and when? How regarded in nominal-church circles? How typed? Who were active at this time? How typed? What two things did they attempt? What two spheres did they invade? How typed? In whose absence? What did they accomplish? By what things? How typed? In what did they succeed and fail? How typed? What did they do with the captives? How typed? What did they then do? How typed? Of what did Bro. Russell and his co-warriors become aware? How typed? How did it affect them? How typed? To what extreme? How typed? What did the arguments of the contending war groups effect? How typed? What did this do to Bro. Russell? How typed? What were the friends disposed to do? How typed? Why? How typed? How did Bro. Russell react to the occasion? How typed?

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(18) To whom did he resort for help? How typed? What did he ask of them? How typed? How did they respond? How typed? What did Bro. Russell then do? Why? How typed? What was the response? How typed? What were the conflicts implied in these preparations and typed otherwise? By how many and what kind of warriors was the pursuit begun? How typed? Unto what did all continue the pursuit? How typed? How did these conditions affect the crown-losers? Why? How typed? What enabled the crown-retainers and certain crown-losers to go on? How typed? What of the weak ones? How typed? 

(19) Who were brought to Bro. Russell's attention? How typed? What had been done to these? Why? How typed? What was the result to them? By what were they refreshed? How typed? What two things did the brethren give them? How typed in each case? With what result? How typed? How did their long desertion affect them? How typed? What two questions did Bro. Russell ask them? How typed? What did they first reply? How typed? Secondly? How typed? What had their patrons done to them? Why? How typed? What did they further declare? In what four particulars? How typed in each case? 

(20) What did Bro. Russell do in two ways? How typed? What did the questioned ones demand? How typed? What did they promise, if so assured? How typed? On receiving the solemn promise, what did they do? How typed? In what condition were the war advocates? How typed? In what three things were they engaged? Why? How typed? From what two spheres had they taken spoil? How typed? What did Bro. Russell and his co-warriors then do? How typed? How long was the attack continued? During what period? How typed? How does the Bible variously call this conflict? Where, among other places, may the pertinent details be found? What was the result of the conflict? How typed? Who only escaped? Why? How typed? 

(21) What did Bro. Russell recover? How typed? Whom did he rescue? How typed? What were complete? How typed? In what five particulars? How typed in each case? What did Bro. Russell do? As to what? How typed? Before whom had these been placed? How typed? To whom were these allotted as spoil? How typed? As the first smiting was approaching an end, what did Bro. Russell do? How typed? What did their weak characters prevent?

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


How typed? By what were they overcome? How typed? What request did Bro. Russell make in Z '16, 141, 7-10? What did the requested ones do accordingly? How typed? What was his purpose in making the request? How typed? 

(22) In what did some of the persevering first smiters of Jordan fail? What does this prove? How typed here? Under what impression were they? How did they respond to Bro. Russell's suggestion? How typed? What exceptions did they suggest in their response? How typed? What did they then wish? How typed? What did Bro. Russell do first as to their desire? How typed? In what manner? How typed? In what three respects was such a course not responsive to the circumstances? How typed in each respect? Of what did he assure them? How typed? As to what two classes did he set forth certain teachings? How are these two classes designated in the type? What were these teachings? How typed? What does this not mean? What two reasons prove this? Why are these reasons logical? 

(23) In what does the alikeness not consist? In what does it consist? How did this principle work out for the Little Flock in the experience here typed? For the Great Company? What did this become? When? How typed? To what did Bro. Russell return? How typed? For what did he then arrange? How? To whom? Whence were they taken out? How were these things typed? How should the word ve in the typical clause here referred to be rendered? Why this rendering? 

(24) When did the antitypical conflict of 1 Sam. 31:1; 1 Chro. 10:1 set in? How is this conflict typed? How did it unfold in phase and time? Before what did one of these earlier phases end? Where is this phase typed? What was attempted in this conflict by the orthodox? What particularly? Against what and whom? What did the liberals seek to introduce? In what and when did the orthodox meet defeat? When did later phases of the conflict set in? How long have they lasted? In every phase what did the orthodox meet? What was the first phase of the conflict? In what respect? What was the result? How typed? To what extent? How typed? What two things did the liberals do to the crown-lost leaders and their three supporting classes? Who were the latter? How typed? 

(25) Against whom did the arguments strike especially? How typed? What principles did the crown-losers and the 

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liberals oppose to each other? To whom did the latters' appeal? How did each set of nations act in this matter? What did this do to the former? How typed? What made the latter weak? What hurt them sorely? Why? How typed? What did this prompt them to do? How typed? Why did they seek this? How typed? What effect did their special supporters', respect for them produce? How typed? What did the crown-lost leaders thereupon do? How typed? What effect did this have on their special supporters? How typed? With what result? How typed? What is a summary of these results? How typed? What effect did this result have upon their close and remote supporters? How typed? What did they do as to their positions and flight? How typed? What did the liberals do with these? How typed? 

(26) After this phase of the conflict what did the liberals seek? How typed? What did they find? How typed? What did they do to their pertinent view? How typed? Defensive and offensive arguments? How typed? What did they do with these? How typed? Why? How typed? Where were the crown-lost leaders' arguments stored? How typed? Views? How typed? What did they do with their memory? How typed? Who were their beneficiaries? How typed? What effect did the report of these indignities have upon those who had been defended successfully by the crown-lost leaders? How typed? What two things did they then do? How typed? What did they do with the memories of these? How typed? As what did they treat these? How typed? What did they then do? How typed? How is the story of the crown-lost leaders' end summed up? How typed? What two reasons are given for their end? How typed in each case? What negative reason is given for it? How typed? To whom did God give the pertinent office? How typed? 

(27) How are 1 Sam. 31 and 2 Sam. 1 antitypically related to the Davidic parts of these books? Of what do 1 Sam. 16—2 Sam. 1 treat antitypically? 2 Sam. 2 and onward? What proves this of 1 Sam. 16—2 Sam. 1? How does 1 Sam. 31 stand related to these thoughts? 2 Sam. 1? Accordingly, what does the antitype of 2 Sam. 2 do? What will satisfy the readers as to the first part of this view? What even is no exception to this? Why not? What proves this viewpoint to be correct? With what will this chapter's presentation on our Pastor be closed? Why? 

David and Saul's End—Type and Antitype. 


(28) When did the crown-lost leaders begin and end to yield to the liberals' view of the war's ethical situation? How typed? In time relation to what was this? How typed? At that time what took up the main attention of the Truth people? How typed? When was news of the pertinent surrender of the orthodox to the liberals' war views made known? How typed? Who brought this news to Bro. Russell? How typed? How were they demeanored? How typed? What did they show Bro. Russell? How typed? What question did Bro. Russell's inquiring mind raise as he studied the reporting articles? How typed? What answer did the articles give him? How typed? For what was his study of these articles done? How typed? What did he first gather from the articles? How typed? Secondly? How typed? What did Bro. Russell demand? How typed? What did the articles first answer? How typed? Secondly? How typed? Thirdly? How typed? Fourthly? How typed? 

(29) What did they represent the crown-losers as asking? How typed? What was the answer? How typed? What did the writers then show? Why? How typed? What in their conceit did they represent the crown-lost leaders as requesting? How typed? What was alleged as the reason for the request? What two things did they allege that the crown-lost leaders said of themselves? How typed in each case? What false statement did they then make? How typed? What excuse did they give for their alleged act? How typed? In continuance of their flattery, what two offices did they ascribe to Bro. Russell? How typed in both phases and by act? What thing surprising to them did Bro. Russell then do? How typed? Why were they surprised at his pertinent course? Who joined him in his grief? How typed? What did they resultantly do? How typed? What did they practice? How typed? For what four classes? How typed in each case? What had occurred to them? How typed? Why did Bro. Russell and his co-warriors so mourn? 

(30) While studying the articles, what question did Bro. Russell's mind raise? How typed? What was the first answer that these articles suggested to the question? How typed? The second? How typed? What question did Bro. Russell then put to these articles? How typed? What did the wickedness of the writers move Bro. Russell to do? How typed? What did he charge these? How typed? What did they do? How typed? Where can these refutations be 

The Parousia Messenger (Vol. 2). 


found? Especially in what articles? What did he say to them? How typed? Why did he say this? How typed? What justified his course? How typed? What did he do over the symbolic death of antitypical Saul and Jonathan? How typed? With what did he charge the brethren? How typed? As to what? How typed? To whom was it to be taught? How typed? In what were these lamentations given? How typed? 

(31) What was quenched? How typically expressed? Where? How typically expressed? What was distressing? How are the two features typically expressed? Among what two groups of liberals should it not be told? How typically expressed in each case? For what two reasons should this not be done? How typically expressed in each case? What two things are prayed against as to the creedal positions? How typically expressed? What else is prayed against as to the creedal spheres? How typically expressed? What two reasons are given for these prayers? How typically represented in each case? In former controversies what effect did the strongly propelled hard truths of the most faithful of the crown-losers have and not have? How typically expressed? And what effect did the spoken and written controversial teachings of the crown-lost leaders have and not have? How typically expressed? 

(32) How were they in their Truth activities? To whom? How typically expressed? In their symbolic death? How typically expressed? As to what quality were they quick? Strong? How typically expressed in each case? Who were exhorted to mourn? Over whom? How typically expressed? For what three reasons? How typically expressed in each case? What was especially distressing? How typically expressed? What was saddest of all? How typically expressed? For whom was Bro. Russell especially grieved? How typically expressed? How had they been to him? How typically expressed? How had their love been to him? How typically expressed? What did it far surpass? How typically expressed? What was highly distressing? How typically expressed? What was further highly distressing? How typically expressed? Over what was the final controversy waged by antitypical Saul, etc.? What effect does its outcome have upon us? Similar to whose grief? In what did he express it? In antitype of what? What two considerations make it have this effect upon us?