Epiphany Truth Examiner


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1 Sam. 21—25:1, 44—27:6



SOME of our past studies, the last chapters of Vol. IX, have given us proof that David types our Pastor as that Servant in his capacity of being the Lord Jesus' executive and warrior leader for the Parousia, as our past studies have proved to us that Saul in his contacts with David types the crown-lost leaders of the Parousia in their contacts with Bro. Russell as the Lord Jesus' executive and warrior leader for the Parousia. Further studies, we trust, will give us more on David as a type of Bro. Russell as the Lord Jesus' executive and warrior for the Parousia, as we trust that further studies will enable us to see that Saul types the crown-lost leaders from early in the third century until Armageddon. We expect to devote, D. v., quite a few more of the chapters of this volume on our Pastor to the study of David as a type of him; but as this chapter exemplifies the fact, they will have to be more condensed, i.e., cover more chapters, if in the compass of one volume we are to show him as also typed by Jeremiah, the Apostles in Acts and by other Bible characters. In fact, all our studies must from now on be more condensed, i.e., cover more ground in each chapter, if we are by the end of the Epiphany to expound everything in the Bible left unexpounded by our Pastor. There is, therefore, much work ahead of us in the coming years. We are now ready to begin our study of 1 Sam. 21—24; 25:1, 44—27:6, of which this chapter will be an exposition, type and antitype. 

(2) Chapter 20 treats of next to the last interview

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and parting of David and Jonathan, typical of Bro. Russell's and the most faithful nominal-church crown-lost brethren's next to the last interview and parting as to more or less Babylonian associations. David's subsequent oppositions from Saul, as typical of Bro. Russell's subsequent oppositions from the crown-lost leaders, are dealt with in the over five following chapters. The first two of these are connected with Saul's activities as to David and Ahimelech, with several small episodes interspersed. After Bro. Russell had parted with the most faithful, consecrated crown-losers in the nominal church, he, proceeding to still higher character development (Nob [height], v. 1), still had some contacts with crown-retainers there (David … Ahimelech); for many faithful brethren were still in Babylon, living in a high degree of character development. While severed from the other consecrated there, Bro. Russell fellowshipped with these there. These, not yet knowing of the break between antitypical Saul and David, noted that Bro. Russell was not accompanied by fellow nominal-church warriors as formerly, and were apprehensive of some danger (was afraid), and by their attitude, if not by word, inquired as to the reason for this. We are quite satisfied that our Pastor did not by word give them the thought that the crown-lost leaders had sent him on a secret mission, so secret that helpers from them were not to know of it until they would meet him in a certain sphere of activity (v. 2); rather our Pastor, not desiring to betray the real situation, lest injury would result, acted in such a way as these faithful priestly brethren yet in Babylon got such an impression. Bro. Russell, hungry for some part of the Word applicable to his experience, in his humility sought to get from these any Truth that they had, and therefore asked for it (give me … bread … present, v. 3). These did not have food for heart and mind really adapted to the unconsecrated (no common bread, v. 4); only such did they have as was really adapted to the consecrated

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 

(hallowed bread, shewbread), which, however, in the immature knowledge of these crown-retainers was by them thought to be able to do some good to unconsecrated ones who were living a justified life faithfully (men have kept … from women). Again, by his conduct, not by his words, Bro. Russell gave these guileless brethren the thought that his supposed companions were faithful justified ones (women … kept from us … I came out, v. 5), whose teachings (vessels) are true (holy). His conduct gave these guileless crown-retainers the thought that the pertinent food for heart and mind could be given to the supposed justified ones, since it was, for the most part, long known (in a manner common … [see margin] sanctified this day). 

(3) Then these crown-retainers, under the misimpression that he intended to give this Truth to merely justified ones, whereas he as a matter of fact desired it for himself, gave him whatever Truth they had, i.e., such things new and old as the Lord gives to every scribe instructed unto the kingdom, apart from their being mouthpiece priests. It was not wrong in the type to give this hallowed bread to David (Matt. 12:3-7), because, as Jesus indicates, he was hungry and, unless relieved, would have starved, and the moral law, that on mercy as superior to the typical law, superseded the latter in such a case of conflict between the two, as the higher displaces the lower law in case of conflict, e.g., obedience to God displaces that to parents and civil rulers, if their claims conflict. Moreover, David's anointing gave him a semi-priestly standing. Antitypically, of course, Bro. Russell was a priest, but not such as David's antitype, though as such he was semi-priestly in his function as executive and warrior. It is not so much David and Bro. Russell as Ahimelech and the involved crown-retainers that respectively had doubts as to the priestly standing of David and Bro. Russell respectively. Jesus justifying all concerned, we may be sure no wrong in the type nor antitype was done. The whole situation arose in type and antitype from the 

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priestly ones' making some mistaken surmises, led thereto by the course of David and Bro. Russell. That Bro. Russell would ask such above-mentioned scribes for their thoughts on matters not understood by him, is a matter of common knowledge to those close to him, e.g., Reprints, 4057, last par. Thus his asking these priestly brethren yet in Babylon such questions was in harmony with his character and custom. This type was fulfilled during the Laodicean period, for v. 6 indicates that the day of David's request was the seventh (Sabbath) day for the shewbread to be on the table and was thus to be displaced the next day by the bread baked the evening before. The seven days of the shew bread's being on the table of shewbread type the seven periods of the Gospel Age, the seventh being the Laodicean period. The bread's being taken away every seven days does not type that the Truth represented by it is past due, but that the antitype has come to its full at the end of the Epiphany. Thereafter the type is reenacted, to type again the Truth given during the Church's seven epochs, the same being repeated every seven days thereafter. Bro. Russell's being given some truths by these priestly brethren in Babylon was noted by the chief clergy and evangelists (Doeg [fearful] … chiefest of the herdmen … Saul, v. 7). Bro. Russell also asked these priestly brethren for arguments in book (spear, v. 8) or lecture form (sword) on the Word, Bro. Russell's modesty making it appear as though he lacked such arguments (brought my sword nor my weapons), his manner, not his words, indicating his errand required haste (business required haste). The only thing that they could offer was the arguments of facts (sword of Goliath, v. 9), since Evolution uses many facts in its arguments, whereby Bro. Russell refuted it. These facts were closely connected with the Covenant truths (wrapped … ephod). This these priests recommended to him, which he also accepted (none like that; give it me). As a result, next to Bible passages he used in argument facts to prove

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 

his points above all other probatory matters, e.g., in the sphere of the strong ones (valley of Elah [oak, strong]) he beheaded evolution with its facts (sword). 

(4) Bro. Russell now left the sphere of the so-called orthodox—evangelical—sects as a worker in their midst, when he severed himself as to fellowshipping with the priests there (arose and fled that day, v. 10), to escape from persecuting crown-lost leaders (fear of Saul), and for a while more or less mingled with the so-called liberals among the less orthodox sects, like the Unitarians and Universalists, Adventists, Christians and Baptists (went to Achish [serpent] … Gath [winepress]). He could do this conscientiously, because in some doctrines he could in general agree with them, e.g., in their anti-eternal-tormentism, anti-immortalism, anti-trinitarianism, anti-no-future-probationism, anti-creedism, anti-pedobaptism, etc. But in each of these denominations the leaders (servants of Achish, v. 11) faulted him, as orthodoxy's chief warrior (David, king of the land), as holding views akin to some orthodox-evangelical views, which had made him temporarily more praised in orthodox circles than the crown-lost leaders themselves (sing … Saul … thousands and David his ten thousands), doctrines like the fall of man, the ransom, the eternal punishment (not torment) of the incorrigible, the Bible as the sole source of faith and practice, Christ's pre-existence, etc. Bro. Russell meditated on these objections to him (laid up … heart, v. 12); and he became very cautious (sore afraid) as to his contacts with liberal sectarianism (Achish). This caused him to change his course toward such sectarians (changed … before them, v. 13) and to make himself appear stupid in their power (mad in their hands), by writing apparently unsuitable things as to their workers (scrabbled [scribbled] … gate), and by presenting what seemed to them contradictions, i.e., one set of Truth teachings that seemed to them inharmonious with another set of Truth teachings (spittle [teachings] … beard [teachings]), e.g., saved

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by faith without works, saved by faith and works; salvation of justification, salvation of sanctification; earthly salvation, heavenly salvation; trial of the Worthies in this life, and in the next life; election and free grace; destruction and eternity of the heavens and earth; hell destroyed, yet eternal, etc. This prompted liberal, unorthodox sectarianism (Achish, v. 14) in some of its representatives to tell those of its representatives that had sought to win our Pastor for their ranks to take note that Bro. Russell was idiotic (lo … mad) and to reproach them for seeking unreasoningly to win him for liberal unorthodoxy (wherefore … brought). It recognized that it had an abundance of stupid ones (need; literally, lack, v. 15) without any more added thereto (brought … mad … presence). It refused him as a servant (come into my house). 

(5) Recognizing that there was no welcome to him in liberal, unorthodox sectarianism, Bro. Russell left its association (departed thence, 1 Sam. 22:1) and took refuge (escaped) in his real hiding place, the Truth (cave) due in the Laodicean (Hebrew, Adullam = Greek, Laodicea, justice for the people) period, and that in its Parousia features. To this same refuge God's people (brethren … father's house), when they came to understand (heard) it, went, joining him there. To him were gathered into the Truth every one oppressed (distressed, literally, oppressed, v. 2) by Babylon, every one who was consecrated (in debt; literally, had a creditor, i.e., God, to whom he owed the payment of his consecration vows) and every one who was distressed (discontented, literally, heavy of soul, Ezek. 9:4) by Babylon's evils of doctrine and practice. These—the Truth people as Truth warriors—already early in the Harvest accepted him as their leader (captain, literally, prince, leader). They were a tried and tested band of warriors (400, a combination by multiplication of 40 and 10, the number 40 implying their tried condition, and the number 10 showing that they consisted, for the most part, of members of classes lower than

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


the Divine class). At this period they were especially fighting for truths contained in Vol. I. Shortly afterward Bro. Russell's studies (Mizpah, watch tower, v. 3) and work took him into the realm of labor, as distinct from that of the nominal church (Moab, distinct from Israel). His handling of the questions affecting the relations of labor to capital, as can be seen in Vol. IV, was so sober and winsome to labor that his pertinent discussions were his request made to labor leaders (king of Moab) that the Lord's people (my father) and the Truth (my mother) might in certain respects and for a Divinely set time be associated with the cause of labor (come forth, literally, go forth, with you), until God would indicate otherwise (God will do for me). He introduced them to these labor leaders (brought … king, v. 4), who gave them welcome in their midst, among other ways, by accepting Vol. IV as one of the books used in their course of study; and certainly during the Parousia the laboring classes, especially the Trade-unionists and Socialists, were friendly to the Truth people (dwelt with him) as to the subjects treated in Vol. IV (David in the hold). 

(6) The company (Gad [company], v. 5) of leaders who were by God given special light on prophetic and typico-prophetic Scriptures, among whom were the six mightiest of antitypical David's warriors as pilgrims (prophet), suggested that Bro. Russell should not make the subjects of Vol. IV, which are mainly secular, his main propaganda (abide not in the hold), but mainly to stress the religious features of the Truth (land of Judah). This suggestion was accepted by Bro. Russell, who, it will be recalled, thereupon exhorted the brethren not to discuss, particularly with the public, nor with one another, the day of vengeance, but the Kingdom, which he also practiced (David departed), stressing matters pertinent to the Church and the restitutionists (forest [many trees] of Hareth, thicket, or thick, i.e., very many great ones). The knowledge (discovered, v. 6) that Bro. Russell and his leading 

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supporters were discussing such subjects was given the crown-lost leaders (Saul heard). At this time the crown-lost leaders were discussing (abode) the Church as the Kingdom (Gibeah, hill, height), and that as a part of a company or class (tree) of writers and speakers on consecrated living (in Ramah), e.g., D.L. Moody, F.B. Meyers, Major Whittle, Pastor Wagner, Arthur T. Pierson, A.J. Gordon, Andrew Murray, etc. They treated the pertinent subjects in more or less controversial writings (spear) and they were surrounded by many warrior supporters, especially less prominent evangelists and the lower clergy (servants about him). The crown-lost leaders called for the particular attention of such warrior supporters (Saul said … hear now, ye Benjamites, v. 7), asking them whether Bro. Russell (son of Jesse, gift) would (literally, does) give all of them spheres of service and profit (fields and vineyards) and high positions among his warriors (captains … captains), as the crown-lost leaders had done to them, thus influencing all of them to conspire (conspired, v. 8) against them, and hiding from them the fact that antitypical Jonathan, their favorite adherents, were joined in an alliance with Bro. Russell (my son … league … Jesse) and that antitypical Jonathan was arousing him to seek their injury (stirred … to lie in wait). Under antitypical Saul's accusations, the leaders of the clergy and of the evangelists (Doeg … over the servants, herdmen, 21:7, v. 9) betrayed to the crown-lost leaders the fact that they had witnessed Bro. Russell's fellowshipping in character development (Nob) with the faithful and good priests (son of Ahitub, brother of goodness) in Babylon, and obtaining from them spiritual food and argumentative facts and Divine response to his questions (v. 10). 

(7) The crown-lost leaders sent for these faithful and good priests, as a class and individually, who were yet in Babylon (the king sent … priest … priests, v. 11), to demand an accounting of their alleged treachery. They gave their attention to his call (they all

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


came). Then the crown-lost leaders proceeded to bring their charge (hear now, v. 12), to which the good priests gave attention (answered, Here I am). The crown-lost leaders, instead of asking them if they were guilty of conspiring with Bro. Russell against antitypical Saul, assumed their guilt and asked them why they had been guilty of it (Why have ye conspired … rise against me, to lie in wait, as at this day? v. 13). Of course, the acts (given him bread and a sword and hast enquired) complained of were not parts of a conspiracy against antitypical Saul, whose melancholy mind had merely imagined them to be such. The astonished priests, knowing Bro. Russell's loyalty to the crown-lost leaders, first defended him against such a charge, showing that he was a better supporter of antitypical Saul than any of his other supporters (who is so faithful … as David, v. 14), was very close of kin to him (son-in-law), obediently gave up his preferences for those of antitypical Saul (goeth at thy bidding) and is famous among his servants (honorable in thy house). They then defended themselves against the charges, asserting that they had long before the time in question sought out the Lord's mind for him (then begin to enquire, v. 15), claiming innocence of the charges (be it far from me), asking the crown-lost princes not to consider (not … impute) them (servant) as a class or individually (house of my father) guilty of disloyalty, and pleading ignorance of all the things charged (servant knew nothing of all this). But the prejudiced crown-lost leaders unjustly pronounced the sentence of disfellowshipment on the whole priesthood in Babylon who favored Bro. Russell (Thou shalt surely die … and all thy father's house, v. 16), urging all the subordinate clergy and evangelists and the principals of the flock to demote, snub, ignore, i.e., disfellowship them (footmen … slay the priests, v. 17), repeating to them their false charges (with David … knew … not shew it). These subordinate clergy, evangelists and the principals of the flock, 

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knowing the Christian character of these priests, refused to disfellowship them (would not). Then antitypical Saul charged the chief clergy and evangelists (said to Doeg, v. 18) to disfellowship them (fall upon the priests). These did so (slew … four score and five … linen ephod), disfellowshipping in Babylon these priestly sympathizers with Bro. Russell, where they gradually created such an atmosphere as cut off from its fellowship all priestly sympathizers with Bro. Russell, driving out every vestige of everything savoring of "Russellism," i.e., all persons or things belonging to or holding with these priests (men, the stronger ones; women, the weaker ones; children, less developed ones; sucklings, least developed ones; oxen, rules; asses, teachings; and sheep, their human all, v. 19). This they did by their hostile discourses (edge of the sword); and by their accompanying acts they cut them off from their spheres of service in Babylon. 

(8) Among these priests was a class (Abiathar, father of abundance, v. 20) that would not put up with the condition of disfellowshipment that the leading clergy created in Babylon against the good and faithful priests. They left (escaped) Babylon and came into the Parousia Truth, a thing that progressed from about 1881 to the end of the Parousia (fled after David). These gave a full account of antitypical Saul's causing the priests in Babylon to be demoted, to be given the cold shoulder and to be ignored, i.e., disfellowshipped (v. 21). Bro. Russell assured these come-outers (David said unto Abiathar, v. 22) that he knew at the time (I knew it that day) that the leading clergy and evangelists, who observed the priestly brethren in Babylon fellowshipping and serving him, would betray the fact to antitypical Saul; for he knew that the nominalistic (Edomite, red) leading clergy and evangelists, out of their sectarian fear (Doeg, fear) of losing influence, numbers and support were opposed to him, and would seek to curb his influence in Babylon. Bro. Russell recognized that he was the indirect cause

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


(occasioned) of these dear priestly brethrens' being in Babylon demoted, snubbed and ignored—disfellowshipped (death … father's house). He then kindly invited these come-outers to be of good courage (fear not, v. 23) and to remain in fellowship with him in the study, spread and practice of the Truth and in the faithful endurance of the incidental experiences (abide thou with me). He assured them that they and himself were the common objects of the symbolic murderous purposes of antitypical Saul, who sought, not only their disfellowshipment, but also their refutation as to matters of teaching and practice (seeketh my life seeketh thy life). He further assured them that he would consider them his charge (safeguard, literally, a charge) and would faithfully treat them as such a charge, i.e., provide for them, safeguard them and help them onward in the Lord's service. 

(9) During the earlier part of the Harvest not a few of Bro. Russell's Truth defenses against error were composed in the form of questions and answers (Keilah, sling), e.g., he refuted evolution by this method of argumentation, David's slaying Goliath with a sling. Many questions were then being discussed, e.g., Why evil is permitted? Will there be future probation? How harmonize election and free grace? Is the Bible inspired? What is the punishment of sin? What is the state of the dead? What becomes of dead infants, the heathen, the unjustified in Christendom? etc.? etc.? Bro. Russell was by various people and by these discussions informed (they told David, 1 Sam. 23:1) that liberal sectarians (Philistines) were in their controversies with the "orthodox" giving wrong answers to these questions, and that these wrong answers were gaining ground and winning adherents amid the sifting condition in Babylon (rob the threshing floors). Desiring to learn the Lord's will as to whether he should enter this controversy, he sought it from the Lord's Word, Spirit and providences (enquired … Shall … smite these Philistines, v. 2). God answered

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that by right answers to these questions He would deliver those occupied therewith out of the clutches of the sectarian errorists (smite … save Keilah). Some of Bro. Russell's co-warriors objected, realizing that, as they were not safe from the "orthodox" in the chief sphere of the Truth (afraid here in Judah, v. 3), much less would they be safe if they would battle against the disciplined, liberal sectarian controversialists (much more … against the armies, literally, ranks, of the Philistines). This caused Bro. Russell to study God's Spirit, Word and providences for more positive indications (David enquired … again, v. 4); and he received full assurance that it was the Lord's will for him to enter this controversy, and that he would be victorious therein (go down … I will deliver … into thine hand). Thus assured, Bro. Russell and his co-warriors entered into the pertinent controversy (went, v. 5), captured many of the adherents of the liberal sectarians (brought … cattle), soundly refuted them in their answers to the above and other questions (smote … great slaughter), and rescued many occupied with these questions, and oppressed by the liberal sectarians' arguments (saved … Keilah). It was especially in connection with these controversies that the antitypical Abiathar section of the priests in Babylon (Abiathar, v. 6) became come-outers (fled to David). The last clause of v. 6 had better be translated as follows: He came down to Keilah [with] an ephod in his hand. The antitypical Abiathar was, therefore, in his kingdom-instructed scribes, especially the six brothers alluded to above, a class that knew how to get responses from the Lord (ephod in his hand). 

(10) Bro. Russell's controversies against the liberal sectarians' contentions became known to the crown-lost leaders (was told Saul … to Keilah, v. 7), who thought that on these points the Lord would enable them to make Bro. Russell a captive, by putting him into such straits of argument as he would be unable to answer (delivered into my hand), thinking that he was 

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


compelled to be restrained by the views of those among whom he was then working (shut in … gates and bars)—a miscalculation on their part. Hence they called upon all their co-warriors (called all the people, v. 8) to controvert Bro. Russell and his co-warriors on the pertinent questions (war … Keilah) to restrain them by their arguments (besiege David and his men). Bro. Russell knew that the crown-lost leaders sought, secretly planned, to injure him (David knew … practiced mischief, v. 9); for he knew that his and their answers to the involved questions disagreed, and that they sought to answer his arguments. Therefore, Bro. Russell as a part of antitypical Abiathar asked himself and the other involved brethren (Abiathar) to bring the means whereby the Divine responses were given, i.e., God's Spirit, Word and providences, to him, that the Lord's mind on the matter might be learned (bring hither the ephod). Bro. Russell earnestly prayed to the Lord for pertinent information (Lord, v. 10). He told the Lord that he was a servant of His (Thy servant), that his information as to the crown-lost leaders was true (certainly heard), that their intentions were evil (seeketh … to destroy the city), and that on his account (for my sake). Then he asked whether his beneficiaries (men, literally, lords, i.e., leaders, of Keilah, v. 11) would betray him to the crown-lost leaders (deliver me up into his hand). Further, he asked whether the crown-lost leaders (Saul) would enter the surmised controversy against him (come down), as he had been informed (as … heard). Then most humbly and earnestly he pleaded for an answer (Lord … tell Thy servant). The answer was given to the second question (will come down). It not being answered at the first response, the first question was repeated (men of Keilah deliver … Saul? v. 12). The Lord's Spirit, Word and providences gave an affirmative answer (they will). Thus Bro. Russell, like many another servant of God, learned that some of his beneficiaries were ungrateful, unfaithful and treacherous. 

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By this time Bro. Russell's co-warriors had developed from the symbolic 400 to the symbolic 600 (600, v. 13, = 10 x 10 x 6, indicating that the majority of them were crown-losers, 10 x 10, and more or less evil, 6, as the Parousia and Epiphany siftings prove, e.g., the many pilgrims and elders who have become sifters or have been manifested as unclean Levites). By the arguments that they used against the crown-lost leaders' points they escaped the latters' fell intentions (arose and departed from Keilah), taking up other subjects as they desired (went … go, literally, made themselves go where they made themselves go, i.e., went where they desired to go,—a Hebraism, like, "I am that I am," i.e., I am what I desire to be—the One who is perfect in wisdom, justice, love and power). This course of Bro. Russell and his co-warriors, becoming known to the crown-lost leaders (told Saul), nonplussed them; and they desisted from their intentions (forbare to go forth). 

(11) Bro. Russell abode in the wilderness condition, apart from the symbolic city, Babylon, occupying himself with the strong teachings of God's Word (strong holds, v. 14), especially the following: God, Christ, the Holy Spirit, Creation, Covenants, the Curse, the Ransom, High Calling, Restitution and Eternal Rewards and Punishments. He continued to remain in the teaching on the true Church as God's embryo Kingdom (in [the] mountain) in the wilderness condition, in which also the sifters (Ziph [flowing, unstable]) abode, the crown-lost leaders all the time seeking to convict him of error (Saul … every day), but God gave him the needed Truth, whereby he avoided such convicting (God … not into his hand). He recognized (David saw, v. 15) that the crown-lost leaders sought to undo him as a teacher of God's Word (Saul … seek his life), while he was in a wilderness condition, engaged with the sifting leaders (wilderness of Ziph in a wood). During such periods the most faithful of the crown-losers in the nominal church 

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


(Jonathan, v. 16) resorted to Bro. Russell (went to David), and encouraged and confirmed him in the Lord (strengthened his hand in God), assuring him that he had nothing to fear (Fear not, v. 17), that the crown-lost leaders would not get power over him (hand … not find thee), that he would gain the free exercise of his power as executive (shalt be king), that they would second, i.e., support, him in all things (next [literally, a second] unto thee), and that, finally, the crown-lost leaders knew these things (Saul … knoweth). Bro. Russell and antitypical Jonathan came to a solemn, Divinely-noted understanding on these matters (they … covenant before the Lord, v. 18). Thereafter Bro. Russell continued his activity among the sifting leaders (abode in the wood) and antitypical Jonathan, in the nominal church (Jonathan … house). 

(12) Sifters and siftlings (Ziphites, v. 19) are treacherous; and these in their treachery sought to betray Bro. Russell to the crown-lost leaders (came … Saul) as these were occupied with problems in the nominal kingdom (Gibeah [hill, height]), telling them that he was occupying and securing himself in his special doctrines (hide … in strong holds), where the sifters and siftlings were also active (with us … in the wood), especially occupying himself with the subjects of the death state and the wages of sin (hill of Hachilah, dark), in the proper wilderness condition (south [literally, right hand] of Jeshimon, desert). Therefore they encouraged the crown-lost leaders to meet Bro. Russell in controversy on these subjects (come down, v. 20), as they longed to make him captive in controversy (desire of thy soul to come down), promising to refute him for them (our part … deliver him … hand). The assurances of these traitors, who personally and in print gave such assurances to the crown-lost leaders, comforted these distracted ones (blessed … compassion on me, v. 21). But these crown-lost leaders by now having learned their impotency in argument with Bro. Russell, urged them to do 

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more preparatory study of the involved questions (go … prepare yet [further], v. 22), to delve deeper into Bro. Russell's positions on the involved questions (know and see … his haunt), and to be sure to find out who sees clearly and unmistakably his position as refutable (who hath seen him there); for he is reported to be very resourceful in argument (he dealeth very subtilely). Knowing from their own experience the great ability of Bro. Russell in argument, they again strongly advised the sifters and siftlings to post themselves thoroughly on his defensive and offensive points in the involved questions (see … take knowledge … lurking places … hideth, v. 23) and to return to them when they were sure (certainty, literally, with the preparation) of their mastery of the involved questions, promising their support thereafter (I will go with you) and their thorough study of these questions, if he holds them (in the land … search him out), in every religious thought (throughout … Judah). 

(13) Thus instructed and encouraged, these traitors betook themselves on their errand of treachery (went to Ziph, v. 24) ahead of the crown-lost leaders. During this time Bro. Russell and his co-warriors (David and his men) occupied the secure, isolated condition of Bible Truth (wilderness of Maon, dwelling), holding the right position in that desolate condition (plain on the south [literally, on the right] of Jeshimon, desert). While the traitors were engaged in this deeper study of Bro. Russell's position, the crown-lost leaders and their co-warriors did the same thing (Saul … to seek, v. 25). Bro. Russell was informed of their activities by leaks that came to him from their circles; and he, therefore, betook himself to a deeper study of the pertinent Truth (he came down to a [literally, the] rock) of the Bible (Maon), in a condition of isolation from Babylon (wilderness). The crown-lost leaders, finding this out (Saul heard), sought to enter into controversy with him (pursued after David) in his isolated condition of Bible Truth (wilderness of Maon). 

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


The crown-lost leaders occupied one position as to the realm of the dead and punishment of sin (Saul … this side of the mountain [Hachilah, dark], v. 26) and Bro. Russell and his co-warriors the opposite position (David … that side of the mountain). Bro. Russell was energetic to avoid being refuted in the debate (David made haste to get away), cautious as to the crown-lost leaders' superiority in learning (for fear of Saul); for the crown-lost leaders and their co-warriors were seeking to put Bro. Russell and his co-warriors to a disadvantage in the controversy (Saul … compassed [literally, were making a ring, i.e., were seeking to encircle] David and his men), in a strong effort to overthrow their position (to take them). In this controversy the crown-lost leaders maintained the doctrines of human immortality and eternal torment, and thought they would surely win the controversy, but a sectarian invasion from their side setting in, messengers announced it to the crown-lost leaders (a messenger to Saul, v. 27); for many nominal-church teachers (Philistines) began to teach "conditional immortality" and hell as composed of two departments, a paradise of bliss for the righteous and a tartarus of woe for the wicked. This was for the crown-lost leaders a most inopportune thing at the stage of the controversy between them and their co-warriors and Bro. Russell and his co-warriors at that time. The bearers of this message were most importunate that Saul should leave off his controversy with the Truth people, and come to the defense of his own sphere of teaching (Haste thee and come), which was being attacked from a side nearer to them than was that of Bro. Russell and his co-warriors (Philistines have invaded the land). They had to give up the debate with Bro. Russell and his co-warriors (Saul returned from pursuing after David, v. 28) to fight the antitypical Philistines on the involved questions (went against the Philistines). Thus the questions of the death state and the wages of sin became a teaching (Sela [rock]) 

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occasioning the rise of various schools of thought as divisions (hammahlekoth [divisions]). 

(14) In addition to having controversies with antitypical Saul on the death state and the wages of sin, Bro. Russell also had controversies with them on the Church's share in the Sin-offering (David went … dwelt … at En-gedi [fountain (Truth-source) of the kid: Church as Sin-offering—the Lord's Goat], v. 29). After measuring swords with the sectarians (was returned … Philistines, 1 Sam. 24:1), antitypical Saul learned of Bro. Russell's wilderness teachings on the Church as one of the two Sin-offerings (told … David … in the wilderness of En-gedi). Whereas in his other controversies with Bro. Russell antitypical Saul accepted any one as a co-warrior, he recognized that the doctrine of the Church as one of the two Sin-offerings was too deep for the generality of his warriors, calling, as it did, for his experts alone as participants therein (Saul took 3,000 chosen men out of all Israel, v. 2), and with these he took issue with Bro. Russell, not only on the teaching of the Church, but also on the teaching of the Great Company as sharing in atoning for sin, which to them appeared to be a wild view (went to seek David … rocks of the wild goats). This controversy began about 1880 and lasted to the end of the Harvest, being particularly strong from 1908 to 1911. Antitypical Saul pressed the fight into Truth circles (came to the sheepcotes [folds] by the way, v. 3). The sphere of these two doctrines was a secret condition reserved for new creatures' uses only (a cave); and antitypical Saul, wearied with his journey, as a new creature could and did enter it mentally to seek some rest for his heart qualities (cover, literally, rest his feet), as also Bro. Russell and his new-creaturely co-warriors were there mentally (David … in … cave). In spiritual matters Bro. Russell was far superior to antitypical Saul (sides of the cave), who, therefore, in such a sphere was at a great disadvantage, as the sequel of the type represents; for be it remembered

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


that Bro. Russell did not discuss before the public the atoning work of the Church and the Great Company, these being matters for new creatures' study only (cave). But some of his co-warriors (men of David, v. 4), not appreciating the reason for Bro. Russell's pertinent course, desired him, especially from 1908 to 1911 (Behold the day), to refute (do to him as … good) antitypical Saul before the public on these two doctrines, as to which God had put antitypical Saul into Bro. Russell's power (deliver thine enemy into thine hand). But Bro. Russell, while treating these questions in great detail controversially among Truth people, would not for practical reasons, e.g., their inavailability and too great depth, treat them controversially before the public. Therefore, only before Truth people (privily) did Bro. Russell take away antitypical Saul's authority as a teacher (cut off the skirt of Saul's robe), refuting before them his pertinent points. 

(15) But even this mild refutation of the crown-lost leaders hurt Bro. Russell's feelings (David's heart smote him, v. 5). His pain of heart he revealed to his co-warriors (said unto his men, v. 6), as felt for an act that he feared was not pleasing to the Lord (The Lord forbid). We rather think that our dear Bro. Russell was too sensitive in this matter; for the Lord evidently approved of his defending, kindly, the Truth against its attackers, whoever they were (stretch forth mine hand); and in this case his defense of it was kind and considerate, yea, even most generous. However, his loving heart, that considered the crown-lost leaders not only as brethren, but as those once qualified by God to defend and lead antitypical Israel (the anointed of the Lord), hurt him at the necessity of doing what he did. Doubtless all of us have been placed in similar positions, where we were much pained at our having to refute erring brethren whom we loved. We felt this deeply at our encounter with M. L. McPhail before the Chicago Church, especially before about 75 of them in a more private way, a thing that in love for him we

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sought, but in vain, to avoid. Bro. Russell's course required much persuasion on his part to satisfy his co-warriors with his sparing the crown-lost leaders (David stayed his servants with these words, literally, persuaded his men with words, v. 7), and thus prevented them from publicly refuting antitypical Saul, which they desired to do (suffered them not to rise against Saul). Not realizing that they were privately refuted, nor that it was desired to be done before the world, the crown-lost leaders in thought left the sphere of new-creaturely privileges (Saul rose up out of the cave) and went about their ordinary ecclesiastical pursuits (went on his way). Bro. Russell betook himself to commune with the crown-lost leaders on their relations (David also … went out of the cave, v. 8). He sought to attract their attention (cried after Saul), doing it in his writings, perhaps conversationally with some, in a very polite and respectful manner (saying, My Lord the king). This attracted their attention (Saul looked behind him). Then Bro. Russell acted still more respectfully toward the crown-lost leaders (David stooped … and bowed). He showed that they should not believe the slanderers who falsely accused him as seeking to injure the crown-lost leaders (Wherefore … words … David seeketh thy hurt? v. 9). This was tactful; for in truth he could have blamed antitypical Saul for starting, and then encouraging others to make such accusations. Then he gave ocular and unanswerable proof (this day thine eyes have seen, v. 10) to antitypical Saul that he intended him no harm, by appealing to the fact that he withheld his refutations of his pertinent views (though urged so to do by not a few) from the public, before whom they would have overthrown his influence (kill thee) on the subject, had he, as he could have done in God's providence (Lord delivered … mine hand), published his refutations widely among the public, which he refused to do (will not put forth mine hand against my lord), because he considered and respected their office toward

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


antitypical Israel (the Lord's anointed). Then he showed them very filially (my father, v. 11) the pertinent refutation that took away their authority as Truth people teachers (the skirt of thy robe in my hand). 

(16) This refutation, he declared, was made under circumstances that proved that he could have refuted him before the whole nominal church on this subject, and thus have taken away all of his authority (robe) as a teacher on the subject before the nominal church, but he deliberately refused so to do. This was sure evidence that he was not guilty of evil or lawlessness, nor had he sinned against the crown-lost leaders (evil nor transgression … not sinned against thee). Despite this harmless and kind spirit, antitypical Saul sought to destroy Bro. Russell's authority as a teacher, by continually opening up controversies against him (huntest my soul to take it). He then showed that he left the matter at issue between them to the Lord's decision (Lord judge … thee, v. 12), confident that the Lord would vindicate him as against antitypical Saul (avenge, rather, vindicate, justify, me of thee), and determined not to wreak vengeance upon them (mine hand … upon thee). He quoted Scripture in proof that the wicked did wicked things (saith … ancients … wickedness … wicked, v. 13), and showed himself not to be wicked, by his not taking revenge (hand … upon thee). Next he showed himself as a negligible one (dead dog, v. 14) and as one small in his own esteem (flea), in contrast with antitypical Saul (king of Israel). In view of such a contrast he wished that God would judge (Lord … judge, v. 15) between the pursued and the pursuer, that He would recognize and undertake his cause (see and plead my cause) and thus execute a just decision out of their hand (deliver, literally, execute a decision, out of thy hand). This speech had a melting effect on antitypical Saul's hard heart, who, surprised at the moderation of Bro. Russell's thoughts and words, and overcome by his magnanimity and faith, inquired if this could indeed be Bro. 

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Russell's sentiments, whom demons made them think to be an heretic of an especially wicked heart (thy voice, my son David, v. 16). Then, realizing the contrast between their several courses, they were overcome with chagrin and sorrow (wept), confessing that Bro. Russell was more just and generous (more righteous, v. 17) than they (than I), acknowledging that he had rendered them good for their evil (thou good … I evil). 

(17) They confessed the good that he did them at that time (shewed … dealt well with me, v. 18) by not taking advantage of an opportunity that the Lord had made him, wherein revenge could have been, but was not taken (Lord had delivered me … thou killedst me not). They recognized that such a course was not the natural one for an enemy to take (find his enemy … go well away? v. 19). Then they prayed the Lord to reward him good for his goodness to them (reward thee good … hast done unto me). Moreover, they recognized that Bro. Russell had qualities that the Lord would surely reward with leadership of His people (thou shalt surely be king … of Israel, v. 20), and that the leadership would be firmly his (established in thine hand). In view of this conviction they desired solemn assurance (Swear … me by the Lord, v. 21) that Bro. Russell would not wreak vengeance on their followers (not cut off my seed after me) for the evil that they had done him, nor cause their reputation as an evil thing to be cast out of the Church (destroy my name … father's house). Bro. Russell gave them the pledge (David sware unto Saul, v. 22) and he kept it; for he always spoke kindly of, and dealt charitably with the crown-lost princes of the nominal church and their followers who had their spirit of begettal. Thereupon antitypical Saul ceased to attack Bro. Russell on the fact that both the Church's and the Great Company's sufferings were for sin atonement, and occupied themselves with the duties of their peculiar office (Saul went home), while Bro. Russell and his co-warriors betook themselves to the Word of God as their fortress 

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


(David … unto the hold). Here, doubtless because it fits into the account factually and appropriately, the statement of antitypical Samuel's death is inserted into the story (Samuel died, 1 Sam. 25:1). Thus is noted the passing away from the earth of the last members of the Philadelphia Church, especially their leaders, Bros. Geo. Storrs, G. W. Stetson, etc., who lived some time into the Laodicean period, having been accounted worthy to escape its special trials because of their Philadelphian faithfulness (Rev. 3:10). They were everywhere recognized as saintly Christians; and their passing away was honored by respectful grief, shown especially at their funeral and burial services (all Israel … lamented, and buried him), in the recognition of their high Christian characters (Ramah [height]). As a boy, who at that time lived at Edinboro, Pa., just a week past six years of age, it was the writer's privilege to attend Bro. Stetson's funeral, which our Pastor briefly described in Reprints, 46, and at which for the first time we saw our Pastor, who preached his funeral sermon. We definitely recall the high honor in which he was held and the deep mournful respect shown at his funeral. Little did we realize our future relations. 

(18) We pass by 1 Sam. 25:2-43 for the present, reserving its study for another time, since it has no immediate connection with the subject of this chapter. V. 44 shows how antitypical Saul saw to it that Bro. Russell was deprived of his office powers (Michal, brook, v. 44), i.e., an evangelistic ministry among the churches, and how he gave this power to hell-fire (Laish, raging) revivalist (Gallim, fountains) evangelists (Phalti, he delivers). 1 Sam. 26 in general types the renewed hostilities between antitypical Saul and Bro. Russell on the subject of the death state and the penalty of sin. Again the sifters and the siftlings (Ziphites [flowing, unstable], v. 1) went about their treacherous work against Bro. Russell for antitypical Saul (came unto Saul), as he was engaged in matters of the nominal church (Gibeah, height), assuring him 

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that Bro. Russell was taking refuge (hide himself) in teachings connected with the dark (Hachilah, dark, gloomy) realm [hell] of the dead, in his desert condition (Jeshimon, desert, waste). Accordingly, antitypical Saul reopened (arose and went down, v. 2) the pertinent controversy in the isolate condition (wilderness) of the sifters and siftlings (Ziph), taking with him in this controversy the ablest warriors on the pertinent subjects in the nominal church (3,000 chosen men of Israel with him), in an attempt to overthrow Bro. Russell as he was engaged with sifters in the wilderness condition (seek David in the wilderness of Ziph). Antitypical Saul took his controversial stand in the view of Babylon on the realm of the dead (pitched in the hill of Hachilah, v. 3), which was (on the way) against the most isolated condition for the Truth people (before Jeshimon). Bro. Russell was in the symbolic wilderness condition of isolation from the nominal church, Babylon, and saw that antitypical Saul was advancing to battle against him (saw that Saul came after him into the wilderness). This renewal of the fight along the lines of the death state and sin's penalty began, when Dr. E. L. Eaton, who was egged on by the Pittsburgh ministerial conference, challenged Bro. Russell to debate these and related subjects (he saw that Saul came after him) in the Spring of 1903, at Allegheny, Pa., and this controversy began to end about the beginning of 1914. The exhibition of the Photo-Drama seems to have been the beginning of the end of this battle. Bro. Russell sent brethren (sent out spies, v. 4) to be on the lookout to note every move of the crown-lost leaders looking in the way of entering into this battle; and from time to time he learned that they were intent thereon. Unknown to the crown-lost leaders, Bro. Russell got to learn all of antitypical Saul's arguments (place where Saul had pitched, v. 5) and saw through their whole position (beheld the place where Saul lay), as well as that of their champions (captain of his host), the theological professors and 

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


main authors (Abner, father of a lamp, i.e., light, the son of Ner, lamp). Antitypical Saul was unconscious of danger, but supposedly secure in his fortified position (lay in the trench), and his co-warriors were in battle array about him (pitched round about him). 

(19) Bro. Russell offered to either one of two co-warriors of his the privilege to volunteer for the opportunity of entering especially into this warfare with him: J. F. Rutherford, who had prepared a booklet on, The Divine Plan From A Lawyer's Standpoint (Ahimelech, brother of a king), and who was afraid to publish the booklet as a part of this battle (the Hittite, fear), and John Edgar, who later did not fear to publish a booklet on, Where Are The Dead? (Abishai, father of a gift), who was a sweet perfume to God (Zeruiah, fragrance of Jehovah), and who was not a regular pilgrim, but was one occasionally, hence a brother of these (Joab, Jehovah is father, who types the pilgrims as a whole). The latter accepted the chance to be Bro. Russell's special helper on this particular subject (I … with thee). Thus these two warriors entered the fray in cooperation as to the death state part of the conflict [David and Abishai came, v. 7; see 2 Sam. 23:18, 19; 1 Chro. 11:20, 21, for John Edgar's part, and compare it with 1 Chro. 11:11, where Bro. Russell is typed as performing a similar feat as to the death state question. The eternal torment part of the question was fought by Bro. Russell (2 Sam. 23:8), Bro. John Edgar not especially taking part therein]. They worked in some features of this matter in ways unknown to their enemies (to the people by night). In it they saw that the crown-lost leaders, while in fancied security in their arguments (trench), were oblivious to their danger (lay sleeping), with their controversial writings (spear) lying unsold on store shelves (stuck in the ground), undisturbed in their resting place (at his bolster). His co-warriors, from the theological professors and main controversial writers down to his least prominent 

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controversialist, were oblivious to their danger, and were not guarding antitypical Saul (Abner and the people lay round about him). John Edgar (Abishai, v. 8) recognized from this situation that God at that time had put inimical antitypical Saul into Bro. Russell's power (God … enemy into thine hand this day) and requested Bro. Russell to take up his booklet on, Where Are The Dead? and circulate it as volunteer matter, in full refutation of antitypical Saul before the public (let me smite him … with the spear … earth at once, literally, one time). He felt sure that a second blow would not be needed (not … second time). But Bro. Russell would not permit it to be circulated broadcast as volunteer matter (Destroy him not, v. 9), for Bro. Edgar's booklet was too trenchantly and detailedly written, in Bro. Russell's view, for volunteer matter, and therefore would not give it the wide circulation of volunteer tracts, since he thought it would be refuting antitypical Saul too destructively and detailedly, and thus wrongly, before the public, whose anointed they were (who … his hand … anointed, and be guiltless), Bro. Russell's thought being that the Lord was active in the matter (the Lord liveth [the word "as" according to the italics is interpolated here], v. 10), who would either Himself directly overthrow them (Lord shall smite him), or their influence would of itself die (day … to die), or he would be utterly refuted in controversy with others (into battle, and perish). 

(20) As for himself it was as from the Lord that he abhorred the thought of cutting antitypical Saul down from his office as being the Lord's qualified one to lead the nominal people of God (Lord forbid … mine hand against the Lord's anointed, v. 11). Instead, he would take a summary of the written views (spear) of antitypical Saul which were laid up largely uncirculated on store shelves, where they lay in fancied security (bolster), and whatever of pertinent Truth that their creeds contained (cruse of water), and leave them otherwise undisturbed (let us go). Then Bro. 

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


Russell, not Bro. Edgar, took these two things into his possession (took the spear … water from Saul's bolster, v. 12), by Bro. Russell's taking up and giving in a very mild manner as things in his control the pertinent views of the Romanist, Greek, Protestant and Liberal crown-lost leaders, in his tract on, Where Are The Dead? He thus captured and took away antitypical Saul's and their creeds' views on the subject (gat them away). So mildly and kindly did our Pastor in that tract treat of these matters that its effects for a while were neither perceived nor understood (saw, nor knew), nor was the antagonism of antitypical Saul and his co-warriors aroused against them (awaked), as, e.g., even the Romanists to this day on reading that tract are not only not aroused to angry strife, but are more or less thereby soothed, a fact that antitypical Gideon's Second Battle frequently brings to light (for they were all asleep). This peaceful effect (deep sleep) was a working of the gentle Spirit of the Lord that pervades that tract's treatment of their views (from the Lord was fallen upon them). After having taken from them and set forth their views in this winsome manner, Bro. Russell mentally proceeded (went over, v. 13) to discuss the Truth side (other side) of the doctrine of the realm of the dead, given in the Bible (stood … hill), which was in marked contrast (afar off) from the erroneous views set forth in the controversial writings of antitypical Saul and in their creeds. And certainly there was a great doctrinal difference between Bro. Russell's and their views (great space being between them). By the very widespread circulation of that tract, between 50,000,000 and 60,000,000 of them having been circulated, about 4,000,000 of these having been circulated during the Epiphany, Bro. Russell called to the advocates of the consciousness of the dead and eternal torment, especially to the theological professors and main controversial writers (cried to the people, and to Abner, v. 14), to give their belated answer to his presentation so long withheld

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(Answerest thou not, Abner?). Aroused, these asked as to who Bro. Russell was that he dared to presume to address controversially the great scholars who constituted antitypical Saul, even though doing it so mildly as he did (Who art thou that criest to the king?). Then Bro. Russell upbraided these theological professors and main controversial writers, whom he recognized to be able controversial theologians (Art thou not a valiant man? v. 15) who had no equals among God's nominal people (who is like to thee in Israel?), for not being vigilantly on guard over their crown-lost leaders, since one (one of the people) intent on refuting them before the whole world had been unobserved in their midst (there came … to destroy the king). 

(21) Furthermore, Bro. Russell told them that their lack of vigilance was a bad thing (This thing is not good, v. 16). Solemnly (as the Lord liveth) he told them that they deserved to be cut off from their varying positions as co-warriors of antitypical Saul (worthy to die), for letting their leaders and the leaders of God's nominal people be unguarded (not kept your master, the Lord's anointed). Then, to prove that they were unfaithful sentinels, he suggested that they find the whereabouts (see where) of antitypical Saul's pertinent controversial writings (king's spear) and creedal truths (cruse of water) that had once been where he could rest in security therewith (bolster). Being in Bro. Russell's possession in the above-named tract, as the tract itself proves, they were no more in antitypical Saul's possession. Looking into the tract carefully, antitypical Saul recognized (Saul knew, v. 17) that the teachings that they were reading were those of Bro. Russell (David's voice) and paternally asked whether the tract in its teachings was not Bro. Russell's (thy voice, my son David), which Bro. Russell very respectfully acknowledged (my voice, my lord, O king). Then Bro. Russell mildly asked them why they were so perseveringly persecuting him, their servant (Wherefore … thus pursue after his servant? v. 18), claiming that 

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


there was not any reason for it (what have I done?), much less that there was any evil in his works (what evil is in mine hand?). Then he respectfully called their attention particularly (I pray … hear … his servant, v. 19) to the fact that if the Lord had aroused antitypical Saul against him, he would accept Christ's merit to cover his fault, since it was not wilful (accept an offering), but if human beings were doing it (children of men), again a tactful statement of the conditions, for he knew that Saul was the human source of it, they are accursed (cursed be they before the Lord, literally, they are accursed before the Lord), because they were driving him out from living in the inheritance that the Lord had given His people—among other things, the fellowship of God's people (driven me out … inheritance of the Lord), and were in effect telling him to worship, among the heathen, other gods than Jehovah (saying, Go, serve other gods). Therefore antitypical Saul, he entreated, should not allow him to be cut off from among God's people in contravention of the Lord's Word (let not my blood fall … before … the Lord, v. 20); for it was quite unfitting that the great crown-lost princes should wage war (king of Israel is come out to seek) on an almost nothing (flea), even as unfitting as it would be to hunt a nothing in kingdoms (a partridge in the mountains). 

(22) Bro. Russell's magnanimity and speech touched the heart of antitypical Saul, and led him to repentance and confession of his wrong, foolish and erroneous doings (I have sinned … played the fool … erred exceedingly, v. 21). They paternally sought his return to their service as formerly (return, my son David). They promised no more to act injuriously toward him (no more do thee harm), since they recognized that he had been repeatedly magnanimous and forgiving to them, despite naturally very exasperating conduct on their part toward him (my soul was precious in thine eyes this day). Bro. Russell responded with combined wisdom, magnanimity, showing how indeed he was the 

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captor of antitypical Saul's pertinent controversial writings (Behold the king's spear! v. 22). Then he proved that though victor in the controversy he was willing to give it up, and to let the crown-lost leaders keep their own points, which he would refrain from further refuting (let one … fetch it). He was willing to submit to God's ways of dealing out to each one according to the deeds of each (Lord render … his righteousness and his faithfulness, v. 23), even as he that day had proved this willingness by not taking advantage (not stretch forth mine hand) of a providential opportunity (the Lord delivered thee) to avenge himself on antitypical Saul, the Divinely appointed leader of God's nominal people (against the Lord's anointed). He further desired that the Lord would regard and deal with his life (my life … in the eyes of the Lord, v. 24) as he had that day regarded and dealt with antitypical Saul's life (thy life … in mine eyes). Then he expressed the wish that the Lord would deliver him as a New Creature out of all trials as more than a conqueror (deliver me out of all tribulation). Thereupon antitypical Saul expressed his paternal good wishes for Bro. Russell (Blessed be thou, my son David, v. 25) and expressed his confidence in his doing future great deeds (shalt both do great things) and achieving success (shalt still prevail). Both then went about their respective missions (David went on his way, and Saul returned to his place). Thus ended their pertinent conflicts about the beginning of 1914. 

(23) But antitypical Saul's undependability, well known by Bro. Russell, made him distrust his future good behavior toward him (David said … perish … Saul, 1 Sam. 27:1) and he resolved to approach the sectarian public (escape … Philistines) by a more modern and liberal way, i.e., the Photo-Drama, so that antitypical Saul would give up opposing him, if he used methods hitherto not used by him among the nominal people of God (Saul shall despair … seek me any more in … Israel). Accordingly, in Jan., 1914, he, in 

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


cooperation with his co-warriors, launched the Photo-Drama in the domain of liberal sectarianism (David … with 600 men … unto Achish, serpent, the son of Maoch, oppressor, king of Gath, winepress, v. 2). Here these labored (David dwelt with Achish, v. 3), each one in his office (every man with his household), Bro. Russell as leader of his two American corporations: the P.P. Association (Ahinoam, my brother is pleasant, in allusion to the pilgrims, who alone belonged to the P.P.A., as being well pleased with Bro. Russell's affability, the Jezreelitess, God will sow, i.e., the Word by the pilgrims' ministry) and the W.T.B. & T. Society (Abigail, father of exultation, in allusion to the joy that the Society under Bro. Russell spread, the Carmelitess, fruitful garden, Nabal's, simpleton, in allusion to the vain purposes of six members of the Society before it was incorporated who vainly imagined that they could control it as against Bro. Russell, and who as a consequence were put aside individually as their folly appeared, wife). Antitypical Saul was apprised of Bro. Russell's Photo-Drama work, but refrained from persecuting him in it (v. 4). While Bro. Russell was thus brought into closer contact (have now found grace in thine eyes, v. 5) than formerly with liberal sectarianism, he saw no reason to be on too intimate terms with it, as exhibiting the Photo-Drama in its churches would have made him (why … servant dwell in the royal city with thee?). Therefore, by his acts, he asked a less intimate condition with it (give me … some town in the country … dwell there). Therefore liberal sectarianism was agreeable to his exhibiting the Photo-Drama in public auditoriums, opera houses and theatres (Achish gave him Ziklag, boggy, v. 6), which were considered in nominal-church circles not very desirable, boggy, for religious meetings. Henceforth such places of exhibit were considered the proper place for it (Ziklag … kings … day). Here end David's later oppositions from Saul—type and antitype; and surely we will all recognize that

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we have in the chapters so far studied on David (16:127:6) a remarkable and factual picture of Bro. Russell's activities in relation to the crown-lost leaders. While David's further history did not bring them into personal contact any more, yet it will show Bro. Russell in distant relations to them in their later calamitous experiences, which with 1 Sam. 25:2-43 will, D. v., be the subject of the next chapter. 


(1) What pertinent subject was studied last October? What is the subject of this October's memorial study? What two things have some of our past pertinent studies given us? What is to be hoped thereon in some of our future studies? What is expected in this connection? How will they have to be composed? Why so? How will this reason affect others of our studies? Why? What parts of 1 Sam. will be studied here? How? Why? 

(2) Of what does 1 Sam. 20 treat, type and antitype? With how much of 1 Sam. will our study deal? Of what do the first two of these treat? After parting with antitypical Jonathan, with whom in Babylon did Bro. Russell have contact? How typed? How was this possible? What did Bro. Russell do with these? Under what conditions? Of what were these priests ignorant? What did they note? How are these things typed? How did their fear prompt them to act? How typed? How did not, and how did our Pastor answer? How typed? What was the answer? How typed? For what did he ask? How typed? What did these priests lack? How typed? How did they feel as to the request? How typed? How and what did Bro. Russell answer? How typed? What seems to have justified this answer? How typed? 

(3) Under what impression did they act? What did they do? How typed? What did they give? How typed? Why was it not in principle wrong to give the typically hallowed bread to David? For what other reason was it also not wrong? With Bro. Russell how did the case stand? Who had and who had not the doubts respectively? What effect on our pertinent opinion should Jesus' pertinent thought have? How in the type and antitype did the whole situation arise? What parallel acts prove that Bro. Russell would ask kingdom-instructed scribes for spiritual food? Who know this? In harmony with what was such a course? When was the antitype fulfilled?

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


How is this typed? What is the antitype? What is not, and what is typed by the bread's being removed after the seventh day? Its being replaced on the first day? Who noted Bro. Russell's being given some truths by the involved priests? How typed? For what else did he ask these priestly brethren? How typed? How did his modesty make him appear? How typed? What did his manner, not words, indicate? How typed? What was offered, type and antitype? Why in the antitype? With what were these arguments closely connected? How typed? What did he say of, and do with them? How typed? What kind of use comparatively did he make of facts in argument? How typed? What shows this? How typed? 

(4) What did Bro. Russell thereupon do? How typed? Why? How typed? With whom did he thereafter mingle? How typed? How could he do this conscientiously? What examples prove this? How did the leaders of such denominations react to his mingling among them? How typed? What are some of the doctrines that occasioned such reaction? What first twofold effect did it have on him as to liberal sectarianism? How typed? In what general course did these two effects result? How typed? In what two particular ways did this general course express itself? How typed? On what subjects did the second particular way express itself? What impression did this make on liberal sectarianism? How typed? What criticism did this impression prompt it to make? How typed? What did it refuse? How typed? 

(5) What did the recognition of this state of things prompt Bro. Russell to do? How typed? In what did he take refuge? How typed? Who else as due came to the same refuge? How typed? What three kinds of brethren gathered to him? How typed? What did these Truth people, even early in the Harvest, do as to him? How typed? What kind of warriors were they? How typed? For what especially did they then fight? How typed? In what sphere did Bro. Russell shortly thereafter work? How typed? As what did his pertinent work strike labor? How typed? How long was this to last? How typed? What did this move him to do with the Lord's people and the Truth? With what effect, especially on trade-unionists and socialists? How typed? 

(6) By whom was he persuaded to stress more the religious than the secular Truth aspects? How typed? 

The Parousia Messenger (Vol. 2). 


How did Bro. Russell react to this suggestion? How typed? Who was given a knowledge of this procedure? How typed? What were they at this time discussing? How typed? Who were some of these? How did they treat the involved subjects? How typed? Who surrounded them? How typed? What did the crown-lost leaders do to these? How typed? What did they ask them? How typed? Of what did they accuse them? How typed? Of what did they accuse antitypical Jonathan? How typed? What effect did these accusations work on the chief clergy and evangelists? How typed? What did they charge while betraying? How typed? 

(7) What did this information prompt the crown-lost leaders to do? How typed? How did these priests react to the call? How typed? What unjust thing marked the first speech of the crown-lost leaders to these priests? How typed? What were the acts charged? How typed? Of what character did these acts not partake? How did the charge arise? What did the accused priests first do? How typed? What did they next do? How typed? In what particulars? How typed? What unjust thing did the crown-lost leaders then do? How typed? In giving the command what did they do? How typed? How did the subordinate clergy, evangelists and principals of the flock react to this charge? Why? How typed? What did the crown-lost leaders then do? How typed? What did antitypical Doeg then do? How typed? What else did he do? How typed? 

(8) What class of priests escaped this symbolic killing? How typed? During what time? What did these do to Bro. Russell? How typed? What did Bro. Russell answer? How typed? Why did Bro. Russell say this? How typed? What did he do as to himself in this connection? How typed? What did he then do? How typed? What first assurance did he give them? How typed? What second assurance did he give them? What promise did he give them? How typed? 

(9) How were some of Bro. Russell's harvest Truth defenses constructed? What is a notable example of this? What questions were then under special discussion? What type shows this? What pertinent information did he get as to liberal sectarians? How typed? What was the effect of their activities amid sifting conditions? How typed? What did he do about this? How typed? What answer 

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


did he get? How typed? How did some of his co-warriors view the suggested enterprise? How typed? What did this lead him to do? How typed? What did the answer give him? How typed? What did he then do? How typed? What booty did they take? How typed? What else did he do? How typed? What was the result of the campaign? How typed? What event was especially connected with this controversy? How typed? What is a better translation of the last clause of v. 6 than the A.V.'s? Who was antitypical Abiathar? Who especially? 

(10) Who learned of these controversies? How typed? For what did he hope? How typed? Why? How typed? How did this accord with facts? What did antitypical Saul accordingly do? Why? How typed? What did he design? How typed? What did Bro. Russell know thereon? How typed? Why did he know it? What did this lead him to do? How typed? From what did he seek the answer? How typed? What did he then do? How typed? What did he say in his prayer? How typed? For what did he first pray? How typed? For what did he afterward pray? How typed? How did he pray for an answer? To which question was the answer given first? How typed? What was accordingly repeated? Why? How typed? What gave an affirmative answer? What lesson, experienced also by others, did Bro. Russell learn? How typed? From what to what had Bro. Russell's co-warriors developed? How typed? What is the symbolism of the number 600? How did he and his co-warriors escape the fell intention of antitypical Saul? How typed? How is the involved Hebraism to be explained? What analogous case sheds light on this answer? Who learned of this course? How typed? What was the effect? How typed? 

(11) How did Bro. Russell dwell? How typed? With what did he occupy himself? How typed? Especially with which ones? In what teaching did he continue to remain? How typed? Where? How typed? Among whom? How typed? What did antitypical Saul attempt all the time? How typed? Who frustrated him? How? How typed? What did Bro. Russell recognize? How typed? When? How typed? Who then fellowshipped him? How typed? What did he do to Bro. Russell? How typed? How? How typed? In what did they unite? How typed? What did both thereafter do? How typed? 

(12) What is the character of sifters and siftlings?

The Parousia Messenger (Vol. 2). 


By whom typed? What did they attempt to do with Bro. Russell? How typed? How were the crown-lost leaders occupied? How typed? What did they tell these? How typed? Who else was busy in the same subjects? How typed? Where? How typed? What did they do? How typed? What was the heart's desire of antitypical Saul? How typed? What did they promise him? How typed? How did these promises affect him? How typed? What had he by now learned? What did he urge them to do? How typed? Why did he advise these things? How typed? What did they repeat? Why? How typed? What were they then to do after getting the deeper knowledge? How typed? What did he promise? How typed? On what condition? How typed? Along what lines? How typed? 

(13) How did the traitors betake themselves on their journey? How typed? During this time how were Bro. Russell and his co-warriors occupied? How typed? How were the crown-lost leaders and their co-warriors occupied while the traitors were on their errand? How typed? How was Bro. Russell apprised of their designs? How typed? How did this information affect him? How typed? How did the knowledge of this affect antitypical Saul? How typed? What were the respective positions of the opposing sides? How typed? Wherein did Bro. Russell exercise energy? How typed? Why? How typed? What was the ground of his cautiousness? How typed? What doctrines did antitypical Saul maintain in this controversy? What did they attempt and expect? What announcement stopped them therein? How typed? What doctrines did the sectarians hold? How typed? How did it strike antitypical Saul? How typed? How did the messengers act? How typed? What two things did antitypical Saul then do? How typed? What did the involved questions become? How typed? 

(14) On what other subject did Bro. Russell have controversy with antitypical Saul? How typed? After his controversy with the interfering sectarians, what did antitypical Saul do? How typed? How in this controversy did he change his former tactics? How typed? On what two doctrines did he take issue with Bro. Russell? How typed from the former's standpoint? Over what period did this controversy stretch? What was its special time? Into what circles did he press the controversy? How typed? What was the sphere of the two involved doctrines? How 

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


typed? How and why did antitypical Saul enter it? How typed? Who else were in it? How typed? How did Bro. Russell and antitypical Saul compare as to spiritual matters? How typed? What resulted therefrom? How typed? Before whom did he not discuss the two pertinent doctrines? Why not? How typed? What did some of his co-warriors desire? Why? How typed? How did they reason? How typed? How and why did Bro. Russell's course on these two questions differ as to the Church and the public? How typed? How did he therein treat antitypical Saul? How typed? 

(15) How did his mild refutation of antitypical Saul on these two doctrines affect Bro. Russell? How typed? To whom did he reveal it? How typed? Whom did he fear to have displeased thereby? How typed? What was actually the Lord's view of it? How typed? How did he defend the pertinent truths? How did he regard antitypical Saul? How typed? In what did this result as to Bro. Russell's feelings? How typed? Who have had similar experiences? What one is an example of this? What did Bro. Russell's pertinent course require as to his co-warriors? How typed? What was the result? How typed? Of what two pertinent things was antitypical Saul ignorant? How typed? In this ignorance what did he do? How typed? What did he next do? How typed? What did Bro. Russell then do? How typed? Still later? How? How typed? How did he address antitypical Saul? How typed? What did antitypical Saul then do? How typed? How did Bro. Russell then act? How typed? What did he show? How typed? Why was this tactful? What did he then do? How did he give the proof? How typed? What could he have done, but did not do? Why not? How typed? What did he then show? How? How typed? 

(16) How did he describe the refutation? How typed? Of what was this sure evidence? How typed? Despite this, what had antitypical Saul sought to do to him? How typed? What did he then show? How typed? What was his pertinent confidence? How typed? What was his determination? How typed? What did he quote? How typed? What else did he show? How typed? What quality did he then exercise? How typed? What three things did he wish? How typed? What kind of an effect did this speech have on antitypical Saul? How typed? Why? What in surprise did they ask? How typed? How did 

The Parousia Messenger (Vol. 2). 


their realizing the pertinent contrast affect them? How typed? What did they confess? How typed? 

(17) What else did they confess? How typed? Under what conditions did Bro. Russell so act? How typed? What did antitypical Saul recognize? How typed? What prayer did they offer? How typed? What else did they recognize? How typed? How would it be held? How typed? What solemn thing did they then desire of him? How typed? To what was he asked to swear as to their adherents? How typed? As to themselves? How typed? What did Bro. Russell promise them? How typed? And later fulfil? From what did antitypical Saul desist? What did they then do? How typed? To what did Bro. Russell and his co-warriors betake themselves? How typed? What episode immediately followed? How typed? Whose passing beyond the vail was thus accomplished? Into what did they live? How prophesied? How were they everywhere recognized? How were their funerals and burials observed? In what estimation? How typed? How does the funeral of Bro. G. W. Stetson illustrate this? What two servants of the Lord attended? In what different capacities? What was then not realized by one of these? 

(18) Why at present is 1 Sam. 25:2-43 passed by? What things does v. 44 type? How shown? What does 1 Sam. 26 in general type? Who again sought to stir up antitypical Saul against David? Wherein did they find them engaged? How typed? What did they say to them? How typed? What did antitypical Saul then do? How typed? Where? How typed? Whom did they take for co-warriors? How typed? Why? How typed? On what view did they take their stand? How typed? Against what did this view face? How typed? What was Bro. Russell's condition? How typed? What did he there see? How typed? Where and with what did the renewal of this fight set in? About when and with what did it begin to end? How did Bro. Russell get his information on antitypical Saul's movements and intentions? How typed? What did Bro. Russell do secretly? How typed? Through what did he see? How typed? As well as what else? How typed? What was antitypical Saul's mistaken opinion on the view? How typed? His co-warriors? How typed? 

(19) What opportunity to volunteer did Bro. Russell offer? How typed? To which two was the offer made? How typed? How did J. F. R. act toward the offer? How 

David's Last Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


typed? John Edgar? How typed? Which of the two accepted the offer? How typed? How is his and Bro. Russell's pertinent cooperation elsewhere typed? Wherein did they not especially cooperate? How typed? How did they work as to their enemies? How typed? In what condition did they find the crown-lost leaders as to their controversial writings? How typed? Their co-warriors? How did John Edgar react to the situation? How typed? What did he request of Bro. Russell? How typed? Of what did he feel sure? How typed? How did Bro. Russell react to his suggestion? How typed? Why did he refuse the suggestion? How typed? What was Bro. Russell's thought in the matter? In what three ways could antitypical Saul come to an end? How typed? 

(20) What was his attitude as to taking advantage of a providential opportunity against antitypical Saul? How typed? What, instead, would he do? How typed? What did he suggest? How typed? What did he then do? How typed? How did Bro. Russell do this? What did he thus do? How typed? What resulted from his mild treatment of the pertinent subjects? How typed? What even was not aroused? How typed? How long has this gone on? Wherein can this be seen? How typed? How did this come about? How typed? Thereafter to what did Bro. Russell mentally proceed? How typed? How did the two sets of teachings stand as to one another? How typed? What kind of a contrast was there between them? How typed? How and by what did he call to antitypical Saul's co-warriors? How typed? What was the reply and its character? How typed? Thereupon what did Bro. Russell say to them as to their positions? How typed? As to their non-vigilance? How typed? What did he indicate was reason for careful sentinelship? How typed? 

(21) How did he characterize their lack of vigilance? How typed? Of what did he solemnly tell them? How typed? Why were they thus deserving? How typed? What did he suggest as a proof of their lack of vigilance? How typed? Where had these once been? How typed? Why were they there no longer? What did antitypical Saul's careful study of the pertinent tract enable him to recognize? How typed? What, and what kind of a question did they put to him? How typed? How did he answer? How typed? What mild question did Bro. Russell put to them? How typed? What two claims did he make?

The Parousia Messenger (Vol. 2). 


How typed? How did he call their attention? How typed? What was the first of the two things called to their attention? How typed? The second? How typed? Why was the second statement tactful? What two reasons made the course of men so doing accursed? How is each one typed? For what did he intreat antitypical Saul? How typed? Why? How typed? Compared with what? How typed? 

(22) What effect did Bro. Russell's magnanimity and speech have upon antitypical Saul? How typed? To what did it lead them? How typed? What did they seek? How typed? What did they promise? What moved them thereto? How typed? What was Bro. Russell's magnanimous response? How typed? What did he then prove? How typed? To whose dealings in this matter was he willing to submit? How typed? What did he desire of the Lord? How typed? What similar thing had he done? How typed? What would he not do? How typed? What further did he desire? How typed? What like thing had he done? What wish for himself did he express? How typed? What did antitypical Saul then say? How typed? What for the future did he express? How typed? What did the pertinent actors then do? When did the pertinent controversies begin to end? 

(23) Why did Bro. Russell distrust antitypical Saul's future behavior toward him? How typed? What did this distrust prompt him to decide to do? How typed? What was the purpose of this? How typed? What did he and his co-warriors accordingly do? How typed? When? What did each severally do in this field of service? How typed? What things did Bro. Russell have with him there? How typed as to the details in each thing? Of what was antitypical Saul apprised? How typed? From what did he refrain? How typed? What did Bro. Russell's contact with liberal sectarians prompt him to avoid? How typed? What, accordingly, did he request? How typed? What was done with this request? How typed? How were such places regarded in the nominal church? How typed? Whose proper sphere did they henceforth become? How typed? What ends here? What do we all recognize from 1 Sam. 16:1—27:6? What did David's further history not do? What will it show? When will it, D. v., be studied?