Epiphany Truth Examiner


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THE WORD Harvest, as it occurs in the Truth literature, is used in two senses, i.e., in a wide and in a narrow sense. In the wide sense it includes all the work done with the symbolic grains of wheat from their seeking, until they are safe in the Kingdom. In this sense of the word, as in the natural, so in the spiritual harvest, in Palestine as well as here, there are seven distinct processes: (1) reaping, separating the Lord's people from their place of growth, the nominal church; (2) sheaving, gathering them into classes; (3) drying, developing them in knowledge, grace and service; (4) threshing, testing them with view to strengthening of character; (5) winnowing, separating them from outsiders; (6) sifting, separating them from Second Death and Great Company members; (7) garnering, taking them into the Kingdom. In the narrow sense of the word there is but one Harvest process, i.e., reaping. In the title of this chapter we use the word "reaping," and not the word "Harvest," so as to prevent any from thinking that we are discussing the time of all seven processes of the Harvest, our object being to discuss the time of reaping only. 

(2) As we study the word reaping we note that it, too, is used in a wide and in a narrow sense. In the wide sense of the word it includes the gleaning as well as what we usually call the reaping work, while in the narrow sense it excludes the gleaning work. In this chapter we will use the word reaping sometimes to include, and sometimes to exclude, the gleaning work. 

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The connection will show whether we use the word in the narrow or in the wide sense of the term. 

(3) The completion of the reaping work in the wide sense of that term and the completion of the sealing of the Elect in their foreheads are one and the same thing. Hence in this chapter these expressions will be used synonymously. 

(4) The Scriptures speak of the sealing of the Elect from two standpoints—one of these has respect to the heart (2 Cor. 1:22; Eph. 1:13; 4:30), the other has respect to the head (Rev. 7:3-8; 14:1). In both cases the sealing is an evidence of God's approval of the sealed one. The sealing in the heart is the impressing of the Spirit of at-one-ment with the Lord which delights in, and is sympathetic with, all His ways, whether these are expressed in His Spirit, Word or Providence. The sealing in the forehead is the bestowment of enough of Truth as due to enable one from knowledge of it to escape the errors of God's nominal people of both Israels (Is. 8:14), leaving them or the world during reaping time. 

(5) It is not the purpose of this chapter to discuss the sealing with the Holy Spirit in the hearts of God's saints; for just when this kind of sealing of the Elect will be completed we do not know. Rather our purpose in this chapter is to discuss the time of completing the sealing of the Elect in their foreheads. On this subject the light, not visible in our dear Pastor's day, has now come. This does not, of course, mean that we think ourself more talented mentally than he, or more highly regarded by the Lord than he; for he stood head and shoulders above us in both of these respects; rather it is our thought that it was not due in his day to know this feature of Truth; but that now it is due to be known. Had his feature of Truth been made clear to, and by him, it would have made impossible the tests whereby the Lord has been pleased to separate the Little Flock from the Great Company, as He 

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has been doing for several years. Hence God hid the light on this subject from him, so that it could not be fully understood nor explained until such time as its knowledge would not interfere with, but advance His purposes. 

(6) In this chapter we desire to submit for the consideration of the Lord's Truth-hungry people a large number of Biblical reasons proving: 

(I) That the reaping of the Little Flock, i.e., the sealing in their foreheads, but not the other features of the Harvest, was completed before our Pastor's death. 

(II) That the reaping began in 1874; and 

(III) That our Pastor never taught that the reaping began in 1878 and would end in 1918. 

I. The reaping ended before our Pastor's death. In proof we submit a number of reasons: 

(7) Our second text gives us our first argument, for according to it, it is evident that, as there would come a time in the experience of the Church, when her last member will have been Spirit-begotten and sealed in the forehead, so also thereafter no one else would be begotten of the Spirit during the rest of the Gospel Age. Further, it is also evident that this last Spirit-begotten and forehead-sealed member of the Church would have to remain in the world for several years, at least, in order to develop, strengthen, balance and crystallize a character like Christ's, as well as overcome sin, error, selfishness and worldliness; and that therefore there would be a number of years intervening between sealing (reaping) the last member of The Christ and his going beyond the veil; as it is self-evident that, like the rest of the New Creation, this last-found member of The Christ could fall from grace; but that he, being the last one of the faithful ones, will not fall, even as the others of the 144,000 could have fallen, but have by faithfulness been preserved from falling. Therefore the Church in the flesh must come to a time when for several years she

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could do no more reaping of Little Flock members, all of the faithful saints having been reaped—a time which would be a night wherein no man can work—as a reaper. 

(8) The kind of work referred to in our text evidently is reaping work; for that is the kind of work that Jesus and the Apostles ("we must work") were doing in Israel when Jesus uttered the exhortation expressed in our text (John 4:34-38; 3:29, 30; Matt. 9:35—10:5; Luke 9:1-6; Mark 3:13-15). Therefore, the work referred to in this text is reaping work. The text could not refer to all features of the Harvest work, which in addition to and after the reaping included sheaving, drying, threshing, winnowing, sifting and garnering; for it is unthinkable that a time would come, while the Church is in the flesh, when the fellow members, mingling with one another, could do nothing for one another after the reaping was over, but before the other six Harvest features were finished. Our dear Pastor showed us that after the reaping was over we would yet have the work of helping one another make our calling and election sure, among other ways, e.g., by garnering, giving final preparatory help to those who shortly must pass beyond the veil, which, of course, in some of the last members of The Christ, would have to be some years after the completion of the reaping. 

(9) Our second text, which is translated according to the Sinaitic and Vatican MSS., treats of a night coming when no one can work, i.e., do (not every part of the Harvest work, but) no more reaping work. This night is spoken of in many other Scriptures (Is. 21:11, 12; Joel 2:2; Amos 5:20, etc.). We are all in agreement that this night refers to the great Time of Trouble (Dan. 12:1; Matt. 24:21, 22; 1 Thes. 5:1-5), which consists of three marked stages—war, revolution and anarchy (1 Kings 19:11, 12)—with famine and pestilence interspersed (Ezek. 14:21). 

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This night began in each country as it was involved in the World War, the first part of the great tribulation, which began when the first countries entered the war in August, 1914. Accordingly, we recognize that the night began in 1914. But this symbolic night, just like the natural night, did not set in everywhere at the same instant of time, rather it reached each country only as it became involved in the war. While every government did not declare war, every one of the nations was involved therein; because every one of them was afflicted by the war. Now every nation is in the night, and has been since the war afflicted, and thus involved all nations, even those that did not declare war. Therefore the reaping is complete the world over; the Elects' forehead sealing is finished. 

(10) Closely connected with our text in thought is Rev. 7:1-3, which we offer as a second proof that the forehead sealing of the Elect is complete. As these verses have, we think, been greatly misinterpreted in Vol. VII, we will introduce and expound them briefly: "And after [seeing] these things [in Chap. 6] I [the Little Flock] saw [with both physical and mental eyes] four angels [the messengers of wrath, C 165, i.e., (1) rulers, (2) aristocrats, (3) proprietary business men and proprietary farmers and (4) laborers, who bring about the trouble, and thus pour out the sufferings, the wrath of the Time of Trouble; the Harvest workers are not the messengers of wrath, as Vol. VII claims, but are messengers of peace, announcing and working for real peace, Is. 52:7; Eph. 6:15] standing [each group stationed in the section of society to which it belongs] on the four corners of the earth [the symbolic earth, society (the symbolic heavens are not here included), is divided into four sections, each one corresponding to one of the four messengers of wrath: (1) government, (2) aristocracy, (3) bourgeoisie, (4) labor] holding [these 

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groups, prompted more or less by their selfishness, which worked in different forms in the various groups, followed a course that restrained the fallen angels from bringing the great tribulation sooner than the due time] the four winds of the [fallen angels, who seem to be divided into four classes (Rom. 8:38; Eph. 6:12), and who are ruling over the symbolic] earth [society] [so] that the wind [the World War, 1 Kings 19:11; see its Berean comments, also on Rev. 7:2. This "wind" is not the "whirlwind," which will only then come when the fallen angels are more fully loosed than they were when causing the war, and as such meet in great conflicts among themselves and produce among mankind the symbolic whirlwind, revolution and anarchy (Jer. 25:29-33, especially v. 32; 2 Kings 2:1, 11, etc.). The wind, as this text implies, must precede the whirlwind, which occurs as a result of the hostile meeting of the fallen angels, after "the wind," 1 Kings 19:11, 12] should not blow [bring tribulation] on the earth [society], nor on the sea [the restless, rebellious, lawless masses], nor on any tree [great one: the Lord's people are counted great ones by Him; and the leaders among the four sections of society are also by their partisans]. 

"And I saw [mentally and physically] another angel [God's people in their capacity of ministering the Truth to their brethren not yet in the Truth (C 303; Rev. 7:3—'until we have sealed'—Ezek. 9:2-5, 11), and not Jesus alone, as Vol. VII teaches] ascending from the east [Jesus and the Church (The Christ) are the Sun, Light, of the world, John 9:5; Matt. 5:14] and having the seal [the Truth as due], of the Living God [given in the Scriptures], and he cried with a loud voice to [as the Salt of the earth, the Light of the world, and the City set upon a hill (Matt. 5:13-16), the faithful have with a great message, reproved the world for sin, righteousness and judgment to come (John 16:8-11), this work having had a 

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wholesome effect upon the world and having inculcated such principles as, measurably imbibed, have measurably restrained the selfishness of mankind from giving way to the full will of the fallen angels and thus arrested these unholy beings, who if unchecked by] the four angels [the four groups of mankind, as above, would long ago have brought the ruin of the Time of Trouble upon the race] to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea [evidently from this clause it can be seen that these four angels do not, as Vol. VII teachers, represent the Little Flock, whose work in the flesh is not to injure organized society, nor the lawless, rebellious people, nor themselves, nor the earth's great ones, the symbolic trees of v. 3. The four classes of people, as shown in the explanation of v. 1, represented by these four angels, are indeed the messengers of wrath, i.e., are the ones who bring the great tribulation, wrath, upon the people organized in the present order of affairs]; 

"Saying [by teaching throughout the Gospel Age proper principles respecting sin, righteousness and judgment to come], Hurt not [do not give away to such unholy influences as will prompt you to injure] the earth [society], neither the sea [the rebellious, restless and anarchistic masses], nor the trees [both God's children and the great ones of society], until we [the Church in its capacity of giving the Truth to the brethren not yet having it] have sealed [sufficiently enlightened] the servants of God [the truly consecrated ones, who are faithful to the little Truth that they have] in their foreheads [intellectually, to such a degree as will enable them to escape from bondage amid the nominal Israels]." 

(11) According to this passage, especially its third verse, the great tribulation, which began with the symbolic wind (the World War), could not come anywhere until first all of the Elect there, already sealed, would have left Babylon. We do not understand this 

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verse to teach that before this symbolic wind would begin to blow at all every one of the saints everywhere would be sealed: rather we would understand it to mean that as the war gradually spread from one country to another, so the sealing would be gradually finished in one country after another, being completed in each country before it became involved in the war. Thus all of the Elect in Britain, Russia, France, Germany, Austria, Servia and Montenegro had received a sufficiency of Present Truth to enable them to leave Babylon before August 1, 1914; while there were at that time, e.g., in America some of them yet in Babylon who did not have enough of Present Truth to enable them to "come out of her." These, however, were reached and given enough of Present Truth to enable them to "come out of her" before May, 1916, when America almost declared, and henceforth steadily progressed toward, war with Germany, and thus became involved in the World War. The same principle applies to the Elect in the other countries. The only language nation of Europe that did not declare war explicitly is Scandinavia, including the governments of Norway, Sweden and Denmark, which, however, dividedly, gave marked support to, and suffered marked loss from, each side, and thus may be considered to have been involved in the war. The war being over everywhere, evidently the Elect were already everywhere sealed before the last nation became involved in the war, which was effected by the intensified submarine campaign of 1917. Hence "the Big Drive," beginning after this, yea, even after America declared war, could not have been a part of the reaping or sealing work. 

(12) The Bible teaches that all of the saints, the entire 144,000, would be given the honor of executing (spiritual) vengeance upon the nations, and (spiritual) punishment upon the people, of binding the kings and princes, and executing upon them the judgment written 

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(Ps, 149:5-9). This was done from the Fall of 1914 to that of 1916, as we have already shown in Vol. III, Chapter II, to which we refer our readers for a fuller discussion of this point. Consequently, all of the Elect must have been sealed in the forehead before the Fall of 1916 in order to have taken part in this work; hence the reaping was then over. 

(13) The Bible teaches that the antitypical Elijah's last work toward Nominal Spiritual Israel, before he lost the mantle of power to be God's mouthpiece to Nominal Spiritual Israel, was the smiting and dividing of Jordan (2 Kings 2:8). But to be a part of the antitypical Elijah at all, one would have to take part in his last work as God's mouthpiece to Nominal Spiritual Israel (for Elijah represents God's Elect in that capacity); because all the saints were to share in that work (Ps. 149:5-9). This smiting work was finished in the Fall of 1916, as we have shown in Vol. III, Chapter II. Therefore, before the Fall of 1916 all of the Elect were sealed in their foreheads, the reaping was complete. 

(14) The Bible teaches that the last general work of the World's High Priest, before leaving this world in His last members, would be: (1) to confess the willful sins of Christendom over the antitypical Goat of Azazel, (2) to lead it to the Gate of the Court, and (3) to send it away to Azazel by the hand of the fit man (Lev. 16:20, 21). (1) The confession of these willful sins over Azazel's Goat (Satan uses the Great Company for his purposes, while the Lord uses the Little Flock for His purposes) was completed by the Fall of 1916. (See Vol. III, Chapter II, and Vol. IV, Chapter III.) Therefore, all the Elect were previously sealed, since the last of the Elect must share in the last general work of the World's High Priest done through His members in the flesh. (2) The leading of Azazel's Goat to the Gate began November 25, 1916, and that in Britain. (3) The sending away of Azazel's Goat had

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a small beginning in January, 1917, in Britain, where the clericalistic conduct of certain brethren was exposed by the Lord through the writer and others; but its large beginning was connected with the exposures of the clericalistic conduct of certain British and American brethren in the Spring, Summer and Fall of 1917. For a few particulars on Lev. 16:20-22, which we expounded in detail in Vol. IV, Chapter III, we refer to Vol. III, Chapter II. The work of sending away Azazel's Goat having begun early in January, 1917, before that time all of the Elect must have been reaped, sealed in their forehead; since the last one of the Elect must share in the last general work of the World's High Priest, before He in His last members leave the earth. 

(15) The separation of Elijah and Elisha (2 Kings 2:11-14) proves that before that time all of the Elect had been sealed in the forehead; because the Church would have to be complete and fulfill its missions toward Nominal Spiritual Israel before the separation of the Little Flock from the Great Company could take place. In Vol. III, Chapter II, we have proven that this separation has already taken place, beginning June 27, 1917. Therefore, for some considerable time before June 27, 1917, the entire Little Flock was reaped, sealed in the forehead. 

(16) The Penny of Matt. 19:17—20:16 means the special opportunities of service implied in smiting Jordan, which was done twice, a fact implied in this Parable. Hence the Penny was given in two parts, implying two smitings of Jordan—(1) generally speaking, those called in the eleventh hour (February, 1908, to June, 1911) received theirs first. Exceptionally, others than these received their Penny with them, but being comparatively few in number, are ignored in the Parable as receiving the Penny at the same time, the Parable dealing with generalities only. (2) Generally speaking, those called before the eleventh hour (the 

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exceptions being few in numbers are also here ignored), received theirs later. That Servant, from the Fall of 1914 to that of 1916, gave the first class special opportunities of service in connection with the first smiting of Jordan (Matt. 20:8, 9). In the late Summer and early Fall of 1916 "that Servant," by rearranging the workers at the Tabernacle and Bethel and in the field, by introducing some new features of service and by his will made operative through his death, gave the second class special opportunities of service in the second smiting of Jordan (Matt. 20:10-16), which was done from the Fall of 1917 to the Spring of 1918. Since the Penny was given to all of those called in the end of the Age, who after the eleventh hour were comparatively few in number, and are therefore not specially mentioned in the Parable, it dealing with generalities only, it follows that all of the Elect were not only reaped, sealed, but were smiting Jordan before Oct. 24, 1916, when its first smiting began to end with our Pastor's last public lecture. The preceding chapter gives a detailed exposition of the Parable of the Penny. 

(17) "That Servant" was made Steward of all the Lord's goods for the whole of the reaping time following his appointment, and ruler over the whole household, according to Matt. 24:45-47 and Luke 12:42-44. Therefore, he must have set forth on the table all the meat for the reaping time, and controlled the entire work for the whole household during the reaping time following his appointment. Consequently, before his death every one of the Elect was working in harmony with his teachings and under his direction of the work. Hence, before his death, October 31, 1916, all of the Elect had been reaped, sealed in the forehead, and were engaged in serving others under that Servant's general direction. 

(18) The man with the writer's inkhorn (Ezek. 9:2-5, 11) began at least to report the completion of his 

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work about the time of Brother Russell's death. All of us are agreed that "that Servant" is at least included in the symbol of the man with the writer's inkhorn. Some think that he alone is symbolized by the man with the writer's inkhorn; others that he was the earthly leader of those who have sealed the Lord's people in the end of the Age. If we should hold the thought that "that Servant" alone was symbolized by the "man clothed with linen with the writer's inkhorn on his side," as the Society brethren do [did], we would all the more forcibly have to conclude that the forehead-sealing of the Elect was completed before Brother Russell's death, October 31, 1916. 

(19) We are among those who hold to the opinion that the man with the writer's inkhorn represents, not an individual, but a class. Three reasons make us of this opinion: (1) It is quite evident that six classes of evil-doers in the end of the Age are represented by the six men with slaughter weapons (see the preceding chapter). So "that Servant" held. Therefore the seventh man, the one with the writer's inkhorn, by parity of reasoning would seem to represent a class of well-doers, i.e., those who during the reaping time of the end of the Gospel Age gave the Truth to their brethren distressed by the evils of doctrine and practice in Christendom. (2) It is quite apparent that "that Servant" did not reach every such individual and teach him the Truth; not even every one of these was reached by his literature; for not a few who were blind and unable to read blind script, and others who could not read at all were taught the Truth by word of mouth; while some who could read did not without oral instructions understand enough to "come out of her." Thus the facts show that he alone, neither by voice, nor by pen put the ink, the Truth, on all, and did not put a sufficiency of it on not a few to enable them to come out of Babylon. It is true that he furnished us with the horn (the Truth

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literature); put the ink (Truth) into it; put the horn of ink on our side (furnished it for our work) and put the ink on incomparably more foreheads than any one else did; but he did not do this work alone; consequently is not the only one symbolized by the man with the writer's inkhorn. (3) The parallel passage of Rev. 7:2, 3, in so far as it applies to the end of the Age, proves that the angel with the seal of God, the ink of Ezek. 9, is a multitudinous one—"until we have sealed the servants of God on their foreheads"—i.e., put the ink "mark upon the foreheads of them that sigh and cry in the city"! This angel represents (C 303, par. 1) for the end of the Age the reapers; therefore the inkhorn man, corresponding to him, does the same. These three reasons seem to prove that "that Servant" alone is not symbolized by the man with the writer's inkhorn by his side; but that he and all others who faithfully co-operated with him in serving their brethren in Babylon or in the world with the Truth for their deliverance are symbolized by the inkhorn man. However, he was not only the most efficient of those who thus served, but he also seems to be the first one of them to have recognized the completion of the sealing, and to have reported it to the Lord. This he seemed to do the day before he died in the toga scene in the Pullman car. We recall how Menta Sturgeon tried in three ways to prove to him that he was not going to die: by reminding him that he had not (1) written Vol. VII, (2) smitten Jordan, (3) given the Penny. He had answers for the first and second objections, but none for the third. He knew that he was the Steward (Matt. 20:8), yet when questioned in the face of death could not harmonize this with his apparently not having given the Penny, which hitherto he had expected to do shortly. Our conviction of his mental process, which he did not express in words, is this: Knowing that he was the Steward, and therefore that he, who had but a few 

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hours more to live, must have given the Penny, he concluded that the reaping work was finished; and thus he reported the completion of the sealing of God's Elect, October 30, 1916, just one day before his death, while solemnly standing arrayed in the toga in the Pullman car. And this act was his last service for God as "that Servant." The only thing he did after that was to die! O glorious death, following such a faithful life! God bless his memory! Each one of us individually, as we come to recognize the completion of the sealing of the Elect, as parts of the man with the writer's inkhorn, may also now report "the matter saying, 'I have done as thou hast commanded me.'" Thus this Scripture proves that all the Elect had been sealed in the forehead before his death. 

(20) According to the Berean Comment on Rev. 16:17, it is the Great Company that cries out: "It is done." This is the first marked message after the contents of the Seventh Vial were poured out. The first marked message that the Society leaders and their ardent supporters gave, and that was true with respect to the Little Flock, after their declaring widely the truthful and smiting features of Vol. VII, was that all the Elect were under the call. While not agreeing with their date for this event, we do agree that they were right in announcing the fact that entrance into the Spirit-begotten condition under the terms of the high calling was a thing of the past. It is noteworthy that in harmony with this verse the Great Company, not the Little Flock, first announced the completion of the Elect Church. In Vol. III, Chapter II, we gave same details on this verse that need not be repeated here. Suffice it here to say that there the proof is given that the message, "It is done," is the message of the Great Company, as such; and that, therefore, before they gave this message, they, as such, must have existed for some little time; and hence were separate and distinct from the Little Flock; and that,

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consequently, they must have had the antitypical mantle in their possession some time before the announcement. But since this mantle must have been in the possession of the Little Flock, until its last member was sealed in the forehead, in order to have given that last member a part in the last use that the antitypical Elijah made of that mantle, i.e., smiting Jordan, the last member of "the Church which is His Body" was sealed in the forehead and was functioning in the powers of that mantle, before it left the hands of the Little Flock and came into the possession of the Great Company. The Great Company made the announcement, "It is done," at the Passover Convention at Brooklyn, March 26, 1918. Therefore some considerable time before March 26, 1918, the entire Little Flock was sealed in the forehead. 

(21) Rev. 19:1, 2 is another argument to the point. A comparison of Rev. 19:1, 6 and 7:9 proves that Rev. 19:1-9 treats of the Great Company; for the Greek words translated "much people" in Rev. 19:1 are the same words as those that are translated "a great multitude" in Rev. 7:9; 19:6. We have already given some details on Rev. 19:1, 2 in Vol. III, Chapter II, to which we refer the dear brethren for these details. The passage under consideration proves in the following way that the Elect have all experienced their forehead-sealing. The message of these verses (Rev. 19:1, 2) is the one by which the second smiting of Jordan was done, a thing which had to be preceded by the antitypical Elisha's receiving the mantle, and which, therefore, could take place only after the antitypical Elijah had already lost the mantle. Before antitypical Elijah could have lost this mantle, he had to make his last use of it; and nobody could be a part of the antitypical Elijah, unless he shared in some of the work of Elijah, who was to act as God's mouthpiece to Nominal Spiritual Israel. Hence the last one of the Elijah class

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must have shared in the last use of the mantle. We have already seen (Vol. III, Chapter II) that Elisha smote Jordan, i.e., delivered the message of Rev. 19:1, 2, from the Fall of 1917 to the Spring of 1918. Therefore some time before the Fall of 1917 the antitypical Elijah lost his mantle. Consequently, before that event all of the Elect had not only smitten Jordan, but also, previous to its completion, must have been sealed in their foreheads, i.e., the reaping must have been finished. 

(22) The story of Gideon and his 300 (Judg. 6-8) is another proof of the fact that before the Fall of 1916 all of the Elect were sealed in their forehead. We all recall how our dear Pastor expounded the antitype of this story: Gideon's call to arms representing our Lord's call throughout the Gospel Age for people to enlist in holy war against Sin, Error, Selfishness and Worldliness; the responding 32,000 representing all who entered tentative justification; the 22,000 giving up the warfare representing those who feared to go further than the battles for righteousness experienced in the state of tentative justification, i.e., those who, counting the cost, fear to consecrate and enter into the harder part of the warfare; the remaining 10,000 representing all who consecrate; the 9,700 who stooped to drink representing those not full of loving zeal and obedience in their relations to the Lord's Word, i.e., the Great Company rejected from the High Calling throughout the Gospel Age, the rejection of whose last member from the High Calling occurred some little time before the Fall of 1916, also before September 16, 1914; the 300 representing the Very Elect in those of their numbers who lived after God had remanded the last unsuccessful probationary member of The Christ to the Great Company. 

(23) In the "Photo-Drama of Creation" (Scenario, p. 38, published late in 1913) our beloved Pastor says: "The triumph of Gideon's little army over a host

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typified the FINAL victory of Christ and His followers over the hosts of Sin"—a victory therefore that was future to the publication of the "Photo-Drama of Creation." The 300 gained their victory in two battles (Judg. 7:19-22; 8:10-12, 18-21). These type the two conflicts of the final victory of the Little Flock. The first of these battles corresponds to the first smiting of Jordan, in which, according to this type, none of the Great Company was privileged to participate unto a completion, and in which all of the last members of The Christ took part unto a completion. This antitypical battle, therefore, was from the Fall of 1914 to that of 1916. The antitypical second battle represents the present public conflict against Eternal Torment (Zebah, sacrifice, i.e., Moloch sacrifice, torment) and the Consciousness of the Dead (Zalmunna, shade, ghost), wherein the Little Flock participates unto a completion. This is one of the passages that we had in mind, when we announced in the first number of The Present Truth that the Little Flock would yet give another public and widespread witness for the Truth. As touching the point under discussion, the completion of the reaping, in harmony with the above given facts, so far as fulfilled, we recognize the statement of the "Photo-Drama" Scenario, p. 38, as giving us the clue to explain the two battles of the 300 as typing the two parts of the final conflict of the Very Elect. Therefore, of course, they must be participated in by the last called member of "the Church which is His Body." Hence the last of the Elect must have been sealed before the close of the antitype of the first of these battles, the Fall of 1916. The interval between these two antitypical battles was filled in by at least a part of the antitype of the battle, with the host that retreated under Oreb and Zeeb (Judg. 7:23—8:3). This latter antitypical battle began with the Second Smiting of Jordan in the Fall of 1917 (Rev. 19:1, 2); but is not yet complete [written Feb. 1919]. 

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It includes the Great Company's work described in Rev. 19:3. 

(24) Num. 7:1-9 contains a further argument proving that the forehead-sealing of the Elect is completed. V. 1 proves that the wagons of vs. 3, 7, 8 were given the typical Levites after the typical Tabernacle was completed, anointed and sanctified with all its furniture and vessels. The completion of the Tabernacle, its anointing and sanctification, type the completion of the true Church, its anointing with the Truth, forehead-sealing, and its Spirit, and its separation from Babylon or the world. This separation, as already proven, occurred before the Fall of 1916, and began thereafter to be externally manifested. The day of v. 1 is the Epiphany period. During this day the antitypical Merarite and Gershonite Levites get their antitypical chariots, organizations. These have come into the former's possession already; two others apparently are now in the hands of the latter brethren; and these facts prove that the Elect were sealed in their foreheads before the three, organizations, i.e., the W.T.B.&T.S., the P.P.A., the I.B.S.A.—came into the possession of the antitypical Mahli Merarites, and before two others came into the hands of the antitypical Gershonites. Some time later we will have something further of deep interest to give to the dear ones on the rest of Num. 7. 

(25) Ezek. 44:1, 2 contains a proof on our subject. The gate here seen to be closed represents vitalized justification, which was an experience of those only who were about to be begotten of the Spirit. The eternal closing of this gate represents the end of Spirit-begetting for the purposes of the High Calling. Shortly after Ezekiel (who throughout his book represents not that Servant, as Vol. VII teaches, but what John in Revelation represents, i.e., the Church at the time of the fulfillment of the symbolized events) is brought to this gate the last time by the man with

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the measuring rod, he is shown matters pertaining to the Levites connected with their wrongs and their separation from the Priests (Ezek. 44:4-14). Accordingly, after Spirit-begetting ceased and the Church was given her last view of vitalized justification by "that Servant," in the foreword of Vol. VI, pp. iii, iv, the next things of Truth expounded to her were and are matters pertaining to the Great Company. We are now hearing the message of Ezek. 44:4-14! This proves that the forehead-sealing of the Elect was completed before the foreword of Vol. VI was written—October 1, 1916, and finally approved October 16, 1916. 

(26) Matt. 24:36; 25:13 contain a time proof which shows that before May 3, 1916, all of the Elect were sealed in the forehead. The Day referred to in these verses is the Millennial Day—beginning September 12, 1874, the first day of the seventh lunar month of that year, and ending in 2874. The hour of these verses is the first 1/24 of that Day; for while no one could foretell its date, yet some living after it came would foreknow the dates of the other 23 hours. Hence the first hour of the day of these texts is the only one of the 24 of which it could be truthfully said that its beginning could not be known beforehand. Therefore, we conclude that the hour of these texts is the first hour of the 1,000-year day. An hour of a 1,000-year Day would be 1/24 of 1,000 years, i.e., 41 years and 8 months. Forty-one years and 8 months (of lunar time) from September 12, 1874, would bring us to the date May 3, 1916, as follows: The 41 years ended September 8, 1915. There were 13 lunar months in the lunar year beginning March 16, 1915. These ended seven full lunar months after September 8, 1915, i.e., April 4, 1916; hence the eight months following the 41 years ended May 3, 1916. The hour of these texts was the reaping and gleaning period of the Gospel Age (Rev. 14:15, "the hour to reap is

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come," Rev. Ver., Diag., etc.), and for this reason is marked out among the hours of the 1,000-year Day, the reaping ending September 16, 1914, and the gleaning before May 3, 1916. Consequently, there was no more reaping or gleaning after May 3, 1916. Before that date, therefore, all of the Little Flock were reaped or gleaned—sealed in the forehead. 

(27) Genesis 15:7-21 gives us a time proof that indicates April 18, 1916, i.e., Nisan 15, the first day of the Passover feast—as the date when the last member of The Christ was sealed in the forehead. According to the Berean Comment on v. 9 the days of the years that the animals and birds sacrificed by Abraham lived totaled 3,960, and represent that many years. The Covenant was made with Abraham Nisan 15, 2045, B.C., exactly 430 years to the day before the Exodus (Ex. 12:41), which occurred Nisan 15, 1615 B.C. This was 2044 years and 8½ months before January 1, A.D. 1. The difference between 3,960 years and 2,044 years and 8½ months is 1,915 years and 3½ months, which from January 1, A.D. 1, would end (lunar time) April 18, 1916, not 1915, as C.J. Woodworth in the Berean Comment changed the thought which the brother who sent in the suggestion stated in his letter, published in Z. 1907, p. 79, col. 2, pars. 2, 3; for from January, 1; 2045 B.C., to January, 1, A.D. 1, would be 2,045 years; thence to January, 1, 1916, would be 1,915 full years. Nisan 15, 2045, B.C., was 3½ months later than January 1, 2045. Hence the full 3,960 years—from Nisan, 15, 2045 B.C.—would be Nisan 15, 1916. 

(28) The brother in whose letter this matter was explained suggests that the total number of days in the years of the sacrifices that Abraham offered was given by the Lord as an assurance of the length of time in years that Abraham must wait to inherit the land of promise. He therefore suggested that we were to expect the return of the Ancient Worthies at the end

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of 3,960 years. That feature of the suggestion failed to materialize. Therefore it was a mistake, which, however, is easy of explanation in the following way: 

(29) If we look carefully at the words of the question in Genesis 15:8, we will notice that they do not state that the time of his inheriting the land was inquired for by Abraham; but his query was concerning the thing whereby he might know that he would inherit it, an inheritance which Abraham knew would not be his before his death. What does Jehovah give as a basis for the assurance that Abraham and all like him would inherit the land? Our answer is, the sacrifice of Jesus and the Church, who as the chief Seed of Abraham are to give the inheritance of the land to the heirs of the earthly promise (Heb. 9:14, 15). Therefore, when the last member of The Christ would be found and placed upon the altar of sacrifice, and prove that sacrifice as genuinely offered by leaving symbolic Egypt in the symbolic fourth generation—i.e., (1) Patriarchal Age, (2) Jewish Age, (3) Gospel Age, (4) Millennial Age, in which we have been since 1874, as indicated in vs. 13-16—then the basis of the assurance would be complete; for the Seed would be produced that would give the heirs the land. Accordingly, this passage proves that on Passover Day, i.e., April 18, 1916—the last member of The Christ demonstrated that his humanity was being sacrificed by his leaving symbolic Egypt, i.e., by his having enough of Truth (sealed in the forehead) to sever himself from this present evil world as it is represented in the nominal church. 

(30) Volume VII suggests that we must begin this period of 3,960 years ten years later than the Covenant, because the account of the sacrifice is given a few verses before the statement is made (Gen. 16:3) that ten years after the Covenant Abraham took Hagar as his wife. Our answer is that we cannot prove the event of Genesis 16:3 and that of Genesis 15:7-21 to 

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be of the same date; and that therefore we cannot begin to count the time from an event whose date is not known. Doubtless the time of giving the Covenant is the proper one with which to begin to date the 3,960 years, as suggested in the letter in the 1907 Tower. 

(31) A little further thought will make this manifest; for it will be noticed that three animals and two birds were used for sacrifices by Abraham (Gen. 15:9). They seem to represent the five classes that would be more or less separated to the Lord from the time of the Covenant—2045 B.C.—until the last one of the Little Flock would be sealed in the forehead. The heifer (T 105-112) seems to represent the Ancient Worthies and Youthful Worthies (these two classes are sometimes coupled together as one class in some types, e.g., Elisha, etc.); the she goat, the Great Company; the ram, The Christ; the turtle dove, those of fleshly Israel who have measurably held to the promises and to Moses; and the pigeon, those of the tentatively justified who have remained loyal to the Ransom and to Righteousness. The cleaving of the animals seems to represent the entire consecration and death ("a good report through faith") of the classes typed by them; and the birds left undivided seem to suggest the incomplete consecration (not "a good report through faith") of fleshly Israel and the tentatively justified. The sign given to Abraham in the transaction, while concentrated in the sacrifice of the entire Christ—the highest class of sufferers for righteousness—included all of the classes of Abraham's Seed that have suffered more or less because of their faith in some or in all of the promises made to Abraham. Thus the Seed of Abraham—especially the complete Christ, suffering for righteousness—is that whereby God gives the assurance that Abraham will inherit the land. And the time feature in this our sixteenth argument proves that the forehead-sealing of the Elect, the reaping, was finished at the Passover

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of 1916. Therefore and henceforth it is certain that Abraham will receive the land. 

(32) On the basis of the foregoing 16 reasons we conclude that we have a firm foundation for our faith that the reaping is done, that the Elect have already been sealed in the forehead. That none of the Little Flock during Brother Russell's days could see this is neither to his nor to their disparagement, God wisely hiding this fact from him and them in order to test his people more thoroughly, and to effect more easily their separation into their various classes. Such concealment of this fact was also made by the Lord in order to make it possible, in harmony with His will, for the Great Company, as such—therefore after their separation from the Little Flock—to be the first ones among His people to announce the completion of Spirit-begetting for high calling purposes (Rev. 16:17). It is also in thorough harmony with, and a natural sequence of, the thought that the saints' forehead-sealing was completed April 18, 1916, that shortly following that time both in America and Britain, trouble broke out among the leaders of the three groups of the antitypical Levites (antitypical Kohathites, Merarites and Gershonites) on account of their antagonistic ambitions, effecting against the opposing ambitions of these groups the steadfast opposition of the Little Flock—first in its leaders, then in the others, as their eyes were opened to see the conditions. 

(33) II. Having seen that the reaping, including the gleaning, was finished in the Spring of 1916 we now proceed to prove that the reaping began October, 1874, as our dear Pastor taught to the end of his life; for while in Z. 1916, pp. 263-265, he taught that the reaping was not yet over and might last three years, he nevertheless taught in that article (p. 264, col. 1, last par.) that the reaping began in 1874. 

(34) The first argument that we offer on this subject is Daniel's 1,335 days (Dan. 12:12), which, as 

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we know, ended in October, 1874. From that time onward the sickle of Truth, according to this passage, blessed with most heart-cheering enlightenment the faithful, as it reaped them. Previous to that time our dear Pastor had learned to understand the Ransom, Restitution and the Object of our Lord's Return. In September of that year he learned to understand the Manner of our Lord's Return, and with these doctrines and others as a sickle he began immediately an active campaign on these subjects, among other ways circulating these thoughts in the first Harvest publication, "The Object and Manner of our Lord's Return" (Z. 1916, p. 171, col. 1, pars. 1-3). Hence Daniel's 1,335 days and their fulfilled facts prove that the reaping began in October, 1874. 

(35) Elijah's second awakening and second meal (1 Kings 19:5-8) likewise prove that the reaping began in 1874. The first awakening and meal of the antitypical Elijah began in 1829; his second falling asleep began just after the disappointment of 1844; and his second awakening and meal began in 1874 (Matt. 25:1-6). The first part of the second meal in part consisted of the truths mentioned in the preceding paragraph. The 40 days of journeying represent the 40 years of reaping (Z. 1908, top of page 223), which ended 1914, and were followed by a gleaning period of 19 months. The facts mentioned in the preceding paragraph prove the date 1874 as the beginning of the reaping work, from the standpoint of antitypical Elijah's second awakening and meal. 

(36) The 40 days of spying out the land (Num. 13:1-25) seem to give the same thought. These 40 days of spying the land represent, among other things, the 40 years (1874-1914) during which Little Flock leaders were especially searching out their prospective inheritance as revealed in the Parousia-disclosed truths. As pointed out above, this started with the reaping in 1874. 

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(37) The Day of the Parable of the Penny teaches the same thought. This we set forth with much elaboration in the preceding chapter, and refer our readers to it for details. 

(38) The account of the Crowned Reaper and of His work (Rev. 14:14-16) proves that the reaping began in 1874. The golden crown as a symbol represents Divine Authority as King (Z. 1911, p. 120, col. 1, par. 3). Jesus received this authority before His Second Advent (Ps. 45:3, 4). The sharp sickle is the Parousia Truth. The reason why the "One like unto a Son of man" is asked to reap is: "Because the hour [the first 41⅔ years of the 1,000 years] to reap is come." In God's Harvests reaping time implies the doing of the reaping work. This hour, beginning with the 1,000-year Day, set in October, 1874; hence the reaping then began; because God is punctual. When His time to do a thing comes He does it, and does not procrastinate (Hab. 2:3). This answers J. F. R.'s claim that the Harvest time, but not the Harvest work began in 1874. The cry of the angel—"Thrust in thy sickle and reap"—represents the prayers of the Lord's people for Him to send forth and prosper what proved to be Parousia truths, and this began before the first presentations of these truths. The thrusting in of the sickle began, as shown above, in the Fall of 1874; hence the reaping began in that year. A caution should be here given: let us not confound the possession of the crown, Divine authority as a King, with the exercise of such kingly authority. Jesus possessed this authority before His Second Advent (Ps. 45:3, 4) and while in possession of this authority, began in 1874 to reap, three and one-half years before He began to exercise such kingly authority, in casting off Babylon and in awakening the sleeping saints April, 1878 (Is. 52:7). 

(39) The Parallel Harvests are another proof that the reaping began in 1874. The arguments are unanswerable that our dear Pastor gives us in the "Studies" 

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and in the "Towers," and that Brothers John and Morton Edgar give us in the "Pyramid Passages"—that the Harvest Parallels refer to grace as well as to wrath, to the real Israels as well as to the nominal Israels. Hence, if we can prove that the reaping of the Jewish Harvest began 29 A.D. and progressed for over 3½ years before Pentecost of 33 A.D., it would follow that the reaping of the Gospel Harvest began in 1874 and progressed for some years before Pentecost, 1878. 

(40) Jesus as the first grain of wheat was reaped in the Fall of 29 A.D. In order to overcome the force of this argument J. F. R. at Bethel in 1917 and later in a "Tower" article denied that Jesus was a grain of wheat, claiming that a grain of wheat must be a fallen member of our race. Jesus disagrees with this claim and definition on this point; because He called Himself a grain of wheat (John 12:24). A ripe grain of wheat is a character fitted for the Harvest Truth in the reaping time. Such Jesus was; and Jehovah reaped Him October, 29 A.D. 

(41) The 12 and the 70 were reaped some considerable time before they were sent forth as messengers of the Gospel to reap others (Matt. 4:18-22; 9:9; John 1:35-51; Matt. 9:37—10:7; Luke 10:1-9). 

(42) Many other Israelites were reaped during our Lord's ministry, of whom over 500 remained steadfast, despite the sore sifting incidental to His last earthly experiences (Luke 6:13; 1 Cor. 15:6). 

(43) Express passages show in so many words that Jesus and His disciples did a reaping work (Matt. 9:35—10:7; Luke 9:1-6; 10:1-9; Mark 3:13-19). 

(44) John the Baptist, using the figure of the Bridegroom, Bride and the Friend of the Bridegroom, and showing that he was seeking and winning some for Jesus' Bride, did a work which under another figure is called a reaping work (John 3:29, 30). 

(45) Jesus' statement in John 4:34-38, uttered 

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about seven months after His baptism, expressly says that not only were they in the Harvest time, but that the disciples had already done some reaping: "I have sent you to reap that whereon ye bestowed no labor; other men have labored, and ye are [have] entered into their labors." This passage also refutes J. F. R's. view that while 29 A.D. began the Harvest time, Harvest work, reaping, did not begin until Pentecost, 33 A.D. 

(46) Before Pentecost, when garnering, the last Harvest process, began, the six preceding Harvest processes, whose first one is reaping, had been in operation. Passages previously quoted prove that reaping work, the first of the seven Harvest processes, was done from the beginning of our Lord's ministry; and Luke 22:31 shows that Peter was sifted; while the final accounts of our Lord's career imply that all of the Apostles and many others were sifted before Pentecost. Sifting is the sixth Harvest process; hence the intervening processes were in operation before our Lord's betrayal. The fact that the last Harvest process, garnering, began to operate at Pentecost (Z. 1916, p. 264, col. 2, par. 2), proves that the other Harvest processes operated before Pentecost, and that the first of these, reaping, must have begun a considerable time before Pentecost, even, as we have proved, in 29 A.D. 

(47) Hence, as proven by the seven arguments just given, reaping having been in operation for over 3½ years before Pentecost, 33. A.D., it follows from the Parallel Harvest that reaping was in operation from October, 1874, to April, 1878. 

(48) Facts abundantly prove that reaping was going on from October, 1874, to April, 1878. The reaping process implies two things: (1) that the sickle of Harvest Truth be wielded: (2) that it cut down the stalks of grain, i.e., separate them from their places of growth. (1) During the time in question the following Harvest truths were proclaimed in conversations, lectures 

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and Bible studies: "The Mortality of the Soul"; "Death, not Eternal Torment, as the Penalty of Sin"; "The Ransom"; "Restitution"; "The Time, Manner and Object of our Lord's Return"; "The Election of the Church"; "The Millennial Reign of Christ"; "Future Probation"; "The Permanence of the Earth," etc., etc. In addition to the oral proclamation of these truths during those years, the following publications at that time carried these same truths to many by the printed page: The booklets, "The Object and Manner of our Lord's Return," by our Pastor; and "The Three Worlds," by Brother Barbour; and the Monthly periodical, "The Herald of the Morning," edited by Bros. Barbour, Russell and Paton. (2) As a result of this propaganda hundreds of brethren were won by these truths and severed themselves from Babylon. Thus grains of wheat were separated from the stalks on which they grew by the sickle of Truth, i.e., reaping was in operation from 1874 onward. 

(49) Again the fact that there were a number of classes of Truth people formed during those years proves that the second process of the Harvest work was in operation, i.e., sheaving. There was a class at Allegheny, Pa.; another at Rochester, N.Y., a third at Almont, Mich.; a fourth at Dansville, N.Y.; elsewhere there were smaller groups of brethren. 

(50) Furthermore, the fact that, as the sixth Harvest process, the first sifting of the Gospel Harvest began at the Passover, 1878, paralleling the sifting connected with our Lord's death, proves that before the Pentecost of 1878 six of the Harvest processes had been in operation, and that, therefore, the Gospel Harvest began some considerable time before 1878. Thus the facts prove that the reaping began in 1874. 

(51) On the point that the reaping began in 1874 other than the above seven arguments could be given, e.g., the floor-line measurement of the Grand Gallery in the Great Pyramid, terminating with 1914, 

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proves that the 40 years' Harvest work began in 1874; but we believe that a sufficient number has been given to prove our second test. Considering this proposition proven, we now proceed to our third proposition. 

(52) III. Our Pastor never taught that the reaping began in April, 1878, and would end in April, 1918. It is claimed by J. F. R. and his supporters and by Carl Olson and his supporters that our Pastor taught that the reaping began April, 1878, and ended April, 1918. This we deny. The article on which they base their claim (Z. 1916, pp. 263-265) does not state these thoughts, which it has been so gratuitously assumed to do. We suggest to our dear brethren that they read and reread and, if necessary, again reread it, and see for themselves that it does not so teach. The most careful study of the article fails to reveal, as taught therein, these dates as the beginning and the ending of the reaping work. Will these brethren kindly tell us where the article gives these as the dates of the reaping? 

(53) Not only does that article not teach April, 1878, and April, 1918, as the dates for the beginning and ending of the reaping, but nothing in it implies these dates as such beginning and ending. There are two statements in the article from which J. F. R. and others have inferred the dates, but quite erroneously. One of these statements is to the effect (p. 264, col. 2, pars. 2, 6) that the end of the wrath on Israel was April, 73, and that the parallel of this date was April, 1918. This statement is true, but does not refer at all to the reaping; rather it refers to the burning of the chaff; and of course completing the burning of the chaff in Fleshly Israel cannot be paralleled with completing the reaping of the wheat in Spiritual Israel. People who blunder into such an inference are not safe guides. They surely will lead others into the ditch! The second statement from which the inference was drawn that April, 1878, and 

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April, 1918, respectively witnessed the beginning and ending of the reaping, is that made on there being no garner until Pentecost, 33 A.D. (p. 264, col. 2, par. 1). The reasoning that produced this inference is the following: Since there was no garner until Pentecost, 33 A.D., there was therefore no reaping until then! hence there was no reaping until Pentecost, 1878, the parallel time in the Gospel Harvest; and since the Gospel reaping lasts 40 years, the reaping must have ended in 1918! What poor reasoning! In it the reaping process is confounded with the garnering process, whereas in both nature and grace reaping is the first and garnering is the seventh and last process of the Harvest. The proper inference to draw from the fact that the garnering began Pentecost of 33 is this: that the other six Harvest processes, whose first is reaping, began before Pentecost of 33, and that reaping, the first of these processes, must have begun considerably before Pentecost of 33. This is in harmony with October, 29, as the proper date, even as we proved above. Thus the very point on which they mainly base their contention completely disproves their view! 

(54) The above-mentioned "Tower" article by our Pastor denies the fixing of 1918, or any other date, as the time for the end of reaping the Gospel Harvest. This denial is clearly stated (p. 263, last par.) as follows: "We are not fixing the time, for we know of no time feature applicable before us—even as Elijah and Elisha were not sent to any definite place after reaching Jordan." Had J. F. R., C. J. Woodworth and C. Olson maintained the holy reserve of our dear Pastor, they would not have been guilty of misleading many brethren on this point and on others. Menta Sturgeon in print tells us that just after our Pastor's death he vowed to be as faithful to him in his death as he was in his life. He knows and has repeatedly said that after the article, "The Harvest is not Ended," appeared our Pastor in response to repeated 

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questions at conventions positively asserted that he fixed no date for the end of the reaping, a thing that we and many others also heard our Pastor say at several conventions that late Summer and early Fall. In view of these facts we desire to ask Menta Sturgeon how can he harmonize with his vow his endorsement of C. Olson's book, which sets aside our Pastor's teaching, not only on this subject, but also on multitudes of others? [Written in October, 1919.] 

(55) In fixing this date, 1918, the Society leaders caused much disappointment to thousands of the brethren; and their and others' fixing wrong dates, we are satisfied, will produce further disappointments. 

(56) Statements in "Pastor Russell's Sermons" (pp. 287, par. 1, and 289, par. 3) are cited by not a few as a proof that our dear Pastor taught that the reaping began in 1878 and ended in 1918. We reply that in the book of sermons printed late in 1917 by the Society these dates will be found on the pages cited above; but not in the sermon as our dear Pastor published it. The sermon in question was first published in 1908, and correctly gave the dates 1874 and 1914 as the beginning and end of the Harvest. Our Pastor never changed those dates in that sermon. They were changed after his death, seemingly to palm off as his certain time features that he never taught, thereby misleading many, even as was done by the interpolated verse, 1 John 5:7. The one responsible for this change has much to answer for. Such a course cannot but arouse distrust that other misleading changes have been made, or may yet be made, in his writings. In the Lord's name we serve these Levites notice to refrain from further presumption and fraud in tampering with the priestly writings of "that Servant." They are not qualified for the work of correcting them, and do it at their peril (Lev. 10:1, 2)! 

(57) It is not our claim that our dear Pastor did not give up the date 1914 as the end of the reaping work; 

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for the article above referred to proves that he did so do, though neither in that article nor in any other, nor by word of mouth, would he fix another date for the end of the reaping work. The question arises, how did he come to think that he had been in error on the subject? The article itself shows (p. 263, col. 2, par. 4) that there seemed to him to be too many people won for the Truth from October, 1914, onward, to be the product of a gleaning work. It is certain that goodly numbers of people came into the Truth during that time; but may this not be accounted for in harmony with the thought of a gleaning work going on at that time? We think it may. Of course, none of us know definitely how many are required to constitute the gleanings of the Gospel Harvest, though the number would hardly be considerable, by no means so many as our dear Pastor saw coming into the Truth at that time. Hence his doubts; and if all that came into the Truth at that time were members of the Little Flock, we would have to draw the conclusion that he drew, i.e., that it must have been as a result of a reaping and not of a gleaning work. But there is good Biblical evidence for believing that at that time large numbers of the Great Company were leaving the nominal church and coming into the Truth. Lot leaving Sodom before the destruction of the city began types how a section of the Great Company would leave the nominal church and come into the Truth, before the destruction of Christendom in its successive parts would begin. The destruction of Christendom began with the war; hence before the war began to involve a country, a section of the Great Company in that country would leave the nominal church, and come into the Truth. Thus, for instance, for some time before America became involved in the war, a very considerable number of the Great Company left the nominal church here and came into the Truth. These large numbers made our Pastor doubt that they were the products of a 

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gleaning work. But if we keep in mind the fact that the antitypical Lot is no part of the Little Flock gleanings, we will have no difficulty in harmonizing the facts of those times with the facts clearly proven by our Pastor—that the 40 years' reaping began in 1874 and ended in 1914, and that the rest of the Little Flock members coming into the Truth thereafter were the gleanings of the Gospel Harvest. 

(58) In the Lord's Providence, at Bethel in 1917 we were by several brethren (at present Society adherents) who were witnesses and in part actors in the events, apprised of how our dear Pastor came to make some of the changes suggested in Z. 1916, pp. 263-265. We herewith submit the facts. He had for some time been troubled by the fact that more people were coming into the Truth than a gleaning work alone would warrant. While in this state of mind he wrote an article on the subject, for publication in "The Tower," but before it was sent to the printer, a brother, who now stands with the Society, asked our Pastor during a meal in Bethel dining room the question: "Does not the fact that the reaping was done by the Crowned Reaper (Rev. 14:14-16) prove that the reaping began after our Lord began to exercise kingly authority in 1878?" The brother in his question confounded the possession of Divine Authority as a King with the exercise of such kingly Authority. Our Lord had such authority before His Return in 1874 (Ps. 45:3, 4), though the first exercise of it occurred in 1878. This brother further urged that his thought was corroborated by the time of the awakening of the sleeping saints (Rev. 14:13), which is described just before the reaping is described. But he overlooked the fact that the visions in Revelation do not always follow one another chronologically. While our Pastor did not endorse the brother's thought, it increased his doubts as to the reaping ending in 1914; and going to his study after the meal he dictated several paragraphs which he

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had inserted into the aforementioned article. These paragraphs added several changes to those already in the article. This was late in the summer of 1916. Our Pastor was a dying man and with his many burdens could not give the subject his former strength and clearness of thought. Hence he published an article that contradicted his unanswerable arguments given in the "Studies" and "The Towers." Scriptures, Reason and Facts prove his former presentations to be correct. Hence we accept them rather than this later one. Surely, under the circumstances no lover of his will hold it against him, if, while dying and burdened by superhuman tasks, he gave us a less logical explanation than when in his full vigor! Yea, the very act itself shows his great humility, and increases our love for him! We thank God for every remembrance of him, and daily pray our Father to bless his memory! O that the brethren would prize his teachings more! 

(59) Why did the Lord permit our Pastor to suggest that he had erred in teaching that 1914 was the end of the reaping? Subsequent events suggest a satisfactory answer: The next great event before the Lord's people was to be the separation of the Little Flock from the Great Company. This implied one of the sorest trials in the experience of the Little Flock, and the operation of the strongest delusion ever let loose among God's people; for, in view of their retaining the Holy Spirit, to bewilder many of the Little Flock and to delude the Great Company, required a frenzy of delusion by far more subtle than any of the frenzies of delusion by which the Second Death class, with its loss of the Holy Spirit, had been deceived and separated from the Church previously; and we know that the 1918 date for the end of the Harvest (yea, they even claimed it as the date when the last member of the Body would leave the earth), a date given for neither event by our Pastor, was a part of the strong delusion, and as such contributed to bewilder not a 

The Time of Reaping. 


few of the Faithful, and thoroughly to deceive the bulk of the Great Company. The Lord knew that the Society leaders, as teachers of "perverse things," would twist the article, "The Harvest is Not Ended," into teaching what it does not teach, and thus use it to blind their credulous followers into "The Big Drive," which proved to be Jordan's second smiting. Knowing that it would serve His purposes with respect to both classes of His people, the Lord permitted our dear Pastor, while slowly dying, to write that he had been in error as to the date of the reaping's end; and the Society leaders, twisting the change into another meaning worked this and others of their "perverse things" overtime unto the deception of many. "He hath done all things well" (Mark 7:37). 

"O the depths of the riches, both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable [to those lacking meekness] are His judgments, and His ways past finding out! … For of Him, and through Him and to Him are all things, to Whom be glory forever! Amen" (Rom. 11:33, 36). 

(60) We desire to assure all of the brethren, whether adherents or non-adherents of the Society, that they have our heart's sincere love. The motive prompting our exposures of their errors is love for the Lord, the Truth and the Brethren. It is this love that prompts us to send The Present Truth to as many of the dear ones as we can locate. We would gladly send them to the others, but lack their addresses. We are assured that not a few have been helped. We sympathize with any who may have been displeased. Our faith is that in due time these will also recognize and appreciate our efforts on their behalf. And in the meantime we pray for all of the Lord's dear people the richest blessings that they are capable of receiving. The Lord grant these for Jesus' sake! 


(1) In how many, and in what senses is the word 

A Miscellany. 


Harvest used? What acts are implied in the wide, and what act is implied in the narrow sense of the word? 

(2) In how many and in what senses is the word reaping used? What acts are implied in the wide, and what act is implied in the narrow sense of the word? 

(3) What two terms relating to the final features of the Little Flock's work selfward are synonymous? 

(4) How many sealings are there? How do they differ? 

(5) What is not, and what is the purpose of this study? When was the time of the forehead sealing not, and when was it due to be understood? Why was it not made known to "that Servant"? Why was it not, and why was it made clear to another? 

(6) Under what three heads is the Time of Reaping presented in this chapter? 

(7) What three things are implied with respect to the last Spirit-begotten and forehead-sealed saint? After the last member of The Christ is reaped what kind of work cannot, and what kind can for some years be done? 

(8) To what kind of work does John 9:4 refer? And to what kind can it not refer? Why not? Explain Scriptures that prove these thoughts. 

(9) What is meant by the "night" of John 9:4? When and with what did it start? How did it envelop each country? What conclusions are to be drawn from its presence everywhere? 

(10) Explain each symbolic term in Rev. 7:1-3. 

(11) What had to precede the symbolic wind of Rev. 7:1? What does this not, and what does it mean? Give illustrations explaining this. What language nation did not declaratively enter the World War? How was it involved? What two conclusions follow from these considerations? 

(12) How does Ps. 149:5-9 prove that the reaping was completed before the Fall of 1916? 

(13) How does the first smiting of Jordan prove that the forehead sealing was finished before the Fall of 1916? 

(14) How does the High Priest's twofold dealing with Azazel's Goat prove this? 

(15) How does the separation of Elijah and Elisha prove this?

The Time of Reaping. 


(16) How does the twofold distribution of the Penny prove this? 

(17) How does our Pastor's mission prove this? 

(18) What is a wide-spread view as to the meaning of the inkhorn man? 

(19) Give three reasons for understanding him to represent a class. How and when did "that Servant" as the leader in the inkhorn man begin to report the sealing of the Elect? What does this prove as to the time of such sealing? 

(20) How does Rev. 16:17 prove that the forehead sealing of the Elect was completed before Passover, 1918? 

(21) How does Rev. 19:1, 2 prove that the forehead sealing of the Elect was completed some time before the Fall of 1917? 

(22) Explain, type and antitype, Gideon's work with the Israelites up to the first battle. 

(23) Explain, type and antitype, Gideon's two battles. How do these prove the completion of the forehead sealing before the Fall of 1916? Explain, type and antitype, the battle occurring between Gideon's two battles. 

(24) How does Num. 7:1-9, type and antitype, prove the completion of the reaping before the Fall of 1916? 

(25) How does Ezek. 44:1, 2, symbol and reality, prove the completion of the reaping before the Fall of 1916? 

(26) Describe the day and the hour of Matt. 24:36; 26:13. Why are these things true? How long was each hour of the day? When did the first hour begin and end? Why? Why was this hour the reaping and gleaning period? Before what date, accordingly, must the forehead-sealing have been complete? 

(27) What date for the completion of the forehead sealing is indicated in Gen. 15:7-21? Explain in detail how this passage gives us the date April 18, 1916, for the completion of the gleaning work. 

(28) What mistaken suggestion was made as to what would occur April 18, 1916? 

(29) What was not, and what was the query of Abraham? What pantomime answer did Jehovah give? What typical answer did He give? What truth do we derive from the answers? 

(30) What suggestion does Vol. VII make as the date 

A Miscellany. 


for the beginning of the 3,960 years? What unprovable assumption does it make for so beginning the years? 

(31) With what date should these years begin? Why? What classes are represented by the five sacrifices? What is represented by cleaving the animals and not cleaving the birds? What is the general and the special sign that God gave for the inheritance of the land? And what does the time feature prove? 

(32) What conclusion should we draw from the 16 reasons given above? What is no argument against this conclusion? What further two facts corroborate this conclusion? 

(33) When did the reaping begin? How long did "that Servant" teach this? 

(34) What argument does Daniel give on this point? What facts are in harmony with Daniel's prophecy? 

(35) Explain, type and antitype, 1 Kings 19:5-8. Show how it proves 1874 as the beginning of the reaping. 

(36) How does the spying out of the land prove this? 

(37) How does the Penny Parable's Day prove this? 

(38) How does Rev. 14:14-16, symbol and reality, prove the same thing? What caution is to be observed respecting the symbol of the crown? Why? 

(39) What do the Parallel Dispensations prove as to the date 1874? To what things and periods do they refer? 

(40) Who was the first grain of wheat? Why? What follows from this fact as to the beginning of the Jewish Harvest? 

(41) What does the call of the 12 and of the 70 prove as to the time of the beginning of the Jewish Harvest? Note and explain the pertinent Scriptures in their details. 

(42) Scripturally and factually point out the reaping work prior to our Lord's death. 

(43) Read and explain four Scriptures that point out a reaping work between Oct., 29 and April, 33 A.D. 

(44) How does John 3:29, 30 prove the same thought? 

(45) How does John 4:34-38 prove the same thing? 

(46) How do the operation of six Harvest processes before Pentecost prove the same thing? 

(47) What follows from the above considerations? 

(48) What two detailed sets of facts prove that the reaping began 1874? 

The Time of Reaping. 


(49) What facts prove that sheaving was in operation several years before 1878? 

(50) When did the first sifting of the Gospel Harvest begin? What does this prove as to the time of reaping? 

(51) What other corroborative argument may be given for the reaping? 

(52) What unfounded claim is made for 1878? Why is this an unfounded claim? 

(53) What is not implied in Z. 1916, pp. 263-265? From what two statements have the two false dates been inferred? How are the inferences to be refuted? What are the proper inferences to be drawn from the fact that there was no garner until Pentecost, 33? 

(54) How does Z. 1916, p. 263, last paragraph, disprove the claim that it teaches 1918 to be the end of the reaping? How have those who have perverted this article acted toward "that Servant"? 

(55) What has resulted from fixing the date 1918? What will result from fixing other wrong dates? 

(56) What glaring interpolation was made to make our Pastor appear to teach what is a false period for the reaping? What are the character and results of such an act? 

(57) Who gave up the date 1914 as the end of the reaping? Why? How may we harmonize the facts that perplexed him with his proven dates as to the reaping? 

(58) What are the facts connected with our Pastor's change of mind as to the reaping ending in 1914? What was his physical condition at that time? Which view of his is the correct one? How should we feel toward him in view of all the circumstances? 

(59) Why did the Lord permit him to give up the right date? How and why did this change contribute to the Lord's purpose? How should we feel toward the Lord for His part in this matter? 

(60) What motive has prompted the discussion of Society conditions and teaching? For what may we hope and pray for all concerned? 

Reaping all day were the virgins fair, 

Patiently toiling in faith and pray'r, 

Seeking the wheat from the dawn till night, 

Jewels to shine in the morning light. 

O! rich will the harvest be, 

O! rich will the harvest be. 

Reaping all day, though their foes were nigh, 

Saving the wheat that it should not die, 

Gath'ring the jewels bright and fair, 

Sorting them out with tender care. 

O! grand will the harvest be, 

O! grand will the harvest be. 

Reaping from seed that was sown in tears, 

Gath'ring the fruit of laborious years, 

Looking in hope for the harvest home, 

Reapers and sowers together come. 

O! sweet will the meeting be, 

O! sweet will the meeting be. 

Reaped from the garden, or reaped from the rock, 

Reaped from the wayside, the wheat from the stalk. Gathered from wealth or from poverty, 

Grand and blest will the harvest be, 

When Sowers and Reapers together come, 

When Sowers and Reapers together come.