Epiphany Truth Examiner


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THE Present Truth has frequently referred to antitypical Gideon's first and second battles. The reason for such frequent references in that magazine to these battles is that both of them belong to the Epiphany. Just now we refer very frequently to the second of these battles, because it is now being waged. The brethren, we are sure, will appreciate this battle more, and take a more zealous and fruitful part in it, if Gideon, type and antitype, is more clearly understood by them. For this reason we take pleasure in presenting this subject here to the Church. We have frequently planned to do it ere this, but have until now been hindered therefrom. Until last Spring [written in December, 1920] we had frequently studied Judg. 6, but had as frequently failed to grasp its antitypical teachings. When last Spring we concluded that antitypical Gideon's second battle was approaching, believing that the clear understanding of the entire antitype, so far as fulfilled, would help all Gideonites in the second battle, we went to the Lord in special prayer, asking for the understanding of those parts not yet clear to us, especially Judg. 6, and promising Him 

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that we would gladly give the interpretation to the Church, if He would graciously favor us with it for the brethren. Within a half-hour after offering that prayer almost everything in that chapter was antitypically clear to us; and we take much pleasure in setting forth herewith what we believe to be the antitype of Judg. 6:1—8:12. It has refreshed those who have heard it given orally. May the dear Lord be pleased to bless to our hearts and heads the study of this remarkable piece of history as we give it to all through the printed page. 

(2) That Gideon is a typical character is evident from the fact that St. Paul enumerates him (Heb. 11:32) among the heroes of faith, and states (Heb. 12:1) that we are encompassed, surrounded as a type surrounds its antitype, by these heroes of faith as by a cloud of witnesses—shadowy or typical witnesses. That Gideon's battles with the Midianites are types is directly stated (Is. 9:4; 10:26; Ps. 83:9, 11, 12). Since Gideon was the leader of typical Israel, he quite likely types Jesus, the Leader of antitypical Israel. God's people of the Jewish and Gospel Ages are the antitypes of Israel, in Judg. 6, 7, 8. Midian means strife, and the Midianites represent errorists who have striven with God's people, and have oppressed them with erroneous doctrines and practices. We already have seen that Gideon's first battle types the defeat of those who taught the errors of the Divine right of kings, aristocrats and clergy, by the Lord's faithful people, from the Fall of 1914 to that of 1916, otherwise pictured by the first smiting of Jordan, the confessing of the sins over Azazel's Goat and the binding of the kings and nobles in executing the judgment written. Therefore 1914 is the end of the oppression of the antitypical Israelites by the doctrines of Divine right. We know that God's Israel began in 607 B.C. to be oppressed by those that have taught these doctrines, and, actuated by such beliefs, subjected God's 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


people to themselves. Hence we understand the seven years (Judg. 6:1) of Midian's oppression to represent the seven symbolic years—2520 literal years—of the Times of the Gentiles. Israel's captivity, 607-537 B.C., was the beginning of these times of antitypical Midian's oppression, especially by the doctrines of the Divine right. As Fleshly Israel's sins brought this oppression upon them, so Spiritual Israel's sins brought the same oppression upon them. In this oppression (Judg. 6:2) the errorists injured both of God's Israels by putting their false teachings into practice; and this oppression caused God's people to resort for safety to secret methods and dealings (dens and caves), e.g., dwelling in the catacombs, meeting in secret, working more or less under cover; and to fortifying themselves by arguments (strongholds) against the errorists. V. 3 shows that every time the true people of God would produce some fruit in their fields of labor the errorists would take it away from them—a thing that was true of the experiences of Fleshly and Spiritual Israel. Their chief oppressors were the errorists (Midianites), who were seconded by the wicked (Amalekites, lowlanders, those who inhabit the lowlands of sinful degradation) and the selfish and worldly (the children of the east). These certainly fought (v. 4) against the Lord's people until they overcame them, not ceasing their strife until they had subdued them into captivity in their sects (Gaza, a city of the Philistines, sectarianism). They robbed the Lord's people of their truths (substance), taking away the doctrine of the Sin-offerings and Ransom (sheep, margin, kid, and ox, i.e., bullock) and perverting every other doctrine (ass), as we see this illustrated in the course of the Papacy. V. 5 shows how this was accomplished. The oppressors came up against them with all their followers and equipment (cattle and tents) in great multitudes, individually and organizationally (they and their camels), being intent on

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destroying antitypical Israel's teachings and fruits. V. 6 brings us to the opening of the Christian Era, at which time all men (Israelites indeed) were in expectation, longing and praying amid their oppression for the coming of Messiah to deliver them from the yoke of Rome. The same thing was in spirit fulfilled among Christians incidental to the oppressions of Pagan and Papal Rome. According to v. 7, when these cries for release began, the Lord began to prepare deliverance for His people. 

(3) In vs. 8-10 we understand the type to picture forth the ministry of John the Baptist, begun when all men were in expectation of the Messiah; for just as the prophet there reminded Israel of God's Covenant benefits to them, despite which they sinned against the Lord and His Covenant, so the preaching of John the Baptist was a preaching of God's goodness to Israel, of His Covenant with them, of their violations of this Covenant, and of the necessity of repentance and faith in order to obtain from the Messiah their deliverance (Matt. 3:1-12). 

(4) Vs. 11-24 typically refer to our Lord's preparation for, and execution of His ministry while in the flesh. In this section the angel that instructed Gideon as to his mission types the Word of God that made clear to our Lord Jesus His mission. The conversation between Gideon and the angel types our Lord's inquiries put to the Lord's Word in His studies of it, and its solution of His questions. Trees in the symbols of the Scriptures represent great ones, especially the Lord's people (Is. 61:3); and an oak tree would represent an especially mighty one among the Lord's people. We understand John the Baptist, the mightiest of the prophets, to be represented by the oak tree of vs. 11, 19. Ophrah (fawn) seems to represent the Kingdom of God, both in its typical and its embryo aspects. Joash (God-given) seems to type Israelites indeed. Gideon (destroyer) types our Lord Jesus, not 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


from every aspect, but as the Destroyer of sin, error, selfishness and worldliness. Hence the thought of v. 11 seems to be that, connected with the ministry of John the Baptist (under the oak), God's Word (the angel) in the typical kingdom of God (Ophrah), which belonged to the Israelites indeed (Joash), began to become clear to Jesus, while He in support of the ministry of John the Baptist was engaged in encouraging Israelites indeed (threshing wheat) respecting the Kingdom, as a means of protection against their oppressors (to hide it from the Midianites). The first thing that the Word of God made clear to Him, and that before His consecration, was that He was the One especially favored by God (the Lord is with thee), and that He was the chosen One, the mighty One among the people, upon whom the Lord had laid help for the people (thou mighty man of valor). The way in which the Lord's Word made this clear to Jesus was in all probability as follows: As He considered what He had heard from others, especially from His mother Mary, respecting the angel's announcement of His begettal, birth and future ministry, Bible passages pertaining to these matters came to His mind and corroborated His thoughts, making Him realize that He was the One of whom these Scriptures treated. 

(5) No sooner was this thought corroborated to Him by the Scriptures than He began (v. 13) to inquire as to why God had permitted evil (why, then, is all this befallen us?)—a question that every person asks who is given to serious reflection on the Lord's Providences. Still a further matter was pressing upon His mind for solution—the deliverance of God's people from the Empire of Satan, symbolized by Israel's deliverance from Egypt, a thing promised in the Word of God, but not yet realized; for God's people were then oppressed by errorists, etc. (Midianites, etc.). V. 14 types how Jehovah intimated to Jesus through

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His Word (the angel) that this deliverance was to be wrought by Him, through His doing two things: (1) that in the strength of His perfect character He should go forth on the ministry entrusted to Him, first in dying for the world, and second in leading God's people in holy warfare (go in this thy might), and (2) in His utterly routing the forces of error, sin, selfishness and worldliness (and thou shalt save Israel, etc.). The expression, "Have I not sent Thee?" implies that the Lord through His Word gave Him the evidence that He was Shiloh, the Sent of God (Gen. 49:10). 

(6) V. 15 is a touching description of our Lord's deep humility, which He especially felt, when it became clear to Him that He was the Divinely chosen Deliverer of God's people. He felt (1) His lack of means to accomplish the work (Wherewith shall I save Israel?); (2) the lowliness of His ancestral position (Behold, my family is poor in Manasseh! i.e., I have not come from David's royal descendants, from Solomon, etc., but from obscure descendants of David, through Nathan); and (3) the ill-repute of His supposed illegitimate birth (and I am the least, etc.). 

(7) V. 16 shows how Jehovah comforted Him (through the Word, for which probably Is. 49:6-9 was the special section used) with the assurance that the Lord would give Him all the help and strength necessary to carry out His mission in delivering God's people. And by these promises our dear Lord, as Gideon's antitype (v. 17), was enabled to decide to consecrate Himself to Jehovah for the carrying out of the mission that Jehovah had in the Word outlined for Him to perform, His only concern being that the Lord by His Word would give Him the Holy Spirit, as the final proof of and sufficient equipment for, His ministry (v. 17). For this reason He asked (v. 18) for the Lord's presence with Him in His consecration (Depart not hence, etc.). And the Lord by His Word (the 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


angel) assured Him that He would be with Him, and not leave Him (I will tarry, etc.). 

(8) Vs. 19, 20 type the events immediately connected with our Lord's consecration of Himself to Jehovah to do the Latter's will in the mission offered Him. The expression, "Gideon went in," types our Lord searching His heart and mind as He counted the cost, as a part of a sober, well-considered consecration. The kid typed His humanity; the unleavened cakes typed the fact that His humanity was sinless; the ephah of flour shows that His sinlessness consisted of full and actual perfection. The distinction between the flesh in the basket and the broth in the pot seems to be the same as between that which was burned on the altar and the incense that was offered in the Holy: our Lord's sacrifice as it appeared, on the one hand, to those in the Court condition, and on the other hand to Jehovah and to the New Creatures in the Holy. Gideon's bringing these out and presenting them to the angel types our Lord's consecration. His doing this under the oak types that our Lord's consecration to do Jehovah's will, as stated in the Word, would occur in connection with the ministry of John the Baptist (the oak). In Scriptural symbolisms a rock often represents a truth, especially a fundamental truth. The particular truth typed by the rock of v. 20 seems to be the truth that Peter announced (Matt. 16:15-18). This was the rock truth that supported our Lord's sacrifice; and God's Word bade (the angel of God said unto Him, Take, etc.) Him base His sacrifice on the truth that He was the Messiah, who would save the world from the Adamic sentence by the sacrifice of Himself (Is. 53:1-12). Thus before His baptism He was given to understand by the Word that by His baptism He was symbolically to fulfill all righteousness (Matt. 3:15), (1) which was actually done by His satisfying the demands of the Law for the life of the world, through His death, pictured by His being put under the water;

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and (2) by satisfying the demand of the Law for the obedience of all under it, through His complying with all its requirements, walking in newness of life, symbolized by His rising out of the water. His delight at the time of His consecration to do the Lord's will in sacrificing Himself, based upon His faith in His Messiahship, is thus typed by Gideon's offering the sacrifice on the rock, as the angel charged. 

(9) Vs. 21-23 briefly represent our Lord's sacrificial career, culminating in the Gethsemane and Calvary scenes. In the symbols of the Bible a staff represents an office, or work. Thus the shepherd's staff represents the shepherd's office, or work. The angel's staff would therefore represent the office, or work of the Word of God, one of whose works is to beget of the Spirit (Jas. 1:18; 1 Pet. 1:23). Touching the sacrifice with the end of the staff seems to represent the Spirit-begettal. The fire coming out of the rock represents the power of God in the truth that He was the Messiah, which enabled His New Creature to consume His humanity in sacrifice. Thus briefly His three and a half years' sacrifice of Himself is pictured forth. The angel departing from Gideon (v. 21) types how for the brief hour in Gethsemane the teachings of the Word that He would be faithful unto death vanished from Jesus' eyes of understanding. In Gethsemane's dark hour for a while He feared that He had not done perfectly; and He also feared that He might not be able on the morrow to do perfectly, and therefore feared that He could not be saved (by resurrection) from death (Heb. 5:7). Thus for a brief time He lost sight of the Lord's Word that foretold His faithfulness unto death. Perhaps our Lord's uncertainty on the cross (Matt. 27:46) is also included, with the Gethsemane scene, in this feature of the type under consideration. Gideon's perceiving (v. 22) that he had seen an angel types our Lord's deep sense of responsibility (felt in Gethsemane) involved in His 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


Messianic Mission, and the dangers involved in clearly perceiving such knowledge (seen an angel face to face). Gideon's fear of death types our Lord's fear of the Second Death for supposed or prospectively feared failure to be faithful—the fear that so greatly oppressed Him in Gethsemane. But as the Lord (v. 23) comforted Gideon with the benediction of peace and the assurance that He would not die, so the Father comforted Jesus with the benediction of peace and the assurance that He had been and would continue to be faithful, and therefore would not suffer the Second Death (Heb. 5:7; Luke 22:43). This strengthened the Lord unto the completion of His sacrifice; and as Gideon (v. 24), through the Lord's comfort, was enabled to erect an altar of peace from Jehovah for Israel (Jehovah-shalom), so Jesus, completing His sacrifice, was enabled to erect an Altar—even His Ransom-sacrifice—which speaks peace from God to antitypical Israel. This Altar is found even now in the embryo Kingdom of God (Ophrah), among those whom the Father helps (Abi-ezrites). 

(10) Thus we find, as above-stated, in vs. 11-24, a brief typical history of our Lord's experiences beginning just before His consecration and ending just before Pentecost. In the remainder of this chapter we find brief typical pictures, of salient features of His Gospel Age activities with His followers against errorists, as preparations for the overthrow of the main errorists and their errors. This will appear from a study of the rest of the chapter, type and antitype. 

(11) One of the salient features of our Lord's Gospel-Age activities is His association of the Church with Himself in His service and in His activities for Truth and against error and errorists. This is shown typically in vs. 25-27. We understand that the second bullock of Gideon's father (v. 25), offered as a burnt offering, types Jesus' ministry manifesting God's acceptance of Jesus' sacrifice for the 

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humanity and New Creatures of the Church, whose sacrifice by our Lord follows our Lord's erection of the Ransom-sacrifice as an Altar speaking peace from Jehovah. The fact of its being seven years old types His perfection before God, affecting, among other things, the reckoned perfection of the Church's humanity. Baal's altar was the Clergy class in Fleshly Israel, where the scribes, Pharisees and priests sacrificed to Satan by grasping for power and lording it over Fleshly Israel in Jesus' day. The fact that Joash had this altar proves that He did not type Jehovah as Jesus' Father, as some might infer from the fact that he was the father of Gideon, the type of Jesus; for Jehovah did not erect and keep an altar for Baal, Satan. As Gideon's father he types Israelites indeed, of whom Jesus was one, even as Aaron in Lev. 16 types the whole Priesthood; and for the ends of the Ages Eleazar, one of Aaron's sons, types the Twelve and our Pastor. But from the fact of Aaron's fatherhood of Eleazar we are not to infer that the whole Priesthood or any part of it is the father of any priest; rather sonship here implies membership in the class typed by the father. Thus in this particular this fact is a parallel of how the antitypical Joash is not Jehovah, the Father of our Lord Jesus, but is a class, Israelites indeed, of which Jesus was a member. The antitypical Joash of the Jewish Harvest, before becoming spiritual Israelites, certainly supported those who sat in Moses' seat, despite their clericalism, and thus had an altar of Baal. The charge to throw down (v. 25) Baal's altar represents God's charge to Jesus to abrogate the office of the Jewish clergy as no longer a Divinely pleasing institution, and to overthrow their clericalistic claims. The grove that was by the altar seems to represent the partisan supporters of the system of clericalism. To cut it down seems to type the casting off of such persons from God's favor (Rom. 11:16-22). 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


(12) The altar (v. 26) that Gideon was commissioned to build types Jesus and the Church which under the Headship of Jesus is the Body of The Messiah—the mystery hidden from ages and generations. It is as such built upon the same Rock—the truth respecting The Messiah, i.e., that The Messiah is Jesus, the Head, and the Church, His Body—even as in the type Gideon was commissioned to build his second altar upon the same rock upon which he had offered his first sacrifice. The expression, in the ordered place, is in the margin given, in an orderly manner, i.e., both the typical and antitypical altar would have to be built according to the Lord's arrangements as typed in the Law, which for the antitype would imply its actual and reckoned perfection through Jesus' merit, and its acceptance by Jehovah for sacrificial uses. On this Altar the humanity of the Church was to be sacrificed by the Gospel-Age ministry of Jesus' burnt offering (the second bullock was to be offered). The wood of the grove seems to represent the Old Testament truths, once in the possession of the supporters of Jewish clericalism, by which truths the humanity of the Church, energized sacrificially by them, would be consumed by Jesus' offering up His burnt offering. This offering of the Jesus manifests God's acceptance of Jesus' sacrifice (burnt offering). 

(13) The number ten (ten men) is the number for completion for any nature lower than the Divine, of which seven is the number of completion. The ten men, therefore, seem to represent the totality of human (possibly also angelic) helpers that the Lord used to carry forward His work of manifesting God's acceptance of His sacrifice for the help of the Church and of overthrowing the Jewish clericalists. By means of these our Lord accomplished the prescribed work (v. 27). By His people He set aside the Jewish clericalists and their system as obligatory upon Spiritual Israel (cut down the altar of Baal). By them He

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refuted their clericalistic claims and cut down the supporters of that system (cut down the grove). Gideon's doing this by night types the secret way in which the Lord has throughout the Age wrought with His people: "The world knoweth us not, even as it knew Him not." Needless suffering is spared the Lord's people by a proper hiding from the world what is exclusively the business of The Christ. 

(14) Vs. 28-32 type the effects of the Lord's manifesting God's acceptance of Jesus' sacrifice for the Church. The men of the city (v. 28) type the leaders, great ones, in Judaism. Shortly after Pentecost (early in the morning) these perceived that their authority and power in things Divine were questioned and refuted by faithful Christians, as shown in the manner in which they looked upon the preaching and office of the Apostles. They recognized increasingly that the principles of the Truth repudiated their system and them, as any longer the representatives of God (behold, the altar of Baal was cast down and the grove was cut down, etc.). They recognized a sacrifice was being offered that was different from theirs, and on an altogether different Altar—an Altar that permitted no grasping for power, lording it over God's heritage, or any other selfish thing. 

(15) They gave diligent search (v. 29) for the instigator of these acts and traced them to Jesus. They demanded of the Israelites indeed (Joash, v. 30)—now become faithful Christians—that they by repudiating Jesus join in the work of extirpating His name and principles (bring out thy son that he may die) because of the effect of His teaching on the Jewish systems, leaders and supporters. But the spiritual Israelites (v. 31) reasoned against supporting a clericalistic system, and warned that such deeds as the Jewish clericalists desired against Jesus were a defense of Satan himself. They announced that all who would take up such a course would be broken off as branches from the 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


olive tree (Rom. 11:17-24) during the Jewish Harvest (let him be put to death while it is yet morning). They further said: Let Satan and those who like him attempt to be lords over God's heritage defend their right to such authority, if they can. Hence the Christians of that time and onward have challenged Satan's power as a pleader or striver against our Lord, and have looked upon Jesus (Jerubbaal) as One who perpetually is a Challenger to Satan along this line (Let Baal plead against Him, v. 32). 

(16) The remainder of the chapter (vs. 33-40) gives very brief sketches of the chief scenes in our Lord's activities against errorists during the rest of the Gospel Age. In v. 33 are typed the rise and association (were gathered together) of Gospel-Age errorists and sinners and selfish and worldly persons as oppressors of God's people; their progress toward (went), and their militant methods (pitched) for, the union of church and state (Jezreel). It will be recalled (Vol. III, Chapter I) that Jezreel, the mutual dwelling-place of Ahab and Jezebel, types a union of church and state. As we are aware, the mystery of iniquity, already working in St. Paul's time (2 Thes. 2:7), developed rapidly into more and more of error, sin, selfishness and worldliness and all who had their spirit were drawn (were gathered together) more and more into a fellowship of error, sin, selfishness and worldliness, developing (went) through clericalism into the Antichrist system uniting church and state (Jezreel), for which they strove (pitched), as a Divine institution, and which in the days of Constantine the Great came into existence. This mystery of iniquity boldly taught the Divine right of kings, clergy and aristocracy as the main principle of the union of church and state. Thus v. 33 gives a brief history of the falling away in the beginning of this Age. As Gideon (v. 34) was energized by the Lord (the Spirit of the Lord came, etc.) to raise up Israelites against their 

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oppressors, so our Lord sent forth a message (blew a trumpet) through Arianism and related movements calling upon the faithful to oppose the apostates, the oppressors of Spiritual Israel. And these faithful ones, helped by God (Abi-ezer), in the various anti-Catholic movements from the fourth to nearly the ninth century gathered together against the clericalistic errorists, even as the Abi-ezrites in the type responded to Gideon's trumpet call. 

(17) In v. 35 we have a brief history typical of the reformatory movements from the ninth to the end of the fifteenth century. This brief sketch is elaborated typically in the experiences of Elijah in 1 Kings 17:1—18:33, of which we have (Vol. III, Chapter I) given the antitype. As in the type (Judg. 6:35), after the Abi-ezrites, four groups (Manasseh, Asher, Zebulun and Naphtali) were called to battle, so in the antitype we find four distinct reform efforts, following the Arian and related movements. The first of these, corresponding to Manasseh gathering to Gideon, had as its chief messengers Claudius of Turin, Agobard of Lyons, and Ratrammus of Corbie, the chief antitypes of Gideon's messengers sent to Manasseh, and lasted with much fruitfulness against papal Idolism and Absolutism, especially in Northern Italy, in France and in Germany, throughout the ninth century. It will be recalled that three efforts were made before another successful reform movement could be made permanent, the first effort being begun in 1045 A.D. by Berengar of Tours and Guido of Milan, the second by Peter Abelard and Arnold of Brescia, and the third, the successful one, in 1173, by Peter Waldo, 128 years intervening between the beginning of the first and the third efforts. We understand that this movement, consisting of these three efforts at establishing a permanent reform movement, is represented by the calling of Asher; and the above-mentioned second set of brothers are the main antitypes of Gideon's messengers sent

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


to Asher. The third anti-papal and anti-idol reform movement was begun by Marsilius, 1309 A.D., continued by Wyclif, and brought to a climax by Huss, 1415 A.D. This reform movement, we understand, is typed by the call of Zebulun; while the three brothers just mentioned are the leading antitypes of the messengers sent by Gideon to Zebulun. The next reform movement was a doctrinal one, in which the two main leaders were John Wessel and Jerome Savonarola. This movement laid down the four chief principles of the Protestant Reformation: (1) the Bible, the sole source and rule of faith and practice; (2) the Headship of Jesus in all things over the Church; (3) Justification by faith alone; and (4) the Priesthood of the faithful. We understand this movement to be typed by Gideon's call of Naphtali, and the two brothers last mentioned to be the main antitypes of Gideon's messengers sent to Naphtali. In all of these movements a favorable response was made to our Lord's call through His messengers (and they came up, etc.). 

(18) In vs. 36-40 we have a very brief history typical of our Lord's experiences connected with the Reformation by sects and with the Harvest movement. As in the type Gideon was given the two signs as pledges of the success of His mission, so in the antitype, the antitypes of the two signs were given to our Lord as a pledge of His success in delivering God's people from their oppressors. We understand the fleece of wool to type the Reformatory Churches—Lutheran, Presbyterian, Baptist, Episcopal, etc. Wool is used to represent Justification by Faith (Is. 1:18), which was both the condition and the teaching of the true members of these churches; hence they could be fittingly typed by the fleece of wool. The earth represents those outside of these churches. The dew represents the Truth as due. The wool alone being full of dew represents that during the period of the Reformation by sects the Truth as due would be found only in these 

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sects, saturating them—it would not be found outside of them (on the earth beside). How, then, was the fact that the Truth as due was found in these sects alone and not outside of them a proof that God would use our Lord to deliver His people from their oppressors? We answer: (1) that the reformatory truths were sufficient to consume (2 Thes. 2:8) the Papal power in very many ways, especially governmentally, and thus gave our Lord a sure proof that He would prevail against the oppressors of Spiritual Israel. Moreover, (2) the fact that the Truth given through the Reformation divided Christendom into many sects and nationalities made the overthrow of errorists much easier than if Christendom had remained largely one, nationally and ecclesiastically. The bowl full of water that Gideon wrung out of the fleece represents the sum total of Truth that the Reformation by sects contained; and this Truth was available for the movement following the Reformation by sects: The cleansed Sanctuary had this bowl full of Truth for its purposes, as those that pointed to the Harvest movement just ahead. The wringing out of the dew thus represents our Lord gathering together in the cleansed Sanctuary all of the truths of the Reformatory sects. The bowl itself seems to represent the literary productions into which the Lord put the Truth. 

(19) Vs. 39 and 40 type the Harvest movement and Truth as another and final proof to Jesus that He would successfully deliver God's people from their oppressors. As the Reformation gave truths destructive of many Papal teachings and of much of Papal power, as well as divided Christendom nationally and ecclesiastically, and thus weakened the oppressors of God's people; so the Harvest movement furnished a people for the Lord's purposes free from all sectarian claims, and gave all the truths necessary completely to confute the errors of their oppressors. Hence it became another and final evidence of victory for our Lord over 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


all oppressors of God's people. While during the Reformation by sects the truths as due came through and were found in the Reformatory sects alone (the dew on the fleece alone), during the Harvest all of the sects were spewed out of God's mouth (Rev. 3:16), and thus no new truth was found in them (for it was dry upon the fleece only); but during the Harvest the Truth was found outside of the churches among the Harvest people (the dew was upon all the ground); and much secular truth was, as Millennial foregleams, found among worldlings, but not in the churches. Thus the Reformation and the Harvest truths, the divided churches and nations and a united people outside of the churches, became from God to our Lord the sure pledges of victory over the oppressors. 

(20) Thus we bring to a close a brief study of Judg. 6, in which we find a most remarkable typical history of the salient features of the Times of the Gentiles, especially from the standpoint of the oppression of both Israels, and God's preparation of our Lord for the deliverance of them from their oppressors. 

(21) Above we set forth the antitypical fulfillment of Judg. 6, and found it to be a brief typical history of God's people of both Israels, more particularly during the Times of The Gentiles, as well as a typical history of our Lord's preparation for the work of delivering God's people from the oppressions of error, sin, selfishness and worldliness. We desire to continue the presentation of Gideon—Type and Antitype. As we trust the subject so far treated has proven a blessing to the Epiphany-enlightened saints, so we pray that the Lord may be pleased to bless to them the further discussion of the subject. The antitypes of Judg. 6 closed with the Reformation by sects and the Harvest Movement as proofs given to our Lord that Jehovah would by Him deliver His people from their oppressors; and the curtain of Judg. 7 is raised on a 

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scene in which the two opposing forces are represented as encamped against one another. Then the chapter depicts the selective and rejective work of the Lord connected with the participants on His side of the conflict. This is followed by a picture of the final encouragement given the Leader of God's people for the impending conflict. The directions for the first battle then are given, followed by the conflict that the Leader personally directed; and the chapter closes with a subordinate battle in which the Leader did not participate, but in which he called certain ones not previously invited to the warfare to participate. 

(22) In v. 1 the hosts marshalled against one another are described. The scene was in the easternmost part of the plain of Esdraelon (seed of God), known also as the Valley of Megiddo (destruction), the great battleground of Palestine (Josh. 12:21; 17:11; Judg. 1:27; 5:19; 2 Kings 9:27; 23:29; Zech. 12:11). This valley ended in passes north and south of the Hill of Moreh (instruction), now called the Little Hermon. It was south of this hill, "in the valley," where the Midianites were encamped; while it was a little south of them on the north slopes of Mt. Gilboa at the well Harod (terror) that the host of Gideon encamped. In this verse the names applied to Israel's leader point out in type the fact that our Lord acts as the Opponent of Satan (Jerubbaal), and as the Destroyer (Gideon) of his works. The well of Harod (terror) types the arguments on the penalty of Sin which according to the Truth is a terror, and which according to Satan's eternal torment theory is certainly a magnified terror. It is on this point, from the beginning of the Harvest onward, yea, even from the time of the cleansed Sanctuary onward, that God's true mouthpieces have contended (encamped) against the errorists. That the antitypical battle would have to do with teaching is suggested by the word Moreh (instruction); and that the opponents of God's people are here spoken of as

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


Midianites (contenders) suggests that the battle was mainly against error. 

(23) That the privilege of sharing in the typical and antitypical battles was to be obtained along elective lines is taught in vs. 2-8. It is decidedly necessary that the lesson, "Not by might, nor by power, but by My Spirit," be taught to, and impressed upon the Lord's people. The glory of delivering the Lord's people from error, sin, selfishness and worldliness should not be claimed by the warriors of the Lord ("lest Israel vaunt themselves," etc.); for the battle is the Lord's. And, among other ways, God has impressed this lesson by limiting the privilege of engaging in the battle to a very small number, compared with the number of their adversaries, and by rejecting from His army a large number, compared with the number that He retained in His army. Thus there could be no doubt that the victory was of the Lord. His glory the Lord will not give another. And certainly the few who took part in antitypical Gideon's first battle, and the few who are now taking part in His second battle, have no possibly reasonable claim to the victory as gained by their own might ("mine own hand hath saved me"). There were 32,000 men in Gideon's army, which was not quite a fourth of the number of their enemies. But frequently in war victory has been won by a force proportionally that much smaller than their enemies. Hence the number had to be reduced to prevent Israel's boasting. We understand these 32,000 men to represent all who have entered the initial warfare waged by our Gideon, i.e., all who have enlisted on the side of Truth and Righteousness. Hence the 32,000 would represent all of the tentatively justified and all of the consecrated. 

(24) The proclamation of v. 3 ("Whoso is fearful and afraid," etc.) types the call to consecration, in connection with which the exhortation to count the cost is given, and in connection with which those who lack a consecrating faith (the fearful and afraid lack such a

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faith) are invited to stand aside, and not go forward and make a consecration. These were to be separated from the others as soon as possible ("Let them depart early," etc.); for their presence interfered more or less with the consecrated. This proclamation was more especially made early in the Harvest period, and certainly from that time onward comparatively few of the tentatively justified mingled among the Harvest people. While the antitypical proclamation is not just the same as that which called upon the Lord's people to leave Babylon, yet their leaving Babylon served to separate the tentatively justified from them; and leaving Babylon is, in the antitype, one of the things whose cost is to be counted. The fact that 22,000 left and 10,000 remained is not to be taken as giving us an exact proportion of those who are merely tentatively justified and those who are consecrated; for the proportion of the former to the latter is much larger than these figures indicate. Rather it is to show that the majority who begin the battle for Truth and Righteousness give it up, because fearful and afraid, i.e., they have no consecrating faith, hence do not progress to the sharper conflicts beginning with consecration. 

(25) But the privilege of sharing in the great victory cannot be given even to all the consecrated; for Jehovah decided that this privilege should be given to the Very Elect alone. Therefore the scene of the separating of the 10,000 into two companies (vs. 4-8) is used to type how God took away the crowns from the measurably unfaithful; and thus He made them become of that class whom since antitypical Gideon's first battle He has been manifesting as Great Company members; and thus as being such as from His standpoint were no longer of the Very Elect, though He did not for several years manifest these persons as such to us. It would not surprise us, if there were from 500,000 to 1,000,000 New Creatures in the world during the Harvest. These were typed by the 10,000. As in 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


the type the separation was made by the manner in which these drank of the water, so in the antitype the separation that God made in His decision (then not yet manifested to us) was based upon the way the new creatures acted toward the Truth. As Jehovah, but not Gideon, in the type decided what the test should be, so He, not Jesus, in the antitype decided what the test should be. He decided that it should be the attitude of each individual toward the Truth ("Bring them down to the water and I will try them for thee there"). That our Lord Jesus was the Agent through whom the trial was applied is indicated both by the fact that Jehovah commanded Gideon to bring the people to the water, and by the fact that the latter did bring them there. That Jehovah decided the whole issue is manifest from His statement to Gideon: "of whom I shall say unto thee," etc. (v. 4). 

(26) Jesus therefore applied the Divinely ordained test (v. 5: "So he [Gideon] brought down," etc.). In the type we are told that the division should be based on whether the drinkers would stand, and lap water with the tongue as a dog laps it, or whether they would bow down upon their knees to drink water. Whoever would do the former should be put into one company, and whoever would do the latter should be put into another company. Therefore their attitude in, and manner of drinking the water would decide whether or not they should be participants in the victory. What is typed by these things? Let us examine first what is typed by those who, while standing, lapped with their tongues. It will be noted (1) that they stood upright as they drank; (2) that they raised the water to their mouths by their hands; (3) that they used their tongues in appropriating it; (4) that they had to look up as they did this; (5) that they like a dog had to lap vigorously to get enough; (6) that the lapping caused the tongue to work in and out frequently; and (7) that such lapping was more conducive to satisfying thirst

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and to nourishing the body than the large amounts gulped down by the other method. Each of these thoughts suggests things that in the antitype enabled one to be fit to be of the Very Elect. (1) The upright position types how the Very Elect have maintained the true dignity and nobility of sons of God, refusing to bow down in human servility to the earthly dispensers of the Truth, as though they were its originators, as the other class has done. They persisted in dealing with the Word in a way that built for them an independent faith structure, which did not need to lean upon any one except the Lord as indispensable to their standing. (2) The raising of the water to the mouth by the hand types that the faithful would exert their activity with zeal to gain the Truth. They worked for it; they labored for the meat that perisheth not. Their appreciation of the Truth was so great that they were willing to work diligently to obtain it. The Truth is not for the easy-going Christian, but for those who labor for it. (3) The tongue is the agent by which the sense of taste is exercised, and by which salivation is produced; and it would in this connection type that as natural food is better prepared for digestion by salivation, so the Truth by spiritual salivation is better prepared for digestion by the antitypical three hundred thoroughly studying it; and that the Truth was very tasteful, greatly appreciated, by the antitypical three hundred. (4) Looking up as the drinking was done types recognition of God as the Source of the Truth, trust in His provision of it, and gratitude to Him as its Giver. (5) Lapping vigorously, like a dog, symbolizes great energy put forth in gaining the Truth. Herein it was preeminently necessary to do with one's might what one found to do. The more thirsty a dog is the more vigorously he laps; and in this particular the figure suggests the energy and vigor with which the Very Elect partook of the Truth. (6) Inasmuch as lapping implies a frequent application of the tongue to 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


the thing lapped, the type suggests that appreciation of the Truth must be continual and that there be a continuous preparation of the Truth for digestion. (7) And inasmuch as the lapping was more conducive to satisfying the thirst and for nourishing the body than was gulping fluids down by the other method mentioned in the type, this action would type that the faithful would more thoroughly satisfy their thirst with Truth and would better nourish the graces of their hearts than the measurably unfaithful would do. And these seven things done with the Truth enabled the faithful to become the Very Elect, as the neglect of these seven things prevented others of the Spirit-begotten from becoming of the Very Elect. Thus we see how in the type God by the three hundred figured forth that the faithful would so use the Word of Truth as by it to guarantee the making of their calling and election sure. 

(27) On the other hand, bowing down upon one's knees implies a number of things: (1) that one assumes a servile posture; (2) that one is leisurely in his drinking; (3) that one is lazy in his drinking; (4) that one scarcely tastes or salivates the water that he drinks; (5) that one looks downward instead of upward while he drinks; and (6) that the water is gulped down in large quantities unprepared for digestion. These six thoughts are typical of such actions toward the Truth as disqualify a New Creature for membership in the Little Flock: (1) Bowing down to drink types how some New Creatures made themselves servile to those who taught them the Truth. They accepted it upon their teachers' word without making the Truth their own by such a study of it as was convincing of its Scripturalness, reasonableness and factualness. They therefore leaned upon and trusted human leaders, and thus gave them such an honor as made themselves servile. For instance, how many accepted our Pastor's teachings, not from a thorough 

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and convincing study of them, but merely because he was "that Servant"! Neglecting his repeated exhortation to accept nothing that he wrote or taught, unless they "proved" it true, they simply swallowed what he said, just because he said it. These failed to maintain the true dignity and nobility of sons of God. On the contrary, they became servile to a man. And when he died, not having learned to lean upon the Lord alone to serve them through His mouthpieces as He would, they had to have another human support, a crutch, to lean upon. Hence how readily they fell into the trap of Satan, that the Society was the Channel for the Priests' meat and work! Of course, an independent faith structure could not be so built; and, of course, those lacking it could not be in the Little Flock; for they lack the necessary stability and poise of character. 

(2) Bowing down on the knees to drink likewise types leisureliness. Such Christians as this action types were not diligent and vigilant, always abounding in the work of the Lord. They would be intermittent in their use of the Truth. They claimed in effect to have so much time as would permit them to work with the Truth only at intervals, resting between times. Steadfast zeal and energy were accordingly lacking in these and, of course, they could not make their calling and election sure. (3) Bowing down on one's knees to drink types another thought, laziness, a near relative of the preceding thought. Not only has leisureliness caused New Creatures to lose their crowns, but also laziness has produced the same effect. Those who would not exert themselves with the Truth, those who would not by faithful use of the Truth produce weariness in, but not of the Lord's cause, and those who would not endure hardness as good soldiers of Christ failed to retain their crowns. The crown is not for the easy-going, the lazy Christian. Hence those who bowed down type such also as have by laziness been severed from the antitypical three hundred. (4) As 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


those that bowed down to drink were in such a position as scarcely permitted them to taste or salivate the water, so their antitypes are those who had very little appreciation, taste, for the Truth, and who did not by proper study prepare the Truth for digestion. To them the Truth was not "sweeter than honey and the honey comb." They could not say in reality, "O how love I thy Law!" "More than my necessary meat!" More than once they showed almost nausea at the Truth, and more than once they were faint from spiritual indigestion. Such as were in this attitude of course lost their crowns. They were set aside in another company than that of the antitypical three hundred. 

(5) Looking downward while drinking types that God is not appreciated as the Source of the Truth; that He is not trusted to provide it as due; and that He is not thanked and loved heartily as its Giver. On the contrary, it implies that some earthly one is appreciated as its source, trusted as its provider and thanked as its giver. Surely such a use of the Truth would be subversive of making one's calling and election sure. (6) Gulping down the water in large quantities unprepared for digestion types the action of those who swallowed the Truth instead of thoroughly "proving" it to be Scriptural, reasonable and factual: This has resulted in spiritual indigestion and dyspepsia, with the resultant disagreeableness of disposition that makes one unloving and unlovely. Surely those who misused the Truth in these six particulars forfeited their crowns, and thus lost Little Flockship. Thus just as in the type (vs. 5, 6) there were two classes formed, because they drank differently, so in the antitype there have been two classes formed, because they have acted differently toward the Word of Truth, the Little Flock being typed by those who drank while standing upright, the Great Company being typed by those who drank while lying prone. We are, of course, to understand that the picture here applies somewhat

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more particularly, though not exclusively, to the Truth people during the Harvest, otherwise shadowed forth by typical Elijah and Elisha. We are not to understand that the numbers 300 and 9700 are in the exact proportion of the number of the Little Flock and of the Great Company, nor even of the Truth sections of these two classes. Rather the difference is to indicate that a large majority of the consecrated people are of the Great Company. The test in antitype was complete so far as the Great Company was concerned by the Fall of 1914, when the last crown was lost. 

(28) V. 7 types a statement made by Jehovah to Jesus which proves that They by the Fall of 1914 knew who had lost and who would retain their crowns. So God and Christ knew by that time who would remain in the Little Flock and who did not; but They did not for several years begin to manifest this to us. Jehovah thus pointed out to our Lord the Little Flock members through whom under our Gideon He, Jehovah, would win the great victory. Probably this in the Fall of 1914 was done anticipatorially in the case of those whose forehead sealing was not complete until a little later; for the Lord, having indicated both in the Pyramid and in the Bible when the last crown would be finally assigned, knew when that last crown was assigned, and hence knew that all then having crowns would retain them, though it is also probable that only as each individual of the antitypical three hundred did his upright drinking was he pointed out by Jehovah to Jesus as one of that class. On the other hand, those who in the antitype did the prone drinking did it before the last one was begotten of the Spirit, and hence were then set aside for the Great Company by Jehovah's decision. It must have been a very happy time both to Jehovah and to Jesus when the last one of the antitypical three hundred had stood the test faithfully, and when Jehovah could say antitypically, "By the three hundred men that lapped will I save you, 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


and deliver the Midianites into Thy hand," even though He had to say antitypically of the Great Company, "Let all the other people go every man unto his own place." 

(29) V. 8 types how the faithful would possess themselves of the Truth by making it their own ("the people took victuals in their hands"), and how they armed themselves with it as an implement of war ("and their trumpets"). Our Lord sent the others away ("and he sent all the rest of Israel," etc.). Jesus did this by making the circumstances connected with the work from the Fall of 1914 to that of 1916 of such a kind as overtaxed the zeal of the Great Company, so that they gradually under the strain gave up the work, and thus were not in the finished picture of the first battle of antitypical Gideon. He kept the antitypical Three Hundred as the King's own with Himself ("and retained those three hundred"). V. 8 compared with v. 1 seems to prove that Gideon's host was on the north slope of Mt. Gilboa, while the Midianites were still farther north, below them in the valley of Jezreel; and hence the scene of the battle was just north of Mt. Gilboa and considerably south of Mt. Tabor, the retreating host fleeing southeastward in two groups toward two different parts of the Jordan. Gideon's position on Mt. Gilboa (fountain, Bible) shows that antitypical Gideon would with His own be on the Mount of Truth, while the others would be in error, especially in those errors connected with the union of church and state (Jezreel), i.e., the errors of the Divine right of kings, clergy and aristocrats. 

(30) Vs. 9-15 types how Jehovah without being requested so to do encouraged our Lord before the battle began. Jehovah is (vs. 9-11) represented as charging our Lord to make certain observations of the conditions of the antitypical Midianitish host, assuring Him that He had so arranged its conditions as to make its defeat certain ("for I have delivered it into thine 

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hand"). Surely by the signs of the times, as the handwriting on the wall, Jehovah indicated the overthrow of the hosts of error. Phurah (bough) seems to type our dear Pastor, as a branch in the true Olive Tree. The scene here is somewhat similar to that of Jehovah's commissioning Moses to go to Egypt, whose fear to undertake the mission was overcome by the promise of the Lord's presence and Aaron's mouthpieceship, Moses here typing Christ beyond the veil and Aaron The Christ class this side of the veil, just before the Second Advent, the invisibility of Christ beyond the veil making a visible mouthpiece to Satan's Empire usable. So in investigating antitypical Midian our Lord needed one, our Pastor, who would with Him examine all things there, and set them before the antitypical Three Hundred. Jehovah assured our Lord that He would hear things in antitypical Midian's camp that would encourage Him to press on to victory ("afterwards shall thy hands be strengthened," v. 11). As Gideon and Phurah alone went down to the camp, so our Lord and our dear Pastor made many a discovery relative to antitypical Midian, and saw and heard things in their camp that no one else of the faithful saw or heard. The outermost part of the armed host, of course, was nearest in position to the three hundred. Those there encamped type those who in antitypical Midian were nearer the Truth people in faith than the other errorists; for as we know there are various shades and hues of error in antitypical Midian. 

(31) V. 12 gives a description of the oppressors of God's people, typing how during the Harvest the errorists ("Midianites"), sinners ("Amalekites"), and selfish and worldly people ("children of the East") would be very numerous ("like grasshoppers for multitude"), and numerously organized ("and their camels were without number," etc.). Certainly when we think of the hundreds of millions who support church, state,

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


capital and labor in Christendom and of their vast, varied and multitudinous organizations, we can recognize the antitypes of this verse very readily, as here truly described. 

(32) In vs. 13 and 14 a record is given of a dream that a Midianite in the outermost part of the camp told a comrade of his, and of the latter's interpretation of this dream. We suggest the following as the antitype: Those Midianites who were nearest in position to the Israelites type those in Christendom who are in faith and practice nearest the Truth people. During the Harvest these were undoubtedly those Foolish Virgins who were Pre-Millennialists; for there were many consecrated people (Foolish Virgins) who never came into the Harvest Truth, who believed that Jesus will come before the Millennium, will overthrow political, ecclesiastical, aristocratic and laboring Christendom, will establish Himself with His Bride in royalty over the earth, and will bless the then living, but will give no opportunity for the dead world to have Millennial blessings. They likewise believe in eternal torment and the consciousness of the dead. Certain ones of this particular class we understand to be typed by the Midianite who dreamed and told his dream to his fellow. These, studying some of the grosser errors of doctrine and practice in Christendom, and the increasing falling away from Truth and Christian life prevailing in Christendom, as well as other signs of the times, especially the exposures of evils, the outbreak of the war being the last of these, threatening ruin to Christendom, have seen thereby what antitypes the dream of the Midianite. His telling the dream antitypes how in perplexity as to the significance of these events these Foolish Virgins told the teaching class of the Foolish Virgins what they saw of the ominous signs of the times. The Midianite who interpreted the dream to its narrator types those Foolish Virgins who were teachers among them. These latter, like their

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type, explained the signs of the times, especially those that exposed the evils, and that culminated in the war, as harbingers of Messiah's overthrow of error and errorists at His Second Advent. Barley bread is used, because the signs of the times, especially the exposures of the evils of Christendom, are certain ominous truths and their outworkings; and thus presaged what the Lord actually used in the first battle of antitypical Gideon—the sharp, exposing truths that disproved the doctrines of the divine right of kings, of clergy, of aristocrats and of laborers. In the literature of the Foolish Virgin group of Pre-Millennialists we find these explanations given as to the significance of the signs of the times. 

(33) If in the time of war the thought can be made to prevail in an army that it will be defeated, the acceptance of that thought by it is half of its defeat; and if the opposing army learns that such is the belief of their enemy, they are thereby made doubly hopeful of victory. And in harmony with this principle Gideon and his three hundred were as encouraged at the prospect of victory as some of the Midianites were discouraged at the prospect of defeat; for the hope of victory mightily strengthens, and the expectation of defeat greatly weakens. Therefore we read that Gideon was strengthened; and he certainly imparted his strength to his three hundred ("Arise! for the Lord hath delivered into your hand the host of Midian!" v. 15). Antitypically our Lord was greatly encouraged when He saw how some who fought on the side of the errorists recognized that the overthrowal of the doctrines of, and of the believers in the Divine right was implied in the signs of the times, especially as these culminated in the World War. And all we who were privileged to be in the first battle of antitypical Gideon recall how before it was fought we were encouraged when the Lord brought to our attention in the Views from the Watch Tower evidences, from the

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


statements of some in Babylon, that her overthrow was not far distant. Thereby He bade us arise, for the Lord had delivered into our power the host of antitypical Midian. 

(34) In vs. 16-18 the preparations for the battle are described. Nowhere in war history were so great courage and faith manifested as were manifested by Gideon's three hundred, preparing for, and engaging in, the first battle. The nearest approach to it in secular history was when Leonidas, the Spartan king, first with 5000 Greeks, then later with 300 Spartans, defended the narrow pass of Thermopylae against the hordes of invading Persians; but the pass was so narrow that the 300 could advantageously defend it from a frontal attack; while Gideon's three hundred, insufficiently armed as no other warriors ever were, if we consider them from the standpoint of human armor, advanced against 135,000 men in an open plain. The sublime heroism of these three hundred is indescribable and incomparable. Probably in this event the faith of Ancient Worthies reached its climax. The arrangement of Gideon's soldiers, their equipment and their instructions were all ordered in a way to picture forth the wonderful antitype that their sublime faith enabled them to type, but were of a kind to give God, not them, the glory of the victory. Let us briefly look at the details. The division of the three hundred into three companies corresponds to the division of their antitypes into three companies: (1) the Volunteers, (2) the Pilgrims, and (3) the Colporteurs. The trumpets correspond to the message that their antitypes were to announce. Putting the trumpets into their hands types that the message would be in the power of each one of the antitypical three hundred: each one actually made it his own, had it in full control. The pitchers type the humanity of the faithful. Their being empty types the fact that the faithful were free from selfishness and worldliness. The lamps, or

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torches, type the Truth and the Holy Spirit of Truth that filled the faculties of heart and mind of the faithful. As the brave Gideon could set himself forth as an example of heroic achievement for his soldiers to imitate, so our Gideon could do the same for His warriors ("Look at me, and do likewise"). 

(35) By the events of the times and the multiplied agencies, especially the sermons in the newspapers, that our Lord used shortly after the outbreak of the war to attack the doctrines of Divine right He gave a charge to His own to imitate Him in attacking these doctrines. And previously He had instructed His own that, as the providences of God would indicate the lines of attack that should be made, they should press the attack to the utmost along those lines. As in the type Gideon was to blow with the trumpet first, and then the hundred that were with him, so in the antitype. Seemingly the Volunteers, who in the Volunteer literature used certain reprinted sermons, correspond to the hundred that were with Gideon; for by the tracts that they distributed they announced the public meetings where the Pilgrims were to give the message. The Colporteurs, quickly following the example of the other two groups, specialized on Vol. IV, The Battle of Armageddon, when the Tower shortly after the war's outbreak suggested such specialization. In the type the three hundred were to shout, as they gave the blast on their trumpets, the slogan: "The sword of Jehovah and of Gideon!" In the antitype the proclamation was "the Word of God and the Testimony of Jesus." If we were to analyze the antitypical trumpet blast, we believe that we should define the Sword of the Lord as those Biblical principles of Truth and Righteousness that condemned the doctrines of the Divine right of kings, clergy, aristocrats and laborers, and that proved their supporters as defending errors. The doctrines of Divine right we have already defined and disproved (Vol. III, Chapter II). By pointing 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


out as violations of the Divine Word the many sins and errors of the kings, clergy, aristocrats and laborers we disproved the doctrines of Divine right. This part of our proclamation seems to have been typed by the cry, "The sword of the Lord!" Having pointed out these gross wrongs and errors, we then proclaimed the overthrow of Satan's empire by our Lord through the Great Tribulation—the war, as weakening it, and the revolution and anarchy as utterly destroying it. Then we announced the establishment of the Kingdom upon the ruins of Satan's empire. This double proclamation—the overthrow of Satan's empire and the establishment of Christ's Kingdom upon its ruins—seems to be typed by that part of the trumpet blast that consisted of the words, "and the sword of Gideon!" Surely before we entered the first battle of antitypical Gideon we were instructed to give the above-mentioned proclamations. 

(36) Among other things v. 19 indicates the time when the first attack began: It was at the beginning of the middle, or the third watch, i.e., from midnight to 3 A.M. It was therefore at midnight when the attack was begun ("they had but newly set the watch"). This was on the same night when Gideon and Phurah had alone come to the outskirts of the camp (vs. 9-15). We have seen that the investigation was antitypically conducted throughout the Harvest (1874-1914). Hence the antitypical midnight was about October, 1914, when we know the antitypical battle of Gideon began (Z '15, p. 11, col. 2, par. 4). How very opportune that at the end of Gentile Times the chief doctrines that oppressed God's people throughout those "Times" should all receive their death blow! Certainly in Christendom the outbreak of the war (Aug. 1, 1914) necessitated an altogether different set of guards to be placed for the defense of Christendom's course leading up to, and taken in the World War, as against new attacks that were likely to

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be made upon it. And, true enough, the World War furnished the antitypical Three Hundred the best providential opportunity imaginable to attack the doctrines of the Divine right, inasmuch as the World War was a direct effect of these doctrines. Nor was the Lord slow to make the attack. Shortly after the World War broke out, through all sorts of channels of publicity, especially through our Pastor's published sermons, He began to launch the attack first against both the Kaiser and the Czar, both of whom were vociferous in claiming the Divine right. The B.S.M., "The Battle of Armageddon," was on hand for quick distribution by the Volunteers, among other ways, as advertisements for the public meetings. Thus following our Lord the hundred with antitypical Gideon began to sound their trumpets. This B.S.M. was followed by others attacking the principles of the Divine right, as the titles of those that were circulated from the Fall of 1914 to that of 1916 show: "The Distress of Nations Preceding Armageddon," "Why Financiers Tremble," "Clergy Ordination Proved Fraudulent," "Social Conditions Beyond Human Remedy." "The World on Fire," etc. 

(37) The next group to enter the antitypical battle were the Pilgrims, the antitypes of the second hundred of Gideon's men. Our dear Pastor was the first of these to begin this part of the fight, i.e., September 20, 1914, at Fort Worth, Tex. First he used as his subject, "The Battle of Armageddon," then, "After the War—What?" and then, "The World on Fire." It will be remembered that he continued along these lines until within the last week of his life, giving his last public discourse in this battle at San Antonio, Tex., Oct. 24, 1916. It was our privilege to begin our part in this battle Oct. 8, 1914, at Graham, N.C., where we began giving our lecture on The Overthrow of Satan's Empire. We had previously about fifty public lectures, which we had usually rotated in our public 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


meetings; but beginning with Oct. 8, 1914, we departed from the method of rotation of these fifty lectures, and during the next two years almost everywhere that we lectured in public we used the above subject the first time we visited a place, then on a second or third visit we used almost without exception the subjects, "The War in Prophecy," or "After the War—What?" In all three of these lectures the doctrine of the Divine right was attacked, the overthrow of Satan's empire was announced, and the establishment of Christ's Kingdom was proclaimed. Our last lecture along these lines was on "After the War—What?" at New Haven, Conn., Nov. 3, 1916. A few of the other Pilgrims more or less preached on these lines. Those who did not give lectures on these lines or who ceased giving them before the end of the fight or who did not give them in the right spirit were not of the antitypical three hundred. 

(38) The Colporteurs, the antitypes of the third hundred of Gideon's men, seemingly were the last to enter the antitypical battle in response to our Pastor's suggestion to specialize on Vol. IV, The Battle of Armageddon, which better than any other weapon of that battle attacked the doctrines of the Divine right, announced the overthrow of Satan's empire, and proclaimed the coming Kingdom of Messiah. Those Colporteurs who specialized on Vol. I or Vols. I, II and III did not take part in this antitypical battle. Those who did not take part in the fight unto the end with Vol. IV, at least as a part of their equipment, were also not antitypical Gideonites, who consisted of those only who with a true heart continued faithfully fighting unto the end, blowing the antitypical trumpet: "The sword of the Lord and of Gideon!" Thus we see that all three of the antitypical companies blew their trumpets ("and the three companies blew the trumpets," v. 20). 

(39) Moreover, they broke the antitypical pitchers,

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which we saw above were their humanity. The breaking of the pitcher's in the type represents consuming the humanity in the service. Certainly the tests of zeal and devotion during the two years of antitypical Gideon's first battle were so exacting that not a few of the faithful died as a result of their sacrifices; and those of the faithful who lived after that period were in their human strength and health almost entirely used up. "They brake their pitchers." Holding the lamps in the left and the trumpets in the right hand seems likewise typical. The lamps representing the Truth and the spirit of understanding of the Truth pertaining to the true Church, and the trumpets representing the truths that were refutative of the Divine right of kings, etc., and of Satan's empire and defensive of God's Kingdom, to hold the lamps in the left hand seems to type the fact that not chief emphasis and use were made of the deeper truths in this battle; while holding "the trumpets in their right hands to blow withal" seems to type the fact that the more secular truths were mainly emphasized. This seems to be confirmed by the statement that through their trumpets they cried, "The sword of the Lord and of Gideon" (v. 20). 

(40) The statement in v. 21 is quite significant: "They [the three hundred] stood every man in his place round about the camp." Over and over again have we emphasized the fact that only those who continued in the antitypical battle to the end and that in the Lord's spirit had part in the finished picture. Here this fact is typed: They stood. They remained stationed in their place, nothing by any means being able to allure them from their work. Were they weary? Yet they stood every man in his place. Were their means exhausted? Yet they stood every man in his place. Were others who sympathized with them weary, and did these give up? Yet they stood every man in his place. Did their auditors want to hear 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


something else? Yet they stood every man in his place. Yea, they stood to the end with their lamps in their left hands and their trumpets in their right hands, and thereby proved themselves to be antitypical Gideonites, and are thus represented in the finished picture in antitypical Gideon's first battle. 

(41) "And the host ran and cried and fled" (v. 21). This shows that the Divine rightists were utterly confounded. Fear seized upon them, causing them to seek to escape the unanswerable arguments that came from the facts and principles presented by the faithful, while the World War lent an inescapable corroboration of the teachings of the faithful. The errorists cried out all sorts of excuses, but these were of no avail for justifying their claims, and finally in utmost confusion they fled from the field of argument, unable to stand before the flood-light of publicity against their claims cast athwart the World War as a screen. 

(42) "And the three hundred blew the trumpets" (v. 22). Three times this is stated in the type, as we see from the account in vs. 19, 20 and 22. This was done to emphasize the fact that the three hundred kept on blowing their trumpets as loudly as possible, until the end of the battle; and types the fact that the faithful used all energy in continuing the onslaught against the doctrines of the Divine right in announcing the overthrow of Satan's empire and in proclaiming the coming Kingdom of God. "And the Lord set every man's sword against his fellow, even throughout the whole host" (v. 22). Certainly the World War divided Christendom so far as the doctrine of the Divine right is concerned; and they decimated one another in their contentions on autocracy and democracy, on capital and labor, on church and state, on the responsibility for the World War, and on their mutually condemnatory accusations. Out of this strife accompanying the World War has resulted a state of mind that has everywhere unsettled belief in the doctrines of the

A Miscellany. 


Divine right. God's part in this was to cause the Truth to shine on these various subjects, resulting in much discussion of them, which produced a great overthrow of faith on all hands in the doctrines of the Divine right. Who now believes in the doctrine of the Divine right of kings? A negligible minority. Who now believes in the doctrine of the Divine right of the clergy? A small and decreasing minority. Who now believes in the doctrine of the Divine right of the aristocracy? Almost nobody. Who now believes in the Divine right of labor? A rapidly decreasing number. The World War, caused by the practices that were introduced by these doctrines, was accompanied by such factual contradictions and verbal exposures and discussions of these principles and their results as have led to an almost universal repudiation of these errors. As a result of these accompaniments of the war Christendom has on all sides retreated from the principles that are the basis of the union of church and state, i.e., the doctrines of Divine right (the Midianites retreating from the valley of Jezreel). 

(43) The E. and A.R.V. and almost all other versions of the Bible translate the last sentence of v. 22 substantially as follows: "And the host fled (1) as far as Beth-shittah [house of acacia] toward Zererah [cooling], (2) as far as the border of Abel-meholah [meadow of the dance] by Tabbath [famous]. Thus it will be seen that the Midianites fled away from the first battle with Gideon in two groups, headed in two different directions. This types what the division of the Jordan by Elijah's smiting types; for the first battle of Gideon, and Elijah's smiting Jordan, type the same general event in the antitype; and the result of Gideon's first battle, the division of his enemies into two retreating bodies, and the result of Elijah's smiting Jordan, the division of the receding waters into two parts, type Christendom's division into the two classes: (1) the Conservatives and (2) the

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


Radicals, a division that began as a result of the exposures made from the Fall of 1914 to that of 1916 against the effects of the doctrines of the Divine right. To become a Conservative is a "cooling" (Zererah) process; and a house of acacia (Beth-shittah) suggests strength, permanence. Hence we think that those who fled to Beth-shittah toward Zererah type the Conservatives, those who want to conserve, make permanent, the present conditions, cooling off toward all hotheaded radicalism. Dancing (Meholah) in Bible symbolism suggests putting into practice certain doctrines and theories, i.e., acting in harmony with them. And certain famous (Tabbath) theories have been put into practice by the Radicals, e.g., Communism in Bolshevik Russia, modified Socialism in Germany, etc., as a result of the attacks on those who have held the doctrines of the Divine right. Hence we understand those who retreated toward Abel-meholah by Tabbath to type the Radicals. 

(44) Just as in our study of Judg. 6 we found there recorded a most remarkable typical history of the Times of The Gentiles and the Lord's preparation of the Deliverer of God's people from their oppressors, so in Judg. 7:1-22 we find a remarkable typical history of the selection and preparation of the antitypical Three Hundred for, and their victorious participation in, antitypical Gideon's first battle. Surely, beloved brethren, the fulfillment of the antitype so far discussed is very clear, and should give us zest for reading the fulfillment of the rest of the antitype so far fulfilled, and for engaging in antitypical Gideon's second battle. What a glorious privilege is ours! Let us use it to God's glory, and to the saving of many erring brethren's lives (Jas. 5:20). 

(45) Hitherto we have traced according to Judg. 6 the typical and antitypical oppression of God's people at the hands of the typical and antitypical Midianites, and the preparation of the typical and antitypical 

A Miscellany. 


Gideon as their Deliverers from their oppressors. We then subsequently set forth—type and antitype—the opposing hosts, the selective and rejective work among God's people relating to the first battle, the final encouragement of the Leaders of God's hosts, the plan for, and the description and result of, the first battle. This was done in our study of Judg. 7:1-22. We trust that the study has thus far proven a rich blessing to all of us. 

(46) We now proceed to finish the study of the rest of the story, as far as antityped, and will begin it with Judg. 7:23. V. 22 describes the Midianites' rout and division into two retreating bodies headed toward two different destinations. V. 23 brings upon the scene of the warfare three groups of warriors—the 9700 who were rejected from participation in Gideon's first battle. It will be noted that these 9700 were men from only three tribes, Naphtali, Asher and Manasseh. We have already seen that the 9700 type the Great Company, and we believe that the three groups of whom the 9700 consisted type the three groups of whom the Great Company consists. These three groups from the standpoint of the Levitical picture are the antitypical Merarites, Kohathites and Gershonites. In other words, v. 23 types how in three bodies the Great Company has entered into the warfare against the antitypical Midianites. And the facts of the antitype prove that this has already taken place—in each case seemingly the three groups, or at least two of them, though taking part in the warfare after the first battle was over, have labored under the delusion that they were engaged in the first smiting of Jordan. The first Great Company group to engage in this antitypical warfare was the partisan Society adherents, consisting especially of those who yet adhere to the Society, and of those who have since the second smiting of Jordan left the Society and become the Standfasts. These, as we have already learned, are

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


the two groups of the antitypical Merarites: the Mahlites and the Mushites (Chapter I). These we understand to antitype the men of Naphtali, the first mentioned of the three typical groups, because they were the first of the Great Company groups as such to battle against antitypical Midian. Their part of the warfare assuredly covered the period of the Big Drive from the Fall of 1917 to the Spring of 1918; and it may also include the public battling work of the Society adherents since the Summer of 1920 (Rev. 19:3). 

(47) The second Great Company group to enter the antitypical warfare consisted of the Olsonite branch of the Great Company, or, to use the Levitical names, the Izeharite branch of the Kohathites (Chapter I). Like the former group they think that they are smiting Jordan the first time, using tracts, books, lectures, etc., to do their work. Many of the Sturgeonites—Uzzielites—and a few of the Ritchieites—Hebronites—have joined in this movement. Thus the second group of the Great Company in these representatives of it have entered the warfare against the antitypical Midianites. These we understand to be the antitypes of the men of Asher referred to in v. 23. For a long time we failed to see how the P.B.I. and the B.S.C. (British Bible Students Committee), the third group of the Great Company—the Gershonites from the standpoint of the Levitical picture (Chapter I)—were taking part in the warfare against antitypical Midian. This was in part because of their doing it in a half-hearted and in a half-concealed way, and seemingly making no public claim to smiting Jordan. But later we came to see how they have done it. There are thoughts in their "Revelation of Jesus Christ" series, in the special issue of their Hell Herald for June 1 and 15, 1919 (especially in that section which treats of the Parousia and Epiphaneia, pages 167-170), and in their tract, The Inauguration of God's Kingdom Preceded

A Miscellany. 


by Distress of Nations (especially pages 2-6), that attack antitypical Midian. Hence those of them who distribute these, and those of them who have lectured and spoken according to these thoughts have, as the antitypes of the men of Manasseh, "pursued after Midian." 

(48) It is noteworthy that while Gideon invited the 300 to enter the first battle with him (Judg. 7:15), and invited the men of Ephraim to pursue after the Midianites (Judg. 7:24), he did not invite the men of Naphtali, Asher and Manasseh to do either of these things; nor did he lead, nor was he with them in their part of the battle. These things type the facts that our Lord did not invite the three groups of the Levites to take part in the warfare against antitypical Midian; that it was not the Truth on the subject that impelled them to enter this antitypical warfare; but that they did it under a measure of error and unholy ambition; and that the Lord does not recognize as commendatory their part in this warfare, doubtless because they did so while in an uncleansed condition, and while evilly treating His Priesthood. However, the three groups in the type are introduced into the picture to show how in the antitype the three groups of the Great Company would take part in the warfare against antitypical Midian. The fulfilled facts prove the antitype of v. 23 to have taken place. 

(49) Judg. 7:24—8:3 introduces an episode that has also been antityped—an episode that is full of antitypical instruction to us. These verses refer to the part that the men of Ephraim took—not in the first and second battles of Gideon, but—in a separate fight to which they were invited, but in which they were not led directly by Gideon, though he charged them as to what they were to do. Seeing the rout of the Midianites, Gideon desired to intercept and destroy them before they crossed the Jordan; therefore he "sent messengers throughout all the hill country of Ephraim, 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


saying, Come down against Midian and take before them the waters, as far as Beth-barah, even the Jordan" (A.R.V.). This all the men of Ephraim joined in doing (v. 24). According to the translation just quoted, which we consider to be correct, the waters that were taken were the waters of Jordan from a point considerably north of Beth-barah to Beth-barah (house of the passage). By this movement a considerable part of the retreating host was intercepted, and in the ensuing battle it was not only defeated and dispersed, but the two princes of Midian, Oreb (raven) and Zeeb (wolf) were captured and killed. The men of Ephraim brought the heads of these two princes to Gideon beyond, i.e., east of, the Jordan, i.e., after he and his three hundred had crossed over it in their pursuit of the Midianites fleeing from the west to the east of Jordan (Judg. 8:4). The men of Ephraim there very severely upbraided (v. 1) Gideon for not calling them out to the war in time for them to engage in the first battle. But this tactful answer to the effect that their gleaning was larger than his vintage pacified them. 

(50) Let us now look at the antitype of this section. First let us see whom the men of Ephraim type. It will help us to understand this, if we keep in mind that the first battle of Gideon types the same thing as the first smiting of Jordan, the World's High Priest confessing the sins over Azazel's Goat, and the saints executing the judgment written (Ps. 149:5-9). These works were completely and properly engaged in by the Very Elect only. Hence to have been called to the antitypical warfare in time to take part in them implies that one was called to the High Calling; "for this honor have all His saints"; and to have been called to the antitypical warfare, but not in time to have taken part in it implies that one was not called to the High Calling, but to something else. The men of Ephraim, therefore, type certain ones called to take part in the

A Miscellany. 


warfare against antitypical Midian after the full number of the Very Elect had been won, and had been given that to do which was an exclusive privilege of the Very Elect, i.e., unto a completion and in the Lord's spirit to smite Jordan the first time, to execute the judgment written, to confess the sins over Azazel's Goat, and to engage in antitypical Gideon's first battle. Whom, then, do they type? We answer: Very evidently the Youthful Worthies. How did antitypical Gideon call them? We answer: (1) by continuing the invitation to consecrate after the Fall of 1914; (2) by emphasizing after the Fall of 1914, e.g., in Z '15, 269, pars. 6, 7, the fact that there would be a class who, called too late for the High Calling, would be privileged to share in reward and honor with the Ancient Worthies, i.e., that there would be a Youthful Worthies class; (3) by arousing them to battle against error; (4) by the teaching during 1916 that the Lord's people would smite Jordan twice; and (5) by encouraging repeatedly during 1916 the Lord's people along the lines of the privilege of smiting Jordan. These five things as well as others were a call to the Youthful Worthies to take part in the warfare against antitypical Midian, to take the waters of antitypical Jordan. As in the type the men of Ephraim were to take the Jordan waters as far as Beth-barah (house of the passage), so in the antitype the Youthful Worthies, who, as we have seen, being a part of antitypical Elisha (Vol. III, Chapter II), were to smite the peoples, Jordan, on subjects on which the smiting had been especially done by the Lord's house (Beth) who had had a passage (barah) across Jordan, i.e., they were to smite especially what the members of the Elijah class, those who had crossed Jordan, had previously smitten. In other words, they were to smite Jordan the second time. 

(51) Judg. 7:25 is also meaningful in the antitype. The two princes of Midian represent two prince—not

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


king—errors. Oreb (raven) we understand to represent Sectarianism, Divisionism; and Zeeb (wolf) we understand to represent Clericalism. We have already in the Elijah type (Vol. III, Chapter I) pointed out how the ravens that fed Elijah typed the sectarian theologians and systems who in their sectarian activity gave some nourishment to the faithful Elijah class from 539 A.D. to 799 A.D. We, therefore, understand Prince Oreb to represent Sectarianism. The capturing of antitypical Oreb we understand to mean the over-powering of Sectarianism, Divisionism, by argument. The killing of antitypical Oreb we understand to mean the complete refutation of Sectarianism, Divisionism. The rock of Oreb seems to represent the strong feature in the doctrine of Sectarianism, which is that the various denominations of Christendom are the branches of Christ, the Vine (John 15:1-8). On this parable, as a rock, they built their doctrines on the Divisions of the Nominal Church. But the Youthful Worthies from the Fall of 1917 onward demonstrated that the sects are parts of the Vine of the Earth (Rev: 14:18), while the branches of Christ, the true Vine, are the faithful individuals who are in Christ. Thus they utterly refuted Sectarianism by the Scripture (rock) that is supposed by the errorists to prove it. 

(52) Zeeb (wolf) very fittingly types Clericalism, because the Scriptures so frequently refer to the clergy as being wolfish instead of being real shepherds (Ezek. 34). Against Clericalism, from the Fall of 1917 onward, the Youthful Worthies have also striven in argument. They overpowered Clericalism's claims, thus capturing antitypical Zeeb; and at antitypical Zeeb's winepress, the World War, etc. (Rev. 14:19, 21), they utterly refuted Clericalism by proving that the clergy were more responsible for the war, and were encouraging it more than any other class. Looking over the literature that the Youthful Worthies in association with the various groups of the Levites used in their

A Miscellany. 


part of the warfare against antitypical Midian—"The Finished Mystery," "The Fall of Babylon," etc., used by "the channel"; "The Treatise on Revelation," and The Bible Truth Witness on "Babylon is Fallen, is Fallen," etc., used by the Olsonites (whose glorification occurs by April 1, 1921?); and "The Revelation of Jesus Christ" and "The Inauguration of God's Kingdom Preceded by Distress of Nations," etc., used by the P.B.I. and B.S.C.—we recognize that preeminently the two errors—prince errors—Sectarianism and Clericalism, antitypical Oreb and Zeeb, were singled out, captured and smitten unto death. Thus the fulfilled facts prove that the Youthful Worthies have captured and slain antitypical Oreb and Zeeb. The men of Ephraim bringing the heads of Oreb and Zeeb to Gideon beyond Jordan type the fact that the Youthful Worthies, some considerable time after the Fall of 1916, when antitypical Gideon's first battle was finished, have made a report of their fight against antitypical Oreb and Zeeb to our Lord. 

(53) It will be noted that in the type the honor of capturing and executing Oreb and Zeeb is given to the men of Ephraim alone—the men of Naphtali, Asher and Manasseh are not given the credit of having a part therein. We believe that the Lord purposely arranged the type in this way to impress upon us a very important thought in the antitype. We know it to be a fact that the Youthful Worthies not only have fought against Sectarianism and Clericalism in association with the three groups of the Great Company, and that the latter have furnished the literature by which these prince errors were taken and executed, but also that these three Great Company groups have dominated the work, and have taken for themselves the most important parts in this work. Why, then, does the type not only fail to point this out, but even omit all mention of the types of the three Great Company groups as having anything to do with the capture and slaying

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


of antitypical Oreb and Zeeb? We answer this question as follows: The Lord counts as overcomers of false doctrines and practices only those who first in their own characters overcome the disposition underlying such doctrines and practices. That this is correct we can see from the fact that only the 144,000 are counted victors over the Beast and his Image (Rev. 15:2; 20:4), though, as we know, the Truth section of the Great Company opposed the Beast and his Image, but because they are not more than overcomers of certain characteristics of the Beast and his Image, God does not count them overcomers of these, however much they verbally preach and zealously work against them (Rev. 19:1-3). Hence it is because the three Truth groups of the Great Company have practiced Sectarianism and Clericalism as among the main forms that their Revolutionism, manifesting their Leviteship, have assumed, their battling against Nominal Church Sectarianism and Clericalism is not accounted by God as overcoming these prince errors. Hence the type very properly contains no representation of their activity against Sectarianism and Clericalism. On the other hand, from the type we infer that the Youthful Worthies overcome in their own characters the spirit of Sectarianism and Clericalism, and are thus privileged to have their verbal battling against the prince errors of antitypical Midian accounted as their capturing and executing them. This consideration should arouse the Great Company to cleanse themselves of these evil qualities, that their work against Nominal Church errors may receive the Lord's approval as that of victors. 

(54) Judg. 8:1 typically sets forth how the Youthful Worthies as a class would resent and murmur against their not being favored with the High Calling ("Why hast thou served us thus, that thou calledst us not"). As we have from Rev. 16, 17 (see Berean Comments) already pointed out (Vol. III, Chapter II), it

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was the Great Company that made the first announcement of the fact that all the Very Elect had been sealed in their foreheads, which they claimed was completed by the Passover of 1918, a date which we have proven to be two years too late (Chapter III). It was in April or May, 1918, that we first learned that by the Passover of 1916 all the Very Elect had been sealed in their foreheads. Having learned this, we began to present it to the Church. Our colaborers also joined us in presenting it to the brethren. The article on The Last Related Acts Of Elijah and Elisha, appearing first in No. 1 of The Present Truth, also carried this announcement. From the very outstart our presenting this thought aroused much resentment among the Youthful Worthies, and among some of their Levitical sympathizers in our Philadelphia Church and elsewhere. This was one of the matters that in 1918 aroused some of the Gershonite Levites to a manifestation of themselves in the Philadelphia Church and elsewhere, and prompted several Youthful Worthies to leave that Church with the Gershonite Levites late in 1918. After the appearance of The Present Truth, especially Nos. 1, 6 and 12, this same resentment increasingly manifested itself the world over. In varying forms these dear brethren showed their great disappointment at coming too late for the High Calling. Their sorrow and disappointment have been great, and we are sure that the entire Priesthood has deeply sympathized with them; for theirs has been a terrible disappointment, which, however, affecting them with more or less resentment, has occasioned them as a class to contend strongly with the Lord ("they did chide with him sharply") at their not being called in time to have had the privilege accorded to the Very Elect exclusively, i.e., unto a completion and in the proper spirit to engage in antitypical Gideon's first battle, to smite Jordan the first time, to confess the sins over Azazel's Goat, to execute the

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


judgment written. In not a few cases we have received letters from some of these dear brethren blaming us, as if it were our fault that they came in too late for the High Calling, and as if our announcing the Truth on the subject caused them the loss of this special privilege. Seemingly such dear ones forget that our setting forth the Truth on this subject did not cut off further access to the High Calling; for the opportunity of the Spirit-begettal had ceased nearly four years before we learned of it; and the sealing of the Elect had ended about two years before we learned of it. In complaining against us on this account they are, as the type shows, really murmuring against the Lord, the antitypical Gideon, as do all of those Youthful Worthies who, without blaming us, resent their not having been favored with the High Calling. 

(55) But in reality no wrong was done them by the Lord; for He does not owe any one the High Calling. At most it is a matter of grace and love on His part, not of debt or of justice, to have offered the High Calling to any one (Rom. 9:20, 21). Hence those that have received this favor should not boast of it, as of its being theirs by right; nor should those who have not been favored with it resent its withholding, as though they are being denied their rights. This is a matter for the Lord alone to decide, and the fully consecrated heart will accept His will in the matter as for the best interests of all concerned. All must admit that some time in the Lord's Plan the time for gaining the last member of Christ would have to set in, and this having set in would necessitate the withholding of the invitation to the High Calling from all others. Scripture, Reason and Facts prove that that time has already set in with the indicated results. It will help the Youthful Worthies to remember that the Lord could in justice have passed them by until Restitution times, and then simply offer them what He will offer the world; but that in grace He has favored them now 

A Miscellany. 


with privileges that He is withholding from the world, and will later favor them with princeship in all the earth and still later with a spiritual nature! Surely this is ground for gratitude on their part! But on the part of the Priesthood, let there be no boasting nor vaunting of themselves above the Youthful Worthies (Rom. 11:18). On the contrary, let these extend their heart's sympathy toward them. Let these imitate toward them the course of their Head toward them as typed in vs. 2 and 3. Our Lord has not upbraided the Youthful Worthies, though they have striven mightily against Him. We are sure that He sympathizes with them, and has in the antitype commended their part of the work, even above His Own. 

(56) It will be noticed how tactfully Gideon answered the men of Ephraim, praising their work above his own, as though their gleaning—the killing of Oreb and Zeeb—was more than his vintage, the first battle (v. 2). How could our Lord in the antitype have found something in the Youthful Worthies' victory that was larger than His in the first battle? We answer that this could be truthfully said; for the work in which the bulk of the Youthful Worthies took and are taking part with the Levites has been on a larger scale than was that of our Lord and the antitypical Three Hundred. As we look back to the work that the faithful Volunteers, Pilgrims (with these all those who by word of mouth faithfully testified against the Divine right are to be counted) and Colporteurs did in the first battle of antitypical Gideon, from the Fall of 1914 to that of 1916, we readily recognize that the battling work of the rest of the Lord's people since the Fall of 1917 has been on a larger scale than was that of the first battle, and has been engaged in by many more brethren than were engaged in the first battle. Undoubtedly in bulk they have done much more battling than the antitypical Three Hundred did in the two years of their battle. These facts would justify 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


our Lord's referring to His work with the Three Hundred as smaller than that of the Youthful Worthies. 

(57) Remembering that our Lord is antitypically speaking in vs. 2 and 3 as the Mouthpiece of the antitypical Three Hundred, we see how very true was the remark that by these Three Hundred He had not made such captures and slaughters as the Youthful Worthies had in the case of Sectarianism and Clericalism, in antitypical gleaning; for let us not forget that as in the type it was not the Three Hundred who in the first battle did the slaughtering, but it was the Midianites, unable in the darkness to distinguish one another from foes, who did the slaughtering (Judg. 7:22), so in the antitype it was the antitypical Midianites who by their deeds and debates associated with the war slaughtered one another in their erroneous views, especially with respect to the doctrines of the Divine right, the antitypical Three Hundred doing nothing but breaking their pitchers, holding up the light and blowing on their trumpets. To Jehovah's direct interposition was the victory due in the typical and antitypical first battle (Judg. 7:22, "The Lord set every man's sword against his fellow, etc."). Hence up to the time of the second antitypical battle our Lord could truthfully say that larger were the results of the personal endeavors of the Youthful Worthies, among which was their victory over Sectarianism and Clericalism, their antitypical gleaning, than were the results of the personal endeavors of the Lord Jesus through the antitypical Three Hundred in their antitypical vintage ("What was I able to do in comparison of you?"). Our Lord gave this answer antitypically through His people's declarations when contrasting the comparatively small work done from 1914 to 1916 with the large work done from 1917 onward. Perhaps in part this thought was antitypically expressed in the sentence preceding the

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subhead, "How Wise is our God," in Vol. III, Chapter II. 

(58) It is well stated in Holy Writ (Prov. 15:1): "A soft [mild, kind] answer turneth away wrath." Surely this proved to be true in the case of Gideon speaking to the angry Ephraimites ("Then was their anger abated toward him," etc.). And in many cases have we noticed this antitypically in the case of our Lord speaking through His Priests to Youthful Worthies. We would therefore suggest to the Lord's people that they become the Lord's mouthpieces in giving such an answer to the Youthful Worthies, when the latter resent their not being given the privilege of the High Calling. Let them praise the work of the Youthful Worthies, especially against Sectarianism and Clericalism, above their own work in the first battle. 

(59) The question may arise, how did those Youthful Worthies who refused to participate with the various Levitical branches in their public work because of its revolutionism, but who rather remained with, and assisted the Priests against the revolutionism of the Levites share in capturing and killing antitypical Oreb and Zeeb? We answer: They did capture and slay antitypical Oreb, Sectarianism, and Zeeb, Clericalism, as these were manifested in the practices of the various Levitical groups. With the Priests they steadfastly opposed the sectarian and clericalistic spirit among the Truth people; and therefore we believe the Lord praises them and rewards them above their fellow Youthful Worthies who entered the warfare against antitypical Midian in association and co-operation with the Levites. This, then, is our word of comfort to them: You have been privileged above your other Youthful Worthies brethren in the warfare against antitypical Midian. 

(60) Glancing back at the study of Gideon—Type and Antitype, so far given, we find in the events 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


given so far as antityped a very clear fulfillment of the typical Gideon story. As hitherto presented everything is harmonious, everything is clear, everything is Scriptural, everything is reasonable, everything is factual. Here are no vagaries, no whittlings, no twistings, no stretchings, no modifyings, no suppressings, no dodgings necessary. The presentation is, we believe, self-demonstrative as true. Contrast it with the vagaries that the Society friends give and that Bro. Olson gives on Gideon—type and antitype, and at once we see the overwhelming power of the Epiphany Truth and the self-evident weakness of the Levitical error! 

(61) We now proceed to study the next section of the Gideon story (Judg. 8:4-9), which likewise has had its antitypical fulfillment. Comparing Judg. 7:25 [last clause]—8:3 and Judg. 8:4 we have a splendid illustration of what we have repeatedly noted in these columns as being done in Biblical, as well as in other histories, i.e., events are not always given in their chronological order, but rather connected events are frequently treated unto a completion, even if this makes parts of their record precede the record of an event that occurred before these parts; in other words the logical frequently displaces the chronological order. V. 4 of Judg. 8 tells of Gideon and his three hundred crossing from the west to the east side of the Jordan, while the events described in the last clause of Judg. 7:25 and in Judg. 8:1-3 occurred on the east side of the Jordan. Hence the event described in v. 4 occurred before the events narrated in the last clause of Judg. 7:25 and in Judg. 8:1-3. We would explain the phenomenon as follows: the sacred historian first described to a completion Gideon's first battle (Judg. 7:9-22); then he described to a completion that battle in which Gideon did not take a personal part (Judg. 7:23-25); then he described its aftermath (Judg. 7:25 [last clause]—8:3); then in Judg. 8:4, going back to the end of Gideon's first battle, the sacred historian

A Miscellany. 


describes the pursuit of the Midianites retreating from the first battle by Gideon and his three hundred, who followed them from the Valley of Esdraelon to the Jordan, then across the Jordan eastward. So viewed the event of Judg. 8:4 preceded the events stated in the last clause of Judg. 7:25 and in Judg. 8:1-3. 

(62) There is a special reason for inserting the statement of v. 4: It is to show that in the antitype the preparation for and the fighting of the Second Battle of antitypical Gideon would take place after the Lord's faithful people, viewed from the standpoint of the Elijah picture, would have crossed Jordan. Yea, the episodes given in vs. 5-9 prove that the preparations for, and the fighting of antitypical Gideon's second battle would occur not only after the separation of antitypical Elijah and Elisha (Succoth) but after another group of organized Levites (Penuel) would be separate and distinct from the faithful. Yea, the opening clause of v. 11 shows that as the antitypical Gideon was marching to the second battle, he passed by and beyond the last group of those Levites who do not believe in organizations controlling their work ("them that dwelt in tents"—not in cities). Thus this second battle was not to be entered into until the faithful were separated from all three groups of the Levites under bad leadership. The antitype has surely realized this: It was only after the separation of the Amramites, the last subdivision of the third group of antitypical Levites, from the Priests began, that the second battle was begun. Therefore vs. 4-11 prove that the Lord's faithful Three Hundred would have a public work to do long after the first and second smitings of Jordan would have taken place, and after the Priests would have been separated from all eight Levitical groups, as these are led by bad leaders. This helps us to determine the chronology of the second antitypical battle. And, true enough, the Laymen's Home Missionary Movement launched its first attack

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


against antitypical Zebah and Zalmunna, July 18, 1920, which was after the two groups of the Amramites as the last section of the antitypical Levites under bad Levite leadership had broken with the Epiphany-enlightened saints. Hence we understand the warfare of the Laymen's Home Missionary Movement against Eternal Torment and the Consciousness of the Dead more particularly to be antitypical Gideon's second battle with the antitypical Midianites. 

(63) True enough (v. 4), the dear ones who participate in this conflict are antitypically faint, i.e., they are weak in numbers and in resources: but the Lord God Almighty is with them by His Vicegerent, our beloved Gideon, the Lord Jesus, who is invested with all authority in heaven and in earth (Matt. 28:20), and with whom but one is a majority and an invincible host! And with an unwavering faith in and an implicit obedience to Him, though faint, they are yet pursuing! And with Him they will yet capture antitypical Zebah and Zalmunna, as they have struck them a blow, before which they are even now in ignominious flight with their terrified host. 

(64) As we understand matters, the events of vs. 5-9 began to be antityped May 17, 1920, when the writer visited the Brooklyn Bethel and the P.B.I. headquarters, going there from Easton, Pa., where the two days before he made a pilgrim visit. Succoth (tabernacles), a city, in harmony with Scriptural symbolisms, types a religious government. We understand that Succoth types the Society as a religious government and its men—princes, v. 6—represent the Society leaders. We knew that the Amram shaking, which was well developed in its leaders by the end of the Winter of 1920, would precede our anticipated public work. We knew also that after the Amram sifting the next work for the Priesthood toward Azazel's Goat would be toward its Nominal Church section. We became convinced as we saw the

A Miscellany. 


Amram sifting advancing that it was fast becoming time for us to prepare for the attack on Eternal Torment and the Consciousness of the Dead, which two doctrines we had for several years told the brethren were typed by Zebah and Zalmunna. We knew further that to accomplish this work we would need a book for the Colporteurs and tracts for the Volunteers. As we considered the matter, we concluded that to get a suitable book, the Hell and Spiritism booklets, and at least one suitable tract our expenses would reach at least $5,000, apart from the advertising preparations for the public lecture work. We thought that we could not reasonably expect to have so large a sum of money on hand by mid-summer, when we thought the work would probably begin. We feared that our associate Priests were too weak in numbers and resources ("faint") to meet these and other expenses. What should we do? Of course, we went to the Lord about this matter. We then recalled that the Lord had given the Society brethren, the Merarites, the custodianship of the Truth literature, which they were to use especially in the interests of the Priests. The thought, therefore, came to us that, if we could get the Society brethren to publish for us a book consisting of the most appropriate of our Pastor's writings, and to print for us the Hell and Spiritism booklets and some suitable tracts of his, and to furnish the book and booklets to us at Colporteur rates and the tracts at slightly above cost, we would be spared the initial expense of publishing the book, booklets and tracts, and thus would be able to finance the work toward Azazel's Goat in the Nominal Church. 

(65) We, therefore, decided to go to Bethel and lay our plan before the representatives of the Society. Some may think it strange that we should have ventured to go to Bethel after our expulsion therefrom in 1917, and our subsequent treatment at the hands of "the present management." Beloved brethren, we 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


allowed none of those things to prevent our going to Bethel; for we felt it a privilege to go there as the hand and mouth of the Lord, to present His request on behalf of His Three Hundred, "faint yet pursuing." Our reception by a number of the brethren in the storeroom was, except in the case of a certain sister, quite cordial, especially so by Bro. Wise, the Society's Vice-President, and by Bro. Martin, the Manager, whom we asked to see when we arrived. As briefly and as winsomely as we could we laid our request before these two brothers, emphasizing the small numbers and meager resources of our supporters and telling these two brothers that our intention was to use the literature in public work against Eternal Torment and the Consciousness of the Dead (v. 5). We assured them that it would greatly strengthen the Epiphany-enlightened saints, if our request were granted. We likewise assured these brethren that we did not want our name to appear on the book, booklets and tracts as their publisher, but instead we would be pleased to have the Society's name appear as their publisher, which would give them the opportunity of following up inquiries made by the recipients of the literature. Thus we assured them that we desired in no wise to trespass upon their work toward the public. 

(66) After we presented the case Bro. Martin spoke to the following effect: It is now as it was in our Pastor's days; as then nothing involving expenditures of funds could be done unless authorized by him, so now such matters could be authorized by Bro. Rutherford alone; the latter had not yet returned from his Sunday pilgrim trip, but was expected to arrive shortly after noon; and if we would return about 4 P.M., we could get an answer. Accordingly we left Bethel, and on our return at 4 P.M. were told that Bro. Rutherford had not yet returned, and were asked to call again, at 7.30 P.M., when doubtless we would receive 

A Miscellany. 


a definite answer. On our return at that time we were told by Bro. Wise that Bro. Rutherford desired that we put our proposition in writing. Accordingly, returning to Philadelphia we wrote a very conciliatory letter covering the points above given, and addressed to the Board of the W.T.B.&T.S., in care of J.F. Rutherford, its President. We expressly in this letter told the Board that we were addressing it in the Lord's name and as the representative of a goodly number of Priests. We had the letter registered for personal delivery to J.F.R. with the request for the receipted registry card to be sent to us. This means that the mail-carrier was to deliver the letter to J.F.R. personally and to have the latter sign the receipt card, which was then to be sent to us. 

(67) These things were done: we have now in our possession, not only a carbon copy of our letter, but the receipt card with J.F.R.'s signature in his own handwriting as its recipient. Our reason for sending the letter to the Board was this: the subject matter of our proposal was a matter of policy, controllership, and therefore was not a matter for the executive, but for the Board to decide. In other words, we refused to recognize as valid a usurped power that J.F.R., according to Bro. Martin's statement, was using. Several days later we received a letter signed by Bro. Goux, J.F.R.'s secretary, informing us that the Board was not in session (!); that our letter was received, but was not opened, nor would it be unless it were addressed to J.F.R., if meant for him, and that therefore our letter was returned enclosed! This was an evasive technicality worthy of a typical lawyer! The signature of the registry card, however, was in J.F.R.'s handwriting, not in that of Bro. Goux. We knew, of course, that Bro. Goux wrote the letter at J.F.R.'s direction; for he would not have dared to do such a thing on his own initiative. This procedure may have struck 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


J.F.R. as a good way of ignoring us. However, we were not surprised in the least at the whole procedure; it was characteristically Rutherfordian. What did we do? We destroyed the envelope in which our letter was originally sent, took the same letter, which as above said was written to the Board, and enclosed it in an envelope addressed to J.F.R., sending it by registry with instructions that it be for personal delivery only, and that the receipt card be sent to us. In due time the receipt card containing J.F.R.'s signature in his handwriting came to us. 

(68) This time our letter was opened, and was presented to the Board. Our request contained in the letter was denied by the Board; and its answer, signed by Bro. Van Amburgh as the Society's Secretary, was sent to us by letter. This letter, while offering to sell us literature that they had on hand at the same price as the public paid, not only curtly refused our request, but derided us in a number of particulars and treated our request, as though it were a personal one. Their insulting letter we politely answered, telling them that our request was not a personal one, but was made by us as a representative of the Lord and of many Priests, and asking whether, in view of the Lord giving them charge of the Truth literature that they might furnish it especially for the use of the Priests, they would really refuse to use their stewardship according to the Lord's intention in entrusting them with this stewardship? To this letter sent to Bro. Van Amburgh under registry with directions for personal delivery and return of receipt card we never received an answer, but did receive the receipt card through the registry branch of the Post Office. When it became known that the Board had denied our request, in answer to Societyites' questions as to why it had been refused, J.F.R., at a convention question meeting, said that it had been refused because, he alleged, we told the Board that the Society was of the Great Company 

A Miscellany. 


and therefore was obligated to grant it to us as a representative Priest. Our letter said not a word to the effect that the Society was of the Great Company and hence was obligated to furnish us the requested literature. Thus J.F.R. in this, as in hundreds of other cases, falsified about our act, as our pertinent letters prove. 

(69) Let us look at the above given facts in the light of vs. 5 and 6, which we believe typify these facts. As the bread that Gideon requested would have replenished the depleted stores of the three hundred, and would have refreshed them in their weakness, so would the above-described literature have replenished the depleted stores of antitypical Gideon's Three Hundred and would have refreshed them in their weak resources ("faint"). As Gideon told the men of Succoth that he was pursuing Zebah and Zalmunna, the kings of Midian, so the Lord Jesus through us told Bros. Wise, Martin and the Board that He with His Faithful was preparing to wage warfare against the doctrines of Eternal Torment and the Consciousness of the Dead as the chief errors ("kings") of the errorists. And as Gideon told the men of Succoth that his three hundred were faint, so the Lord Jesus through us told the Society leaders that the brethren associated with us were weak in numbers and resources. But as the princes of Succoth disdainfully refused Gideon's request, so the Society leaders disdainfully refused our Lord's request, presented to them through us. And as the princes of Succoth to their disdainful refusal added reviling and depreciation of Gideon's office, works and powers, so did the Society's Board do to antitypical Gideon, as He has been pleased to work through us as a representative of Him and His Three Hundred. 

(70) The conduct and answer of the princes of Succoth, as Gideon comments on the former and quotes the latter in v. 15, imply the following thoughts: 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


Gideon, You have not an army strong enough to hold in your power the might of Zebah and Zalmunna. No sane person would believe that you have so exalted a work to do as you arrogate to yourself. Therefore it would be out of the question for us to give material support to your attempt. We will have nothing to do with you and your warfare. Had the men of Succoth realized who actually was speaking to them they certainly would have answered differently; even as the Board would have answered us differently had they realized that the Lord Jesus was addressing them through us, which in our letter to them we indicated was the case. But as we have paraphrased the conduct and the answer of the men of Succoth, as Gideon refers to these in v. 15, just so were the conduct and the answer of the Board to the Lord speaking to them through us; for the following thoughts are implied in their conduct and letter: (1) The few that associate with us could with impunity be ignored, and thus be treated as unable to overpower the two (king) errors; (2) their regarding us as a representative of the Lord seemed to the Board a sure evidence of their insanity, as its letter intimates; (3) we ourselves could not be used by the Lord in any sense, because we had a bad spirit; and (4) they wanted nothing to do with us and our work. But their answer as expressed in their acts and letter was not given to us, but to the One for whom we were then privileged to be a mouth and hand; and by their arrogant conduct and insolent answer they antityped the arrogant conduct and insolent answer of the princes of Succoth, and thus reproached the Lord Himself (Luke 10:16; Num. 15:30). 

(71) Gideon's answer (v. 7) showed his faith that the Lord would deliver Zebah and Zalmunna into his hand; that by God's support his small army would get into their power these two kings; and then he added that he would tear (thresh—margin) the flesh of the 

A Miscellany. 


leaders of Succoth with the thorns and briers that grew in the wilderness, which therefore were harder and stronger than ordinary thorns and briers. In the antitype the Lord has sent forth the word that surely antitypical Zebah and Zalmunna will be overpowered and captured by antitypical Gideon and His Three Hundred. He has also proclaimed with reference to the leaders of the Society that when He comes back from the war with the king errors, Eternal Torment and the Consciousness of the Dead, in His power, no more surrounded by their advocates, He will use as symbolic scourges the symbolic thorns, Scripture passages, and symbolic briers, facts, that come to maturity in the wilderness condition in which the Faithful have been, ever since usurpers have arrogated to themselves the places of power among the bulk of God's people; and by these symbolic scourges He will tear, or thresh, the fleshly conduct of these sinners in Spiritual Israel. If the Society leaders knew but one-tenth of what we know the Scriptures tell of their wrong conduct they "would be of all men the most miserable." And now in the Lord's name we declare, as we have done on many occasions before, of these unpatriotic Spiritual Israelites, that those Scriptures and facts in due time will be published from the housetops, and as a scourge in the Lord's hands will thresh their fleshly minds. 

(72) Gideon (v. 8) then requested help of the men of Penuel (before God), who like the princes of Succoth refused it. What does this type? We answer: The P.B.I.'s refusal to help, at antitypical Gideon's request. The reply that Bro. Martin gave us May 17, that our proposition would have to be submitted to J.F.R.'s decision, made us feel sure that it would be refused. Therefore we went from Bethel to the P.B.I. Headquarters. We knew that they had the Hell booklet in Herald form, and had also the tract "Where are the Dead?" the latter in an undesirable 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


form because of being in too small type. Meeting Isaac Hoskins there, we suggested that he have a witness to our conversation. We accordingly went to the Angelophone office, where was Bro. Cook, a P.B.I. Director. We asked them to furnish at wholesale rates these two pieces of literature, printed in one edition of their paper. In answer to a prefatory question of ours as to whether they yet had the forms of the Hell Herald set up, Bro. Hoskins assured us that they did, and that several weeks before he was at the P.B.I. printer's and saw the forms of the Hell Herald set up. This would have made the expense of publishing these rather cheap. Both of these brothers told us the matter would have to be referred to the P.B.I. Board. We asked Bro. Hoskins whether he would not present it favorably to the Board. He refused to commit himself. Previously when we told him that we wished to insert a note (the one that appears in the book Life-Death-Hereafter on pp. 86, 87) giving, as Bro. Hoskins remembered it, our Pastor's last thought, on the Greek words translated torment, he said that he was absolutely opposed to any such addition. His manner strongly impressed us as unfavorable to our proposition. Both brothers also asked us to put the matter in writing. This we did. 

(73) The Board's answer was to the effect that they would not furnish the Hell Herald with our note. Their answer was so worded as to imply that we were seeking to corrupt our Pastor's Hell treatise, for which they would not stand. They so refused our request as to place the blame of the refusal upon us. We answered to the effect that we considered this treatise most excellent, and would be glad to get it from them without our suggested note, if they would not entertain the thought of its insertion. Their reply was to the effect that unknown to them their printer had some considerable time before destroyed the forms of the Hell Herald. This was in conflict with Bro. Hoskins' 

A Miscellany. 


statement to us that they were preserved, and that he had but recently seen them. We believe in this case that the latter told the truth; because he told us of the forms as preserved before he knew what we wanted; and because it is most improbable that a printer would destroy forms that he was asked to preserve, unless later he had been ordered to do so. This answer, suggesting that we print the Hell booklet, if we wanted it, in spite of their offering to furnish us at a cent apiece their very small-typed tract, Where are the Dead? which with difficulty can be read by average eyes, satisfied us that like the Society they did not want to help us and were, while refusing us, trying to answer in a way that their answer would shield them and throw the blame of their refusal upon us. We were willing to use that (to most people) almost illegible tract, only if we could get the treatise on Hell. The latter being refused us, we no longer sought to get the former, which in itself all will recognize is unsuitable for most eyes to read. The P.B.I's answer, like that of the Society, was a refusal, without however being written in the disdainful manner of the Society's answer, though we believe it contained a falsehood, made to screen their refusal to furnish the Hell treatise to us. Recognizing it as a refusal we dropped further correspondence with them. We believe that in the facts just given respecting the request made to the P.B.I. for help and their treatment of it we find the antitype of v. 8 given. 

(74) In v. 9 we find Gideon's reply to Penuel's refusal to help. In it he expressed His assurance of victory ("when I come again in peace"). In it was also a threat that he would break down the Tower of Penuel; and according to v. 17 he not only fulfilled this threat, but also did more than that—he slew the men—leaders—of the city. We understand the Tower of Penuel to represent the charter of the P.B.I.—a charter which in not a few points deviates from that 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


sample of charters for controlling corporations among the Lord's people given by the Lord through "that Servant," and which those who are now the leaders of the P.B.I. formerly in print claimed to be of Divine obligation in corporational matters among the Lord's people. If our understanding of the significance of the Tower of Penuel is correct, we are to expect the Lord to set aside the charter of the P.B.I. We will say here that the deeds of the P.B.I. leaders in breaking up the Fort Pitt Committee and in forming their present organization is typed by probably the most reprehensible act recorded in the entire Old Testament. When this will be made clear that charter and those leaders will be repudiated (v. 17). 

(75) The narrative (v. 10) now describes the camp and host of Zebah (sacrifice) and Zalmunna (shade, or shadow denied). As before suggested, we understand Zebah to represent the doctrine of Eternal Torment, the foremost of the two chief errors of the antitypical Midianites. This word is derived from the Hebrew verb zabach, which means to sacrifice, and which is used both with reference to sacrificing to Jehovah (1 Sam. 1:3; Ps. 4:5; Gen. 31:54), and with reference to sacrificing to devils (Deut. 32:17; 2 Chro. 28:23; Ps. 106:37, 38; Hos. 11:2). When the name is applied to a heathen, as in v. 10, it refers to sacrifice offered to devils, especially to Molech (Lev. 18:21; 20:2-5; Jer. 32:35), who we understand is the type of the misrepresentation of God worshiped by believers in eternal torment. Hence the heathen Zebah suggests the doctrine of Eternal Torment. Zalmunna according to some means shade, ghost; according to others it means shadow, i.e., protection, denied. The former definition directly suggests the doctrine of the Consciousness of the Dead, the latter meaning, when connected with the idea of Eternal Torment, as the name Zalmunna is always connected with that of Zebah, also implies the doctrine of the Consciousness of 

A Miscellany. 


those Dead who are denied protection. It matters not, therefore, which definition we accept; in either case the antitypical significance is the doctrine of the Consciousness of the Dead. This is also one of the king errors of antitypical Midian. Karkor, where Zebah and Zalmunna were entrenched, means foundation, and it types the doctrine of the Immortality of the Soul, which is the doctrine in which both the doctrine of Eternal Torment and that of the Consciousness of the Dead are entrenched. It is indeed the foundation (Karkor) of these two doctrines. Through the preceding two battles, Gideon's first battle, and that engaged in by the men of Naphtali, Asher, Manasseh and Ephraim, eight-ninths of the host of the Midianites were killed, only fifteen thousand remaining. This types how before the second battle of antitypical Gideon the great bulk of the people who have supported ("men that drew swords") the main doctrine by which Satan kept his empire in control had given these doctrines up; and that for his original falsehoods (Gen. 3:4, 5; John 8:44) he has a greatly diminished number of defenders ("about 15,000 men, all that were left"). 

(76) V. 11 describes the final march toward and the entrance into the second battle. Gideon in some unmentioned way got sufficient supplies for his small but faithful army. So, too, has antitypical Gideon, in the book Life-Death-Hereafter, in the booklets, The Hell of the Bible and Spiritism—Ancient and Modern, and in five among the best tracts of our Pastor on pertinent subjects, gotten sufficient supplies for His small but faithful army. And both Gideons, so supplied, marched onward in pursuit of their enemies. As the typical Gideon marched past those who dwelt in tents ("went up by the way of them that dwelt in tents"), so did antitypical Gideon pass by those who dwelt in antitypical tents. As a city represents a religious government, a religious organization, like the Society and the P.B.I., so those who dwelt in tents 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


represent those who are not in a religious government, or religious organization. We, therefore, believe that the Kohathite Levites in their Amramite branch are typed by "those who dwelt in tents." The thought seems to be this: as the Lord was preparing for His second battle with the antitypical Midianites He passed by and left behind Him, as non-participants in His preparations for, and in His participation in, His second battle, the Amramites, unorganized Levites, hence Kohathites, who have no symbolic chariots, organizations (Num. 7:8). This is exactly what took place: both at Philadelphia and at Jersey City the separation of the Amramites from the Priests about to become active in the Laymen's Home Missionary Movement began in March 1920, and was very well over by July 18, 1920, when the second battle began. Going up by the way of these implies that He would be more or less occupied with them before entering the battle; and leaving them behind means that they, separated from His Three Hundred, would not share in the battle. And this was true, as can be seen from our article on Amramism Revealed, in The Present Truth, Nos. 22, 24 and 25. And singularly enough they have had no part in this glorious second battle of antitypical Gideon. How very providential and reasonable that the battle should be deferred until the last subdivision of Truth Levites under bad leadership should have been separated from the Faithful! 

(77) Marching eastward of Nobah (barking) and Jogbehah (high, proud) seems to represent that, while on the one hand symbolic dogs among Truth people (Matt. 7:6, see Berean Comments), as partisans, would bark and growl, snarl and snap at the faithful few, and that while on the other hand haughty ones among the Truth people would despise the efforts of the faithful few, these would be east of them—toward the sun-rising—nearer the Lord, and thus safe from the contentions of the one class, and immune to the despisings of the other.

A Miscellany. 


(78) The attack both in type and antitype was a surprise ("for the host was secure"). Surely this is true in every branch of the antitypical attack. The attack began with the public lecture in Philadelphia, July 18, 1920. The subject, "America's Fallen Heroes—Comfort for their Bereaved," and its accompanying advertisements, looked innocent enough to all antitypical Midianites. They did not suspect that behind that subject and its advertisements lurked an attack on Eternal Torment and the Consciousness of the Dead. They were indeed surprised! Our prayer meeting workers going to Testimony Meetings of the Nominal Church, offer hearty testimonies that refresh the people. These are not suspected as attackers of these doctrines, as they give out the Tracts and secure names and addresses for the Colporteurs and Sharpshooters. Our Colporteurs and Sharpshooters using our canvass introduce a book and booklets that are at first sight little suspected as attacking these doctrines. Yea, the attack is a surprise! But the attack is more than a surprise; it throws the enemy into confusion and flight. E.g., after pointing out the heroism of America's Fallen Heroes, in the public lecture the request is made of any who believe that the unsaintly fallen heroes are now being tortured in hell to arise to their feet and tell their faith to the audience! Except in one case, against whom the audience so vigorously protested as to frighten him into silence, to date none have dared so to do. They flee in fear from the field in the face of such an attack. The pursuit of v. 12 seems to refer to the follow-up work; the first public lecture is followed up, first by those who gather cards for follow-up Colporteurs, then by Volunteer workers distributing tracts as the audience leaves the auditorium, then by the follow-up Colporteurs and Herald subscription workers, who do their follow-up work. Then the following Sunday another public lecture—a follow-up lecture, a pursuit lecture—is given, with similar follow-up work coming 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


after it. Truly these two doctrines cannot escape the pursuit, and truly their defenders are discomfited, or as the margin puts it, terrified. 

(79) The battle is not yet over, lasting longer than we had expected. Therefore we exhort all Epiphany enlightened saints quickly to enter the fray, ere it becomes too late. We stand ready to assist all such with suitable literature, as Colporteurs or Volunteers. Let the Classes who have not yet done so arrange for the public lectures. Yea, we exhort those of the antitypical Three Hundred who mingle with the various Levitical bodies to concentrate their attention to attacks on these two king errors of antitypical Midian. Let such do this work, leaving to the Levites the work of proclaiming Millions now Living, etc., of canvassing for the Golden Age, of distributing Bible Truth Witnesses on Babylon is Fallen, tracts on the Establishment of God's Kingdom Preceded by Distress of Nations, etc., etc. Antitypical Gideonites, whether in or out of the Epiphany Truth, let us concentrate our attacks against the doctrines of Eternal Torment and the Consciousness of the Dead! If any of us are among the P.B.I., let us circulate their Where are the Dead? and their Hell Herald; if any of us are among the Society friends, let us circulate the pertinent booklets and tracts of our Pastor. We invite all, in the Lord's name, if they cannot get suitable literature among their associates, to write to us for it; and we will be very glad to furnish it to them. Forward let us all go in God's name! Gideonites, a few more sacrifices, a few more blows, a few more miles of pursuit, and antitypical Zebah and Zalmunna will be captives in the hands of our Gideon! Forward, then, under Him, in God's name, to final and complete victory!


(1) What did The Present Truth do with antitypical Gideon's first and second battles? Why? What effects attend a study of these battles? Give a brief account of how the details of this type became clear? How much of the Book of Judges is covered in this study? 

A Miscellany. 


(2) How do we know that Gideon is a typical character? What proves that his battles were typical? Whom does he type? Why? Who are the antitypes of Israel in Judg. 6, 7, 8? What does Midian mean, and what do the Midianites type? What does Gideon's first battle type? By what other types is its antitype pictured? What do the seven years of Judg. 6:1 type? Why? What brought the antitypical oppression? How did God's Israel seek to protect themselves from the oppressors? What was done with the fruits of their labor? Who were the typical and the antitypical oppressors? How and to what extent were antitypical Israelites overcome? Of what were the Israelites robbed, in the type and in the antitype? How did their oppressors come up against them, in type and in antitype? What two things do the cries of Judg. 6:6 type? How did these cries affect Jehovah? 

(3) What is typed by the prophet and his message, referred to in Judg. 6:8-10? 

(4) What does Judg. 6:11-24 type? What does the angel instructing Gideon type? Why?' What do trees type? What proves this? What does the oak of this section type? What do the names Ophrah, Joash and Gideon mean, and what do they type? Why? What does v. 11 type? What is typed by the angel's salutation of Gideon? How was the angel's salutation given in antitype? 

(5) What do Gideon's questions in v. 13 type? What do the Lord's three answers in v. 14 type? 

(6) What is typed by Gideon's answer (v. 15) in its three parts? 

(7) What does the Lord's answer (v. 16) type? What is typed by Gideon's answer and request in v. 17? What are typed by Gideon's request and the angel's promise in v. 18? 

(8) What things in general are typed in vs. 19 and 20? What is typed by the expression, "Gideon went in"? What are typed by the kid, the unleavened cakes, the ephah of flour, the flesh and the broth? What is typed by Gideon's presenting these under the oak? What is often typed by a rock? What is typed by the rock of v. 20? Why? What is typed by laying the offering on the rock? In what two ways did our Lord fulfill all righteousness? 

(9) What is briefly typed in Judg. 6:21-23? Of what 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


is a staff symbolical? Prove this. What do the angel's staff and its end touching the sacrifice type? What do the fire and its consuming the sacrifice type? What is typed by the angel's leaving Gideon, by the latter's recognition of the angel as such, and by his consequent fear? What is typed by the Lord's comforting Gideon and by the latter's erecting an alter in Ophrah of the Abi-ezrites? 

(10) What are the two lines of thought typed in Judg. 6:11-24? 

(11) What is one of the chief Gospel-Age activities of our Lord? Where is this typed? What do the second bullock of Gideon's father, its offering after his erecting of the altar, and its age type? What do Baal's altar and the sacrificing on it type? Why does Joash not type Jehovah, our Lord's Father? Whom does Joash type? What type furnishes an illustrative parallel? What is the antitype of Joash's having an altar to Baal? What is typed by Gideon's destroying Baal's altar? What do the grove and its cutting down type? 

(12) What is typed by the altar of Judg. 6:26? Why was it built on the rock on which Gideon made his first offering? What is typed by the expression "in the ordered place"? What does the offering of the second bullock type? What is typed by the wood of the grove and by its consuming the sacrifice? How does the type show that the Church's sacrifice is acceptable? 

(13) What does the number 10 symbolize? What is typed by the ten helpers of Gideon? What does their assisting of Gideon in cutting down the altar and grove type? What is typed by their doing this by night? 

(14) What events are typically described in Judg. 6:28-32? Who are typed by the men of the city and by their seeing the altar and grove overthrown and the second bullock offered up? 

(15) What is typed by their searching for the one responsible for these works and by their demanding of Joash that he deliver up Gideon for death? What is typed by Joash's threefold answer? What is typed by his calling Gideon Jerubbaal? 

(16) What things does Judg. 6:33-40 typically summarize? What is typed by the Midianites, Amalekites, etc., gathering together and their going and pitching in the valley of Jezreel? What is typed by Gideon's being 

A Miscellany. 


impelled by the Lord's Spirit to blow a trumpet, and by Abi-ezer being gathered after him? 

(17) What does Judg. 6:35 briefly type? Where else do we find this same antitype typically elaborated? What does the calling to battle of the four groups—Manasseh, Asher, Naphtali and Zebulum—type? Give a brief summary of the antitype of each typical movement and its leaders. What kind of response was given by the faithful to the calls of each movement? How was this typed? 

(18) What two movements does Judg. 6:35-40 briefly type? What did the two signs given Gideon pledge, in type and antitype? What does the fleece of wool type? Why? What does the dew type? What is typed by the fleece being full of dew and the ground about it being dry? In what two ways did the antitype of this assure our Lord of the overthrow of the errorists? What does the bowl full of water type? What does the wringing out of the dew type? What does the bowl seem to type? 

(19) What does Judg. 6:39, 40 type? What did the Reformation and the Harvest give for the errorists' overthrow? Accordingly, what did the Harvest give to our Lord? What is typed by the fleece being dry and the ground about it wet with dew? What pledged sure victory to our Lord? 

(20) What is a summary of the antitypes pictured by Judg. 6? 

(21) What is a brief summary of the antitypes of Judg. 6? What things are typically set forth at the end of Judg. 6? What are the five lines of thought contained in Judg. 7? 

(22) Give a geographical description of the localities mentioned in Judg. 7:1. What is typed by the localities and persons as mentioned in Judg. 7:1? 

(23) Give a summary—type and antitype—of the lesson contained in Judg. 7:2-8. Why is this lesson an important one? How did the Lord in this case impress this lesson? What two facts prove the truthfulness of this lesson? How many were in Gideon's army before it was tested? What was its proportion to the size of the opposing army? Why did it have to be reduced in numbers? Whom do the 32,000 represent? 

(24) What proclamation was made to the 32,000? What does this type? In what did it result, in type and

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


antitype? How was the antitype enacted? What do both type and antitype prove of the majority of justified believers? 

(25) Whom do the rest—the 10,000—type? To whom even could the privilege of sharing in the victory not be given, in the type and in the antitype? How was a distinction made between the rest resulting in the formation of two classes, in the type and in the antitype? Who did and who did not decide on the nature and outcome of their trial in both the type and the antitype? Who in type and antitype were the agents in applying the test? 

(26) What was the test in the type? How was the decision rendered? What seven things were done in the type and the antitype by the 300? What did these seven antitypical acts do for their performers? In what did the failure by others to do these seven antitypical things result? 

(27) What six things were done by the other drinkers, in type and antitype? What resulted in the type and antitype from the two kinds of drinking? To what period does the antitype somewhat more particularly apply? By whom else are these two classes typed? What are we and what are we not to understand from the numerical difference of the two classes in the type? When was the antitypical test completed, so far as the Great Company was concerned? 

(28) What does the typical statement in Judg. 7:7 prove? When did this knowledge begin to be manifested to us? What was probably done anticipatorially in the Fall of 1914? Why is this probable? May the opposite course not be probable also? Before what event was all the prone drinking done, in the antitype? Despite the setting aside of the Great Company, what was the state of heart of Jehovah and Jesus when all the Faithful were proven? 

(29) What is typed by taking the victuals and trumpets and the sending of the rest away? How, antitypically, were some sent away and others kept? What seems to have been the relative location of the two hosts? What is typed by the one host being on Mt. Gilboa and the other in the valley of Jezreel? 

(30) What is a summary of Judg. 7:9-15, type and antitype? What observations, type and antitype, did Jehovah command? What assurance did He couple with 

A Miscellany. 


the command? By what did He antitypically give the assurance? Whom did Phurah type? As what? What antitype illustrates the usefulness of the employing of antitypical Phurah? What was the purpose of the observation trip in the type and in the antitype? What is typed by Gideon and Phurah alone during the observing? What is typed by those who were in the outermost part of the Midianites' camp? 

(31) What is typed by the multitudes and the camels of the Midianites, etc? 

(32) What is typed by the Midianite who dreamed and by his comrade who interpreted the dream? What is the antitype of the dream, of its interpretation, and of its barley bread especially? 

(33) How were Gideon, the 300 and the Midianites, affected by the dream and its interpretation? What did this type? 

(34) What kind of faith and courage did the 300 exemplify? Whose courage even did they surpass? Prove this. What resulted for God's interests from this course? Who are typed by the three companies of Gideon's 300? What was typed by the trumpets, by their being in their hands, by the pitchers, by their being empty, by the lamps, by their lights, and by Gideon's making himself an example for imitation? 

(35) By what means did our Lord charge us to do as He did? What is the antitype of Gideon's blowing the trumpet first and the 100 with him doing so next? What did the battle-cry in its two parts type? What is an analysis of the features of the antitypical battle-cry? When were we instructed to give these parts of the antitypical battle-cry? 

(36) When, in type and antitype, was the attack begun? What two facts prove this in the antitype? How did the World War furnish the opportunity for the antitypical 300 to launch their attack? How did our Lord begin the attack? How did the Volunteers follow Him in the attack? What were the main B.S.M.'s that they used in blowing their trumpets? 

(37) What was the second antitypical group to enter the battle? What subjects did they use in blowing their 

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


trumpets? Which ones only remained among this division of the antitypical 300? 

(38) Which group was the last to enter the antitypical battle? On what did they specialize as their trumpet? Who only of them are represented in the third division of the antitypical 300? 

(39) What was typed by the breaking of the pitchers? How were the Faithful affected by enacting this antitypically? What was typed by holding the lamps in the left and the trumpets in the right hand? What seems to prove this distinction? 

(40) What is typed by the fact that each of the 300 stood in his place about the camp? Amid what difficulties did they thus stand? What was the result? 

(41) What three things were typed by the host running, crying and fleeing? Why was each of these three things done in the antitype? 

(42) Why is it stated three times that the 300 blew their trumpets? What did this type? What was typed by God's setting the Midianites to fighting one another? What has resulted in the antitype from this battle? What was typed by the Midianites' retreating from the valley of Jezreel? 

(43) What does the last sentence of Judg. 7:22, properly translated, teach? What does this type? What parallel type pictures the same thing? What class was typed by the Midianites who fled to Zererah and Beth-shittah? Why? What class was typed by the Midianites who fled to Abel-Meholah and Tabbath? Why? 

(44) What is a brief summary of the antitypes of Judg. 6:1-40 and Judg. 7:1-22? What two things should the foregoing study inspire in us? 

(45) What is a brief summary of the main thoughts so far given in our study in the Gideon story? 

(46) What does Judg. 7:22, 23 teach? What did the 9700 from Naphtali, Asher and Manasseh type? What parallel type gives these three groups? What is the antitype of the men of these three tribes gathering themselves together and then pursuing the Midianites? What do the facts of the antitype show as to the fulfillment? Under what delusion have they labored? What was the first Great Company group to engage in this pursuit? Into how many parts has it divided? What parallel type shows this? 

A Miscellany. 


Of whom are they the antitypes in the Gideon picture? What implies this? By what activities did they antitype the Naphtalites pursuing the Midianites? 

(47) What is the second Great Company group to pursue the antitypical Midianites? What parallel type illustrates this group? Under what delusion have they labored? Who have joined them in this pursuit? Of whom are they the antitypes in the Gideon picture? What is the third Great Company group to join in the antitypical pursuit? Why was their sharing in this pursuit not for a long time apparent? What publications of theirs prove that they have been pursuing the antitypical Midianites? 

(48) Whom did Gideon invite to war with him and whom did he not invite? What do these facts type? Why does the Lord not accept the services of these three Great Company groups? Why were the 9700 in three groups introduced into the type? What do the facts prove of the antitype? 

(49) Give an account of the events told in Judg. 7:24—8:3. 

(50) What other fulfilled types and, what fulfilled prophecy will help us to understand the antitypes of these verses? How do the fulfilled types and prophecies help us to understand the antitype of Judg. 7:24—8:3? Whom, therefore, did the men of Ephraim type? What five things, especially, constituted a call to the Youthful Worthies? What did the charge to take the waters of Jordan to Beth-barah type? How is this so? 

(51) What did the two princes—Oreb and Zeeb—type? Prove this. What was typed by the capture and execution, and by the rock, of Oreb? How did the Youthful Worthies, antitypically, execute Oreb at his rock? 

(52) Why does Zeeb type Clericalism? How did the Youthful Worthies capture and execute antitypical Zeeb? What is typed by the winepress of Zeeb, and by his execution there? What was the literature that the three groups of Youthful Worthies used? What were the two chief erroneous practices that this literature attacked? What was typed by the Ephraimites' bringing the heads of Oreb and Zeeb to Gideon beyond Jordan? 

(53) In the type, to whom is and to whom is not given the honor of capturing and executing Oreb and Zeeb? What is the lesson in the antitype? What facts at first

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


thought seem to be out of harmony with such a lesson? Why is this first thought a mistaken one? Give a parallel case as illustrative of this principle. Why is the Great Company in its three groups not considered the captors and executioners of antitypical Oreb and Zeeb? What do these facts prove as to the Youthful Worthies' heart attitude toward Sectarianism and Clericalism? To what should these facts arouse the Great Company? 

(54) What fact does Judg. 8:1 type? According to Rev. 16:17, who made the first announcement of the close of the High Calling? What false date was given for it? What is the date for the complete sealing of the elect in their foreheads? When was this learned? What was done with this date by the Epiphany-Truth servants? What effect did its announcement have and that, among others, on certain members of the Philadelphia Church? In what forms and ways has this resentment shown itself? Whom, beside the Lord, did these upbraid directly? What did announcing the cessation of Spirit-begettal not do to the Youthful Worthies? Why not? Against whom did they really murmur? 

(55) What did the withholding of the High Calling from the Youthful Worthies not do to them? Why not? Who alone has the right to decide the question as to candidacy for the High Calling? How should we regard His decision? Why have the Youthful Worthies not been favored with the High Calling? What three lines of evidence prove Spirit-begetting to have ceased? What three considerations should pacify the Youthful Worthies on their exclusion from an invitation to the High Calling? How should these three considerations affect them? What should be the attitude of the Priesthood toward their own favor and the Youthful Worthies' disappointment? In this matter, whose example should they follow? 

(56) How did Gideon answer the Ephraimites? What was Gideon's vintage and their gleaning? What was the antitype of Gideon's answer? From what standpoint could our Lord in truth say that the Youthful Worthies' battle was greater than the antitypical Three Hundred's battle? Point out facts that prove this. 

(57) As what does our Lord antitypically speak in Judg. 8:2, 3? What was, antitypically, the gleaning of v. 2? Who did and who did not do the slaughtering in 

A Miscellany. 


the first battle—type and antitype? To whom only was the victory due? What, antitypically, was the vintage of v. 2? How did our Lord give the answers antitypical of Judg. 8:2, 3? 

(58) What did the mild answers in type and antitype accomplish? How should the Priesthood as the Lord's mouth answer, and what should they say to the Youthful Worthies in the latter's resentment? 

(59) How did the Epiphany-enlightened Youthful Worthies who co-operated with the Priests share in capturing and slaying antitypical Oreb and Zeeb? How does their share therein compare with that of the Great-Company-co-operating Youthful Worthies? 

(60) What is the character of this Gideon discussion in the type and antitype? What is not found in the foregoing interpretations that is found in Levitical interpretations of the subject? What conclusion follows from such a comparison? 

(61) What chronological peculiarity do we find illustrated in Judg. 7:25—8:3 and Judg. 8:4? What proves that this peculiarity occurs in these verses? What order rather than the chronological order is given here? 

(62) Why is the statement of Judg. 8:4 inserted where it is? What do Gideon's experiences with the men of Succoth and Penuel and his passing beyond those who dwelt in tents prove as to the events that preceded antitypical Gideon's second battle? What events show this in the antitype? 

(63) What is typed by the expression, "faint, yet pursuing"? What encourages the antitypical 300? What will they eventually accomplish? 

(64) When and with what did the antitype of Judg. 8:5-9 begin? What was typed by Succoth and its princes? Why? What was expected before antitypical Gideon's second battle? Why? What induced entering into preparations for that battle? What were these preparations? What considerations seemed to preclude the publication of the necessary literature by the Epiphany Bible House? 

(65) What step was taken as a result of these considerations? What made this step seem strange? How was the request for the literature made? 

(66) What were the answers given at the three successive visits to Bethel? What was done after the third

Gideon—Type and Antitype. 


answer was given? Describe the letter, its addresses, and the precaution taken for assurance of its safe delivery. 

(67) What records of this transaction are in the Epiphany Bible House? Why was the letter addressed to the Board and not to the President of the Society? At first, how was the letter treated by J.F.R.? What evasion was practiced in the answer respecting it? Of what was such a procedure characteristic? What was done with the same letter? With what precautions? 

(68) What was done with the letter when received the second time? Describe the Society's reply. Describe the answer to the Society's reply. How was this answer treated? What is the evidence that it was received by the Society? What false reason for its refusal did J.F.R. give? 

(69) Of what are these events the antitype? What are the antitypes of the faintness of Gideon's 300 and of the bread that he requested? What would the supply of the bread—type and antitype—have effected? Trace—type and antitype—Gideon's statement to and request of the men of Succoth. Trace—type and antitype—their disdainful refusal and their reviling answer. 

(70) What thoughts are contained in the conduct and answer of the princes of Succoth—type and antitype? What would not have been likely to occur in type and antitype, if the real petitioner had been recognized? To whom was the answer really given, in type and antitype? What did the answer do to the Lord? 

(71) Explain—type and antitype—the two parts of Gideon's reply (v. 7). What will be done with the Scriptures and facts relating to the evil deed of the Society leaders? 

(72) Explain Judg. 8:8—type and antitype. What two things occasioned the appeal to the P. B. I? Describe the interview with two P.B.I. officials. What did one of these officials say as to the printers' forms of the Hell-Herald? What answer did both officials give to the request? On what did one of them refuse to commit himself? How was the suggestion to add a note to the Hell-Herald treated? What impression did these two brothers' manner make? What did they ask to be done with the request?

A Miscellany. 


(73) What did the P. B. I. Board answer? How was their answer worded? Upon whom did it place the blame for the refusal? How was their reply answered? What did they write in answer to a second letter? What evidence proves them to have falsified? Why was their tract without their Hell-Herald unavailable? Compare and contrast the P.B.I.'s course with that of the Society on this subject. How was their answer accepted? Of what are these facts the antitype? 

(74) Explain—type and antitype—the two parts of Gideon's answer to the men of Penuel. 

(75) What are typed by Zebah and Zalmunna? Prove this of Zebah. Prove this of Zalmunna. What does Karkor mean and type? How many Midianite soldiers were there before the first battle? How many just before the second battle? What is typed by these two numerical showings? 

(76) What is described—type and antitype—in Judg. 8:11? What was gotten in sufficient quantities by Gideon, type and antitype? Describe those gotten by the antitypical Gideon. What is meant—type and antitype—by going up by the way of, and passing beyond those that dwelt in tents? What events, reasonably, were to be expected to be in the past before the second antitypical battle began? 

(77) What was typed by Nobah and Jogbehah, and by marching eastward of them? Why? 

(78) What was the nature of the attack in both type and antitype? How and when did the antitypical attack begin? Show how the attack is a surprise, in the lecture, prayer meeting, Volunteer and Colporteur work. What, further, does the attack do? Give an illustration of this. What do the flight and the pursuit of Judg. 8:12 type? Give illustrations. 

(79) What as to duration did we not expect of the second antitypical battle? To what should this incite all of us as we are able to do? What should the representatives of the 300 who are among the Levites do and what leave undone in this matter? What should those of them do who cannot get suitable literature from their associates? What must we do to achieve final and complete victory?