Epiphany Truth Examiner


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IN VOL. III, CHAPTER II, it was our privilege to set before the dear brethren the "Last Related Acts of Elijah and Elisha," from the standpoint of type and antitype. This article first appeared in The Present Truth No. 1, December 9, 1918. There appeared in the January 15, 1919, "Labor Tribune," and later in the "St. Paul Enterprise," an article by J.F. Rutherford, endorsed by his six associates in bonds, repudiating our Pastor's interpretation of this subject, accepted by us and set forth in our above-mentioned article, also repudiating his and his associates' view of the subject as published in Z. 1918, beginning page 51. Apparently our presentation in No. 1 came into his hands, and was recognized by him as refuting his views given in Z. 1918, page 51, etc.—views that were given to answer our understanding of the subject; for it is worthy of note that his new view did not appear until six weeks after the publication of our reply to the article in Z. 1918, page 51, etc.

(2) In Present Truth No. 6 (Vol. III, Chap. II), we answered his first and second new views. Some have wondered why we spoke of the dear brothers as in bonds in a paper that was not circulated until several months after their release. We reply that we wrote the article in question late in January, and had it printed in February, 1919, with the article on the

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"Last Related Acts of Elijah and Elisha." The reprint was made, in part, because No. 1 of The Present Truth was a small edition, and had been restricted for circulation as nearly as possible among Truth people who are not adherents of the Society. We knew from certain Scriptures that our dear brethren would be released, and rejoiced greatly when we heard of it; as we were greatly grieved when we learned of their being put into bonds. So in January we decided not to publish the number before May, and so dated it. When May came, we again decided to postpone circulating the paper, believing that the interests of the brethren before the courts would be better subserved by silence on our part. (In this and in every way we knew how, we and others, falsely accused of betraying them, protected them against their prosecutors. We even went so far as to send word through M.L. Herr to J.F. Rutherford advising him, from what we had learned, along what lines the prosecution was working, that he might thus be forearmed. And yet, how thoroughly he has succeeded in misleading thousands of dear, unsuspecting sheep into the belief that we and others betrayed him and his associates and belong to the Judas class!) Then came his illness. All these things, as well as certain Epiphany Scriptures, kept back the circulation of the involved issue. 

(3) In his article in Z. 1918, page 51, by the connection in which the following language occurs, he gave the impression that we were repudiating, and that he was holding to, our Pastor's view of the last related acts of Elijah and Elisha: "Where a brother gives an interpretation of a Scripture which differs from that given by our Pastor, and the latter's interpretation seems reasonable and in harmony with the plan of God, then we believe it a safe rule to follow his interpretation, for the reason that he is the servant of the Church, so constituted by the Lord for the Laodicean period; and therefore we should expect the 

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Lord to teach us through him. Where there arises a doubt in the mind as to which interpretation is correct, then it is always safer to resolve that doubt in favor of our Pastor's interpretation. We believe such to be in harmony with the Lord's will." We say Amen to this; and in view of his often published repudiations of our Pastor's view of this subject, and his substituting several different views, we suggest that the Lord's words, "Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee," apply to him. Hence we advise all the dear brethren to cling to that view of this subject that is in harmony with "that Servant's" view, and that the fulfilled facts prove to be true; and to repudiate the unstewardly, unbiblical, unreasonable and unhistorical views set forth by J.F. Rutherford and his associates, each one being contrary to his preceding view and his own principles, so ably and truly stated in the above quotation of his own language. 

(4) In the texts Matt. 19:27—20:16; 1 Cor. 10:1-14; Ezek. 9:1-11 is given a prophetic history of the Gospel-Harvest, both in its gatherings and siftings; and we desire to study in this chapter this prophetically outlined history for our enlightenment, encouragement and exhortation. The Lord bless us with meek hearts that we may be profited thereby (Ps. 25:7-9). 

(5) All of us recall the interpretation that our dear Pastor gave in Vol. III to the Parable of the Penny, i.e., that the day of the Parable was the Gospel Age; that its first call period was the Harvest of the Jewish Age; that its last call period was from 1881 to the end of the Gospel Harvest; that its other calls were in periods between these two calls, and that the evening and the giving of the Penny were connected with Kingdom honors beyond the veil. But this view raised the difficulty before his mind that the murmuring must occur in Heaven—an impossible thing. This made his mind open to another interpretation that puts the murmuring this side of the veil, in the end of the Harvest.

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This necessitated a change of view as to the day of the Parable; for if the day were the Gospel Age, this would make many called before 1881 live many centuries, in some cases over 1800 years, to receive their Penny. Hence he concluded that the day of the Parable was the Harvest period—1874-1914—and held this view from 1910 until his death. In Z. 1914, p. 171, col. 1, pars. 1-5, he sets forth briefly his general change of view from that of Vol. III; but does not give details, as these would have been too strong meat for the Sunday School teachers, for whom the Sunday School lessons were specially prepared, and for whom they were at that time separately published. 

(6) When we study the Parable and its context we recognize this later setting of things to be true. The Parable was given to prove how there would be a difference manifested among the Lord's people connected with the giving of the hundredfold—the Penny of the Parable; for we are expressly told that the hundredfold is our reward in this life. (Compare Matt. 19:29 with Mark 10:29, 30.) Matt. 19:16-30 tells us the story of the rich young ruler and of the ensuing conversation. The disciples, knowing that earthly riches were a sign of God's favor under the Law, could not understand Jesus' remarks on the special difficulties experienced by the rich in gaining the Kingdom. After Jesus explained this, Peter asked what the twelve would receive for their sacrifices. Then, having answered him, Jesus added what His other followers would get, promising them a hundredfold in this world and eternal life in the world to come. Then in v. 30 He points out that there would be a difference between certain ones whom He calls first ones and last ones in their receiving the hundredfold in this world, and life eternal in the world to come; whence He proceeds to illustrate these two things by the Parable of the Penny, introducing it by the word "for," which proves that the Parable is given to prove the statements of

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Matt. 19:29, 30 as to the difference in distribution of the hundredfold and the eternal life. A second argument also proves this: for after He finishes the Parable He draws the conclusion as a proven one: "So the first shall be last, and the last first," the very remark that He set out to prove, as Matt. 19:30; 20:1 show. The break in the chapter causes many to overlook the fact that the word "for," introducing the Parable, proves the Parable is given to explain Matt. 19:29, 30. 

(7) The expression, "The first shall be last and the last shall be first," is in the Bible used to designate not individuals but classes. Apart from Matt. 19:30; 20:16 and Mark 10:31, it occurs nowhere else in the Scriptures, except in Luke 13:28-30, where the Little Flock and the Ancient Worthies are undoubtedly contrasted. Here, therefore, it refers to two classes, i.e., those called last, the Little Flock, would be the first in rank among the two ruling classes in the Kingdom, and those called first, the Ancient Worthies, would be last in rank among the two classes. Therefore our understanding of the language used in Matt. 19:30; 20:16; Mark 10:31, in harmony with the class use of this expression in Luke 13:30, is the following: Those reached as the last group by the Harvest call would (as a rule) be among the first in rank (the Little Flock) of the two spiritual classes; and those reached as the first group by the Harvest call (and this group embraces, as a rule those called before the eleventh hour) will be among the last in rank (the Great Company) of the two spiritual classes. In other words, this Parable is given by the Lord to show that, connected with the giving of a certain feature of the hundredfold, symbolized by the Penny, i.e., that feature which the fulfillment proves to be the twofold smiting of Jordan, an experience would occur that would manifest a separation of some of the Lord's people from the Little Flock into the Great Company; 

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and that those so separated would get their Penny after the others. All of us agree that the hundredfold represents the Lord's blessings to us as New Creatures in this life, such as special knowledge of the deep things, special fellowship, special opportunities of service, etc., embryo Kingdom honors. The Parable is intended to show that there would be a difference in the giving of a certain feature of the hundredfold, i.e., opportunities of service—to the two consecrated classes, and that their separation would occur in connection with the Great Company receiving their hundredfold, their penny, i.e., opportunity of smiting Jordan the second time. These general remarks will assist us to recognize the scope and purpose of the Parable. 

(8) The day of this Parable we understand to be the Harvest period, 1874-1914. It is, therefore, a symbolic day of 40 years. A working day among the Jews was a period of 12 hours (John 11:9; 9:4). Hence, a symbolic working day of 40 years would have twelve symbolic hours, and each of them would be 1/12 of 40 years, i.e., 3 years and 4 months. Accordingly, the 12 hours of the Parable would begin as follows: (1) October, 1874; (2) February, 1878; (3) June, 1881; (4) October, 1884; (5) February, 1888; (6) June, 1891; (7) October, 1894; (8) February, 1898; (9) June, 1901; (10) October, 1904; (11) February, 1908; (12) June, 1911, and the day would end and the evening begin October, 1914. In his Penny Tract, C.J. Woodworth altered the setting of the day from what our dear Pastor held from 1910 onward, making it begin October, 1881. He also altered the hours, making them three years in length. Hence, his day was one of 36 years, and, therefore, ended October, 1917. But this brought him into manifold difficulty: (1) it ignored the first call period of the Harvest—"early in the morning"; (2) it assumed a symbolic day of 36 years, a thing nowhere mentioned in the Scriptures, while a 40-year day is mentioned there (Ps. 95:7-11, etc.); (3)

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it implied that his Penny (Vol. VII), which was given out July 17, 1917, was distributed before his evening came, which began October, 1917; (4) it implied that all got their Penny at the same distribution, and not at two different distributions, as in the Parable. His interpretation, in so far as it differs from "that Servant's," involves, also, other inconsistencies and incongruities, some of which we will note as we proceed with this chapter. 

(9) The Parable brings to our attention five calls, each one particularized (vs. 1-7), and one sifting (vs. 8-16). As we are here giving only general considerations on our texts, we leave their particulars for discussion further on in this chapter. 

(10) This passage expressly teaches that it applies to the Harvests of the Jewish and Gospel Ages. This is proven in v. 11, which is correctly translated in the Diaglott as follows: "But these things occurred to them typically; and were written for our admonition on whom the ends of the Ages have come." It will be noticed that the words "ends" and "Ages" are both here translated as plurals, and this is correct. Jesus says that the Harvest is the end of the Age (Matt. 13:39). Hence, in this verse at least two Harvests and two Ages are meant, i.e., the Harvest of the Jewish Age and the Harvest of the Gospel Age; and only these two Harvests are meant; because in these two Harvests only, as Harvests, is the Church specially tried and in special need of admonition, encouragement, etc., amid her trials. Hence, this passage is easy to place chronologically. Its time in the Gospel Harvest is the same as the day of the Parable of the Penny; but it treats some of the happenings of this day from a different standpoint from that of the Parable. This Scripture does not particularize five calls as the Parable does. Instead it gives a general description of the calling work of the Harvest. It calls attention to the fact that the events of vs. 1-5 are typical of events 

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connected with "us." This is seen from v. 6 (compared with v. 11), when the word typoi is properly translated types instead of "examples." V. 1 shows typically our experience during the Harvest as we are led by the Word (under the cloud) amid the race in Adamic Death (the sea) after leaving symbolic Egypt. V. 2 shows typically our consecration into Christ amid such conditions. These two verses have also an application to the faithful in the end of the Millennium. Vs. 3 and 4 show, typically, our spiritual food and drink. In these verses the call features of the Harvest are shown as one work, without particularizing five periods in which they were enacted, as in the Parable. V. 5 introduces, typically, a general statement of the sifting work of the Harvests; and vs. 6-10 set forth, typically and antitypically, the trying experiences of these five siftings, admonishing, warning, encouraging and exhorting, as the case may require. This section of Scripture does not describe the sixth sifting, which takes place after the Harvest, i.e., after October, 1914; for it expressly describes those only which occur during the ends of the Ages (v. 11), and not after the ends of the Ages. Hence, this Scripture does not refer at all to the sifting of Matt. 20:8-16. So far our study has shown us five calls and five siftings during, and one sifting after the Harvest. 

(11) In Ezek. 9 we have a picture that is closely related to our other two texts, and that describes the same general period and thing. This passage helps to cement the other two together; and the three combined give us a splendid illustration of the principle, "here a little and there a little," as one along the lines of which the Bible is written, and as one requiring us to compare Scripture with Scripture. A study of this Scripture will reveal to us the calling work of the Harvest given in a summary, somewhat like that of 1 Cor. 10:1-4, under the symbol of the work of the man with the writer's inkhorn, and not distributedly as in the five 

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calls of the Parable; while the five siftings of 1 Cor. 10:5-14, and the sixth sifting, that of Matt. 20:8-16, are given under the symbols of the six men with slaughter weapons, slaying in the temple, in the courts and in the city. 

(12) In his book Ezekiel throughout represents the Lord's people (and not "that Servant" alone, as Vol. VII teaches) at the time of the fulfillment of the events symbolized, just as John does in the Revelation. But two instances will suffice to prove this: (1) Ezekiel lying on one side 390 days (Ezek. 4:5, 9) symbolizes the Church doing certain things 390 years, a thing that could not be true of our Pastor alone; (2) the man with the measuring reed (Ezek. 40:3, 4, etc.) represents "that Servant," while Ezekiel in this transaction represents the Church being instructed by him. How often did he exhort us with thoughts like those in verse 4! In 1908 he told us that the six men with slaughter weapons represent six classes of evil-doers; therefore they do not represent, as Vol. VII affirms, the antitypical Elijah; for he is no evil-doer. Nor do they represent six European kingdoms, as Vol. VII also affirms; for these will not kill all of those without the mark, since this would imply the literal death of all except Truth people in Christendom; and since these powers will have perished before some without the mark will be killed; and since they have killed some having the mark. Moreover, Vol. VII makes one class kill literally, the other symbolically—a perversion. Our understanding of these six men is that they represent the six sifting classes—from 1878 until the last sifting is over. This interpretation will, under examination, prove to be in harmony with the Scriptures, Reason and Facts. Their slaughter weapons represent the six sifting errors and practices that the sifters have used and are yet using. Their coming from the North gate represents that they were, from the Divine standpoint, Great Company

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members even before they would begin their sifting work; and their standing beside the brazen altar indicates that their work has some relation (oppositional) to the antitypical sacrifices. 

(13) Who is represented by the man with the writer's inkhorn? Vol. VII and most of the brethren understand that he represents "that Servant." We are satisfied that he is greatly involved in the symbol; that he was the earthly leader of the class symbolized by the inkhorn man; but, among others, for three reasons we do not think that he alone is symbolized by the inkhorn man: (1) If the six slaughter-weapon men represent six classes, it is highly probable that the inkhorn man represents a class; (2) "that Servant" alone did not put the ink on the foreheads of all that sighed and cried in the city, nor did he put all of it on some foreheads; e.g., some who could not read got the Truth from others, and not from him. This is also true of some of the blind. So, too, many were too prejudiced to read until orally they had been taught much of the Truth by others than "that Servant"; while others who did read his writings did not understand many things in them without the help of other brethren. Thus the facts prove that he did not, by the written, printed or spoken word, put the ink on all that sighed and cried in the city. Hence he alone does not seem to be symbolized by the inkhorn man. Although he furnished us with the horn, the Truth literature, and put the ink, the Truth, into it, and put it upon incomparably more foreheads than any one else, yet he did not put it on all foreheads, nor all of it on some foreheads, where it was put. In this we all co-operated with him; hence, the symbol includes others than himself. Doubtless the writer referred to in the expression, "a writer's inkhorn," is "that Servant," for he furnished us with the inkhorn, i.e., he wrote for us the Truth literature, and put into it the ink, the Truth. (3) The seal of God (Rev. 7:2, 3) 

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represents the same thing as the ink. The angel here is a multitudinous one—"until we have sealed the servants of God on their foreheads." This angel represents God's people in their capacity of ministering the Truth to their brethren who did not yet have it (C 303); therefore, for the end of the Age, this angel represents the reapers, and not Jesus alone, as Vol. VII teaches; and for the end of the Age symbolizes the same thing as the man with the writer's inkhorn, who, therefore, represents all of God's people in the reaping time in their capacity of teaching their brethren the Truth. 

(14) It will be noticed that the inkhorn man is not represented as going forth five times, as is the case of the Householder in the five calls (Matt. 20:1-7); rather his work is given in summary, and not in detail. Comparing our three texts we note that they dovetail into one another; and each supplies what is lacking in the others to make a complete picture, which we get only from a comparison of all three texts. Ezekiel and Paul distribute the siftings, but not the calls; Matthew distributes the calls, but not the siftings; Matthew supplies the sifting that Paul omits; Matthew supplies the distributed calls that Ezekiel and Paul do not distribute; Paul supplies the siftings that Matthew omits, while Ezekiel gives all of them. In our study of these three texts we will dovetail them into one another, and all of us, we trust, will find a wonderful harmony subsisting between them. They give us a wonderful prophetic history of the Harvest period in its gatherings and siftings. We now proceed to give particulars. 

(15) It will be noticed that, unlike the other four calls of the Parable, the first is not limited to one hour. Its time is referred to as "early in the morning" (Matt. 20:1), while each of the other calls is connected with its particular hour, "third hour," "sixth hour," etc. There is a reason for this variation of expression: the

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general call ceased in 1881; hence the general call was going on throughout the first and second hours of the Parable, i.e., October, 1874, to February, 1878, and February, 1878, to June, 1881. It was because the early morning call, i.e., the first call of the Parable, as a part of the general call, extended over the first two symbolic hours of the Parable that the Lord altered the time expression for it from that which He uses of the other calls. This significant point is wholly lost by starting the day with October, 1881. 

(16) Turning to the history of the Harvest, we find that there was a call that went out from October, 1874, to June, 1881, which brought many people into the Truth, gathering them in quite a number of cases into classes. In proof of this we refer to Z. 1916, pp. 171-173. The work was extended and fruitful. Our dear Pastor assured us in 1914 that it was in September or October, 1874, that he first recognized that the Lord's Second Advent would be invisible; and he began at once to teach it to others. This was undoubtedly the first special Harvest Truth given to the Elijah class in the antitypical second cake of bread and cruise of water at His second wakening; and with this event we begin to date the 40 symbolic days' journey to symbolic Horeb, the general reaping period (1 Kings 19:7, 8); for the object of our Lord's return for the Restitution of all things had been recognized for years before 1874; e.g., by Brother Storrs, editor of the Bible Examiner, from whom our dear Pastor learned in part to understand it before 1872 (Z. 1916, p. 170, col. 2, par. 6). The latter's learning to understand the first distinctive Harvest Truth about October, 1874, marks that date as the one with which the Harvest began. Shortly afterward he published his booklet on the "Object and Manner of Our Lord's Return," which seems to be the first distinctive Harvest publication. According to Z. 1916, p. 170, pars. 1-4, this was before 1876. In 1877 Mr. Barbour published, under 

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our Pastor's patronage and direction, a booklet entitled "The Three Worlds," which, with the latter's "Object and Manner of Our Lord's Return," was widely and fruitfully distributed. Furthermore, from shortly after October, 1876, to January, 1879, "The Herald of the Morning," a monthly, edited by Bros. Barbour, Russell and Paton, was circulated, giving the Harvest Message. These three, particularly the last two, did much Pilgrim work, traveling over a wide territory, covering most of the States East, and not a few West, of the Mississippi. July, 1879, The Tower appeared, giving the Harvest message. Before 1881 Mr. Paton published the Truth edition of his book, "Day Dawn," which, after 1881, he corrupted with error. Besides these three most prominent harvesters, there were a number of other able harvesters during its first call, "early in the morning." Thus we see that throughout the first two hours of the Parable, i.e., from Oct., 1874, to June, 1881, many harvesters swayed the sickle of Truth, reaped many stalks of wheat and gathered them into sheaves, classes, e.g., in Allegheny, Pa., Rochester, Dansville, N.Y., Almont, Mich., etc., every feature of this work being plainly manifest as early as the year 1876, and some features of it were performed before 1876. Thus the fulfilled facts with reference to the call, "early in the morning," agree with the thought that the day of the Parable began in the Fall of 1874, and that there was a call of two symbolic hours, i.e., 6 years and 8 months, before the call that occurred from June, 1881, to Oct., 1884, i.e., the call of the Parable's third hour, which, minus four months, the "Penny Tract" makes the first hour. 

(17) Before discussing the siftings and slaughter weapons we desire to ask our readers to study the article entitled, "These Things Were Types," in Z. 1913, p. 198. A few remarks on this article will, we believe, prove helpful. It was our privilege in the Spring of 1910 to write out an extended discussion of 1 Cor. 10:1-14,

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and hand it to our Pastor. After studying it, within a week he made a brief abstract of certain features of our communication and handed it to us, asking us to go over it to see whether it fairly represented those features of our thought. This abstract, with several brief additions that we made to supply certain important omissions, is word for word the article which, over three years later, he published under the title, "These Things Were Types," in Z. 1913, p. 198. As the article shows, he omitted many of our details. Doubtless one reason why he held the article back so long was because certain of our conclusions applied to the future, and he wanted to wait and see whether the future would reveal the fulfillments. In several particulars the fulfillments came; but in one of them the fulfillment failed to materialize, i.e., we expected the antitypical plague of Num. 16:46-50 to affect also the Truth people, which did not occur. It seems that after he was well assured that our general view of 1 Cor. 10:1-14 was correct (for he was at first doubtful as to several particulars), he published the article without changes, apart from several of our additions, from his abstract, which we returned to him early in June, 1910. The Lord gave us this understanding, we believe, as a reward for our faithful service of the Truth in the 1908-1910 sifting (a service so earnestly engaged in and so long continued that it resulted in brain fag, which "Harvest Siftings," whose writer did not speak from personal observation, very uncharitably and untruthfully called insanity. Our Pastor's course with this article, in publishing it in "The Tower," showed that he had a totally different opinion of our mental condition! Had he thought us insane, would he have restarted us in the pilgrim work 3½ months—by the way, a very short time to recover from brain fag—after the supposed insanity began?) 

(18) While five of the siftings, as well as the five calls, can be traced in the Harvest of the Jewish Age,

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we limit our study in this article to the Harvest of the Gospel Age. As we study these calls, siftings and slaughter weapons, we will see that chronologically there is a sifting and a slaughter-weapon activity during each one of the call periods, a thing that is not true of the chronological setting of things that C.J. Woodworth gives to the Parable, except in his first call period, which covers the third hour call, minus 4 months, as our dear Pastor viewed it. A study of the situation enables us to see that there should be such a sifting during each one of the call periods; for in the call, "early in the morning," there had to be a sifting at its middle, the Spring of 1878, when the fullness of the Gentiles came in (B 210-218), in order to shake out those whose crowns fell to those coming in as the fullness of the Gentiles. Hence we find a sifting during the first call beginning in 1878. So, too, from 1881 onward, the four large calls following could not have occurred, unless there were four large castings off, manifested by their four subsequent siftings; for we know that no one would have been called after the Fall of 1881, unless some of the previously called ones had lost their crowns, the predestinated number being full October, 1881. This is another point that corroborates the call periods chronologically as "that Servant" viewed them, and that contradicts the call periods as C.J. Woodworth gave them in his "Penny Parable Tract." If we had no other argument than this, his setting of the chronology of the Parable's fulfillment would be proven untrue. His view does not permit what the facts of the five calls, coming as they did during the Gospel Harvest, require, i.e., accompanying siftings proving that many crowns were lost and that large callings were required to fill the large number of places lost by those whose crowns lapsed. Accordingly, we find a large sifting and slaughter-weapon activity accompanying each of the five calls, and that beginning in each case a little after its corresponding

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call began, as was written: "Go ye after him" (Ezek. 9:5). 

(19) "Now these things were types of us ['upon whom the ends of the Ages have come,' v. 11] to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted" (1 Cor. 10:6). In these words St. Paul points out, type and antitype, the first sifting in "the ends of the Ages." The typical transaction is in Num. 11:4-35. Shortly after leaving Egypt the people received Manna as their food by Divine provision (Ex. 16:1-36). About a year later, shortly after leaving Mt. Sinai, the people began to weary of the Manna and to pine after the foods that they had had in Egypt. Their ungrateful murmuring displeased Jehovah and Moses. Nevertheless the Lord gave them according to their desire, sending them flesh in the form of quails from across the east arm of the Red Sea, called the Gulf of Akabah; but with the flesh He sent a plague (induced by their gluttony), which wrought much havoc and death among them. Their strong desire for Egyptian food, accompanied by their murmuring, St. Paul describes in the words, "as they also lusted," and warns those living in "the ends of the Ages" not to "lust after evil things, as [in the type] they also lusted." Hence we recognize by St. Paul's Divinely inspired explanation that the story of Num. 11:4-35 is typical, and that its antitype is found in "the ends of the Ages." St. Paul's mentioning this story as the first of the five types of the five Harvest siftings proves that it types the first Harvest sifting. 

(20) For the historical details of this sifting we refer our readers to Z. 1916, pp. 172, 173. We will here show how it was typed in Num. 11 and symbolized in Ezek. 9. Manna is used in the Bible as a type of food for heart and mind, the Truth (1 Cor. 10:3, 4), and as Christ is the Truth (John 14:6) it types Him, especially as the Ransom (John 6:31-58). Just as the Israelites wearied of the literal Manna and

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longed for Egypt's fleshpots, so antitypical Israelites, first in the Spring of 1878, began to weary of the Truth, especially with respect to the Ransom, and longed for teachings in harmony with the present evil world. Among Truth people, Mr. Barbour was the first to weary of, and to renounce the Ransom, which he did in the Spring of 1878, thus becoming the leader of the class who cast off the Wedding Garment "when the King came in" (Matt. 22:11-13). Not a few Truth people followed his unholy course. The faithful teachers in harmony with the Lord's will shortly afterwards began to defend the Truth against Mr. Barbour's fundamental error, and completely refuted him (binding him hand and foot); while by his struggling to defend his errors he was logically driven to discard one truth after another, until he was in outer darkness, in full error, seeing darkness for light, eating the unclean foods of the symbolic world, with as many as he could mislead among the Truth people. 

(21) Nor did Ransom-denying limit itself to the Truth people. It shortly became frequent among the clergy and among many of their followers to deny the vicarious death of our Lord and to set Him forth merely as our Example, not as our Redeemer; and thus the symbolic plague infected vast numbers among the tentatively justified. Even beyond these it reached those who had no real faith in the Savior at all, though called Christians, i.e., those "in the Camp," working in them the denial of the Ransom as they imbibed the doctrines of Evolution, Spiritism and Christian Science, all of which logically or expressly deny the Ransom. These began after the Summer of 1878 to spread greatly. Verily they despised the antitypical Manna, the Ransom, and partook of the antitypical quail, no-ransomism's theories belonging to the present evil world! "He gave them their request; but sent leanness into their soul" (Ps. 106:15). 

(22) The same general lines of thought are given 

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in Ezek. 9 in the symbol of the first man with the slaughter weapon. Having above given general explanations of this picture, we will here take up details. First we note in harmony with what we have just seen, that it was appropriate that the first slaughter-weapon man should take his place at the altar, since his slaying work was related to a service connected oppositionally to the Sin-offerings. In harmony with the charge, "Go ye after him," we find that the harvesters wrought several years, i.e., from the Fall of 1874 to the Spring of 1878, before the first sifting class began their work. The first sifters certainly smote with their slaughter weapon, which we understand to be no-ransomism. They spared no one, being eager to infect, and thus slay, every one with their no-ransom error. The knowledge of the Truth prevented their slaying those who received "the mark." And true enough, they began with the ancient men in the sanctuary, i.e., they began to spread their no-ransomism among the consecrated Truth people, singling out first among these the leaders and the elders. Thus the no-ransomers defiled the house, the consecrated Truth people, with error (1 Cor. 3:17); and the defiled parts were slain as new creatures, died as new creatures—i.e., ceased to be God's people (Heb. 6:4-6; 10:26-29). 

(23) Next after defiling the house, these no-ransomers, with their slaughter weapon of no-ransomism, filled the courts with the slain. In the courts were the tentatively justified—and the plural, courts, seems to be used to indicate that the tentatively justified would be in the various denominations. We are not to understand the symbol of this or any other slaughter-weapon man to mean that the same persons did the slaughtering in the sanctuary as did it in the courts, or as did it in the city; rather that they were the same class of persons, i.e., no-ransomers; e.g., the no-ransomers among the Truth people did not slay especially in the

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


court. This was done especially by the clericalistic no-ransomers. Even as we have seen in Vol. III with reference to the wise and foolish virgins going forth since 1829, while they are now of the same classes as then, they are not now the same persons as then. So in the Sanctuary, as no-ransomers, Mr. Barbour and his associates were of the first slaughter-weapon man; yet not they, but some of the clergy and their associates as no-ransomers, were the first slaughter-weapon man slaying in the courts, i.e., destroying those of the tentatively justified as such who imbibed their no-ransomism; and the first slaughter-weapon man, the no-ransomers, who slew in the city, which was related to the Temple, as the camp in the wilderness was to the Tabernacle, were not Mr. Barbour and his associates, nor especially the ransom-denying clergy, but the Evolutionists, the Spiritualists, the Christian Scientists, etc. Their slaying in the city symbolized their infecting with no-ransomism those who were called Christians, but who were not even tentatively justified, destroying them as nominal Christians. Accordingly, as the plague, typed in Num. 11:33, 34, has slain among the consecrated, the tentatively justified and the worldlings we recognize it to be the same as the first slaughter weapon, i.e., no-ransomism, since the latter did the same work as was typed by the plague of Num. 11:3, 34, i.e., slaying in the temple, in the court, and in the city. It should be here noted that the threefold sphere of activity, both in the types of Moses and the prophecy of Ezekiel, appears in all six of the siftings, and in all six of the slaughter-weapon men's activities, i.e., the sifting, the slaughtering, affected the unworthy ones among the consecrated, the tentatively justified and the merely professing Christians. How remarkably our three texts dovetail into one another in every way! 

(24) We are told that the householder agreed with the laborers for a Penny a day (Matt. 20:2). It is

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certain, whether we view the early morning call as from 1874 to 1881, as our Pastor did, or as 1881 to 1884, as C.J. Woodworth does, that at neither of those times was Volume VII offered as the Penny to those who would labor throughout the day, as during that period nothing was said of seven volumes, it being thought about 1884 that three or four would suffice. But it is certain that a hundredfold in this life has been offered throughout the whole Gospel Age to the Lord's servants, and this was done, therefore, from October, 1874, to June, 1881, as well as throughout the rest of the Harvest. Hence C.J. Woodworth's Penny was not promised those called "early in the morning"; but the hundredfold, as the Penny, was. 

(25) According to our Pastor's understanding of the chronology of this Parable the third hour was from June, 1881, to October, 1884. C.J. Woodworth's view fixed the third hour from October, 1887, to October, 1890. During the latter's third hour there were neither large numbers called into the Truth nor did a sifting then occur, two considerations that are fatal to his theory; while his explaining the second call as the first, and his making each hour three years, force him entirely to ignore the first call of the Harvest and to claim parabolic calls when there were no such calls made. Only in the call periods were large numbers called; only a few individuals being called at other times. If we look at the events from June, 1881, to October, 1884, we do find a widely extended call made during that time. The Lord arranged for this second call by giving our dear Pastor the light on the Tabernacle in 1879, at which time He gave him as "that Servant" charge of the storehouse, while previously he had been exercising the executive function of that office "over the household." The details respecting this call and its attendant sifting are found in Z. 1916, p. 173, col. 1, par. 6, to end of page 175. In this call some of the previously employed agencies for the calling

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


work were used, i.e., "The Tower," the booklet, "The Object and Manner of Our Lord's Return," and the Pilgrim service. To these as parts of the sickle the Lord added two booklets, one of 161 pages, entitled "Food for Thinking Christians," and the other a somewhat smaller one, entitled "Tabernacle Shadows." Of the former 1,400,000 copies were distributed by mail and during three successive Sundays at Church doors by district messenger boys. Those who became interested thereby were on inquiry sent "Tabernacle Shadows," and later were sent "The Tower" regularly. By the use of these various agencies, particularly by "Food for Thinking Christians," several thousand persons came into the Truth. Thus the man with the writer's inkhorn went forth "into the city," and certainly with the Truth comforted those who sighed and cried because of the errors of doctrine and the wrongs of practice prevailing in "the city"—Christendom. 

(26) "Neither be ye [who are living in 'the ends of the Ages'] idolators, as [typically] were some of them; as it is written, 'The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play'" (1 Cor. 10:7). In this language St. Paul gives us an allusion to the type of the second sifting. This type relates to the making and worshiping of the golden calf, etc. (Ex. 32:1-35). The golden calf was an idol; and an antitypical idol is anything, apart from God, to which one devotes himself in supreme service. Antitypical idols are therefore of various kinds; but the chief one here meant is a creed idol. A creed idol is the product of one or more minds, and is always a false religious belief. Noting that in the third hour call, i.e., June, 1881, to October, 1884, very many people came into the Truth after the general call ceased, we conclude that there must have been many who then lost their crowns and consequent opportunities of service, these being apportioned to the newly called. Hence we are to look for a sifting at that time. And true enough, 

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we find one which was manifested by various ones thinking out wrong religious beliefs, and devoting their powers to propagate them. These wrong beliefs were infidelistic in character and, in part, correspond to the golden calf, their inventors correspond to Aaron, and their dupes to the idolators of Ex. 32. Among the Truth people Messrs. Paton, Adams, Jones, etc., during the Parable's third hour made this idol, and their followers from among the Truth people in considerable numbers worshiped it. Their views were an infidelistic repudiation of the plan of God and the substitution of a theory of self-atonement without a Ransomer. Scarcely a doctrine of the plan but they perverted, and led many to serve their golden calf. 

(27) In the nominal church, where the tentatively justified as a rule were, there arose infidelistic men repudiating the inspiration of the Bible, as well as others of its doctrines (the sinless birth of Jesus, His resurrection, miracles, etc.) and advanced instead the products of their own intellects, the theory and findings of Higher Criticism. Their chief leaders were Mr. Wellhausen, of Germany, and Mr. Kuenen, of Holland, who with their colaborers from 1882 onward circulated widely their infidelistic views and many were they that became antitypically plagued, spiritually fevered into an unsound mind on religion (Ex. 32:35) by worshiping this form of the golden calf. 

(28) Unjustified ones throughout Christendom were inveigled into worshiping the golden calf of grosser infidelism in the form of Rationalism, Deism, Pantheism, Materialism, Agnosticism and Atheism, propounded during the third hour by Messrs. Ingersoll, Huxley, Helmholtz, Bradlaugh, etc. The sons of Levi (Mal. 3:3) who rallied at Moses' call to slay the idolators represent the Lord's people in and out of the Truth (in the type the Tabernacle and the priesthood were not yet in existence) who have with the sword of the Truth refuted (slain) the servants of infidelism

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


among the Truth people, among the Church systems, and among worldlings outside of these systems. The plague (Ex. 32:35) of the second sifting was Infidelism, which crazed many minds on religious and other theories. 

(29) Infidelism was also the second slaughter weapon. The infidelistic persons spreading infidelism are represented by the second man with the slaughter weapon doing his slaying work. True to Ezek. 9 infidelistic persons, i.e., men like Messrs. Paton, Adams, Jones, etc., began in the third hour to advocate their infidelism among the Truth people, killing as new creatures those of them who imbibed their infidelistic theories, i.e., they slew in the Temple, defiling the house. They began this work shortly after "Food for Thinking Christians" was sent forth, i.e., they went after the inkhorn man. Soon afterwards in 1882 the higher critics became busy with their slaughter weapon in the courts, i.e., among the tentatively justified in the Church systems, influencing many of them to repudiate the inspiration of the Scriptures, etc., and serve Higher Criticism, thus killing them as tentatively justified persons. Very shortly after this grosser infidels, led by such as are above named, began an intensified activity, reaching people of the world outside of the Church systems; and, infecting them with their grosser forms of infidelism, killed them as professed Christians; because they influenced them to give up all profession of Christianity. Thus in the second sifting we see how Infidelism as a slaughter weapon slew in three spheres: (1) some in the temple, (2) some in the courts, and (3) some in the city, even such as were not in right heart condition, just as prophesied in Ezek. 9. Hence we note how our three texts dovetail into one another in this call, sifting and slaughter weapon. 

(30) The third call was in the sixth hour (Matt. 20:5). It was, therefore, three hours after the second

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call. Three hours of three years and four months each equal 10 years; hence the sixth hour was from June, 1891, to October, 1894. Specially large numbers did not come into the Truth from October, 1896, to October, 1899, C.J. Woodworth's sixth hour. Nor was there a general sifting at that time, though there was some trouble locally at Allegheny beginning before October, 1896, while the large call and sifting of the period from June, 1891, to October, 1894, are entirely ignored by his view. Here again the fulfilled facts prove "that Servant's" view to be correct. 

(31) Certainly there was a very extended call in the real sixth hour of the Parable. The Lord continued to use "The Tower," the "Pilgrims," "Tabernacle Shadows" and certain Tracts during this call; but gave the call especially through the Colporteurs, who, greatly increasing in numbers beyond former years and working with much success, had in the first three volumes a splendid sickle. And the Lord greatly blessed their efforts. Of course, there had been some Colporteur work before this hour; but now it became greatly extended. Many people were brought into the Truth during those years, a fact that demonstrates that many lost their crowns, making the sixth hour call necessary. There are yet many people of the sixth hour living. 

(32) The third sifting is described historically and thoroughly by our Pastor in 90 pages of a booklet, entitled "A Conspiracy Exposed," now out of print, wherein he in great detail exposed the offenses and refuted the charges of the sifters who published and worked against him before he exposed them. This sifting, beginning about the Passover of 1892, worked rather secretly among certain leaders and some of their followers for two years before it became worldwide among Truth people at the Passover of 1894. Its main leaders among the Truth people were Messrs. Von Zech, Bryan, Roger and Adamson. They sought 

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


to corrupt the Truth methods by combining with them Babylonian methods, advocating a discontinuance of the Colporteur work and seeking to substitute for it paid and titled preachers, who should take up collections, who should do much begging, and who should offer to loan the volumes to those showing interest in their preaching, but otherwise keeping the volumes out of sight. Failing to induce our Pastor to combine the Harvest with Babylonian methods, they by falsehoods sought to ruin his reputation; but in the end forsook the Truth movement. 

(33) Before describing the workings of this sifting among the tentatively justified and the mere professors we desire to introduce St. Paul's language treating of this sifting, type and antitype. "Neither let us [in 'the ends of the Ages'] commit [antitypical] fornication, as [typically] some of them committed, and fell in one day three and twenty thousand" (1 Cor. 10:8, compared with Num. 25:1-18). Baal Peor means Lord of the penis; and alludes antitypically to Satan's ruling in symbolic fornication—an illicit union. Its proponents' wrong theory and practice may be called Combinationism. Just as fornication is an illicit union of persons who should be separate; so it is used to type illicit combinationism. The sixth hour sifters among Truth people were antitypical fornicators; because they illicitly combined Truth and Babylonian methods. Seeking to induce others thereto for their own personal gain and honor, they from another standpoint are fittingly typed by Balaam (2 Pet. 2:15, 16; Rev. 2:14). Their being publicly proven and exposed as such wrong-doers antitypes Num. 25:4, 5. 

(34) During the sixth hour Combinationism also wrought havoc among the tentatively justified, who are usually found in the nominal church. In this the clergy led, seeking in each denomination to unite its various sects, and seeking interdenominationally to combine the various denominations in the Federation 

A Miscellany. 


of Churches, and Protestantism with Catholicism. Through the World's Congress of Religions at the Chicago World's Fair in 1893, they sought to unite Christianity with all other religions. This was an illicit combining of things that should have been kept separate, symbolic fornication. Zimri [sung] represents the combinationistic clergy. Cozbi [lies] (Num. 25:6-18) types the new, false world religion concocted by the Congress of Religions, teaching the Fatherhood of God for all men, the brotherhood of all men; the equality of all religions; and the acceptableness of all religious service to God, provided it is honestly given. The clergy were illicitly united with this World-religion in a most public manner at that time and occasion, antityping Zimri's public and illicit union with Cozbi. Phinehas [brazen mouth], the oldest son of the then high priest, Eleazar, as the chief under-priest types "that Servant," the chief under-priest in the time of the antitype. The javelin which he thrust through Zimri and Cozbi types the article in Z. 1893, pp. 323-349, entitled "Echoes from the World's Great Parliament of Religions," afterward with elaborations published in Vol. IV, chap. 6. By that article our Pastor thrust the combinationistic clergy and the new World-religion through, completely refuting them. But its errors infected very many of the justified. 

(35) Of deep interest to us antitypically is Num. 25:10-13. While our dear Pastor was, in 1879, made "that Servant," in the teaching function of that office, at the time the Tabernacle became clear to him, neither he nor anyone else this side the veil learned of it until 1894, when the Lord made it clear in antitype of Num. 25:10-13. This doctrine was first set forth by "that Servant" to the Church at large in Z. 1896, p. 47. As in the type Phinehas was recognized as the chief under-priest, and was singled out as a specially honored and used priest among all under-priests before the people, because of his loyalty, so in antitype, after "that 

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


Servant" hurled the antitypical javelin through antitypical Zimri and Cozbi, it was made known from the Lord among the Truth people that he was "that faithful and wise Servant." Here a type represents an individual. 

(36) Combinationism was active among mere professed Christians who had no real relation to Christ. Combinations in Capital and Labor were greatly increased at that time. France and Russia then formed the Dual Entente, which later, with Britain's accession, became the Triple Entente. The Triple Alliance was renewed in the sixth hour. Lodges, clubs and associations also greatly increased at that time. Thus the facts show that Combinationism wrought during the sixth hour among the Truth people, among the justified, and outside among mere professors. 

(37) The same line of thought is given in the symbol of the third man with the slaughter weapon (Ezek. 9). The third man himself types the combinationists; and his slaughter weapon, Combinationism. His beginning his slaughter work in 1892 proves that he went forth after the inkhorn man started the third call. His slaying (1) in the house, (2) in the courts, and (3) in the city, represents (1) his defiling with combinationism certain new creatures unto death, (2) certain justified ones unto the loss of their tentative justification, and (3) certain mere professors unto the loss of all claim to Christianity. Thus again our understanding of the calls, siftings and slaughter weapons dovetails the facts of the Harvest's gatherings and siftings into one another so as to prove true our view of our texts. 

(38) The fourth call occurred in the ninth hour, three symbolic hours, and therefore ten literal years after the sixth hour. This would fix the ninth hour from June, 1901, to October, 1904. C.J. Woodworth's ninth hour, October, 1905, to October, 1908, had no special call or sifting in it, except what, beginning in 

A Miscellany. 


its last few months, was due—as will be shown in connection with the fifth call and sifting—to the fact that these few months were the beginning of the eleventh hour call and sifting, from February, 1908, to June, 1911. This chronological condition of affairs is a conclusive proof that he has misinterpreted the chronology of the Parable, which refutes his view. 

(39) In the fourth call, i.e., that of the ninth hour, the Lord continued to use previously existing agencies, i.e., The Tower, many old Tracts, the Pilgrims and Colporteurs, but gave the call more especially through the Volunteers, who of course had previously done some work, though by no means on so large a scale. In 1901 they began a wide distribution of the "Hell Tower." The next year, "Our Lord's Return" and "The Parousia, Epiphaneia and Apokalypsis Towers" were widely distributed. This distribution occurred mainly at Church doors. The debate with Dr. Eaton, both as spoken and printed, was a part of this call, as well as the volunteer work resulting therefrom. Many people by these agencies were reached and brought into the Classes. In many places Classes doubled their numbers. Thus we find a well-defined call bringing many new laborers into the vineyard in the ninth hour—from June, 1901, to October, 1904. 

(40) Accompanying this call was, as was to be expected, a large sifting, set forth in type and antitype in St. Paul's language: "Neither let us [in 'the ends of the Ages'] tempt Christ, as some of them [in the type] tempted and were destroyed of serpents" (1 Cor. 10:9; Num. 21:4-6). Because the Edomites refused them permission, as a short cut to Palestine, to pass through Edom, the Israelites had to make a circuit of Edom; and the journey being a dreary one many tempted Moses, Christ's type, by blaming him for their lot and making it hard for him. In punishment fiery serpents bit them. Edom types Christendom, and the Lord's people tried to get to antitypical 

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


Canaan by a short cut over Christendom's highways, coveting full freedom from persecution. The nominal people of God refused this. Hence the way of self-denial around Christendom had to be traveled. Therefore an effort was made to introduce an easing of this road by earthly reforms. Hence some Truth people, led by the wife of "that Servant," advocated certain reforms like woman's rights, prohibition, the wife's right to be in effect the head of the home, this latter theory being brought to a climax in practice by a certain divorce action brought at the Passover of 1903, after the wife greatly tampered with her husband for some time to the disturbance of his work, which proved to be a tempting, a tampering with Christ, whose special representative the former was. Not a few of the sisters resented the teaching of their keeping silence in the Churches in doctrinal meetings and of covering their heads. Some brothers, with more gallantry than sobermindedness, aided and abetted these measures of reformism. But their efforts failing, their consequent bitterness evidenced their being bitten by sin, and as new creatures many of them died. 

(41) Reformism was advocated in the Churches. "Civic righteousness," "Christian citizenship," "the social uplift," "slumming," "prohibition," "suffrage," etc., were advocated widely; and reform efforts frequently failing, bitterness as a fiery serpent bit many of the justified. 

(42) Outside of the Churches Reformism found many advocates, whose contentions were: "Politics must be purified; business must be made honest; the trusts must be restrained; the home must be elevated; against vice we must make crusades." The Reformers labored long and hard, but their antagonists fought, and thus embittered them. The "muckrakers" also became embittered. Mr. Lawson's "Frenzied Finance" and Miss Tarbell's Standard Oil exposures and reform measures show something of the Reformers' bitterness.

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But many who were mere professors, following the movement of reform in these respects, were with their leaders, because of ill success, embittered, bitten by fiery serpents, losing all Christianity. 

(43) Reformism is pictured in the fourth slaughter weapon, as the Reformers are pictured in the man with the fourth slaughter weapon. True to the picture, the inkhorn man started the work of the fourth call before the fourth slaughter weapon began to slay. It slew (1) in the temple those of the new creatures who imbibed and enacted its principles; it slew (2) in the court those justified ones who accepted and practiced Reformism; it slew (3) in the city mere professors of Christianity who gave themselves up to its spirit. The bitterness that these three classes felt at the hardness of the way that the faithful took in self-denial, as they steadfastly kept away from Christendom's Reformism, manifested itself in opposition to them, and proves that they were bitten by the serpent of sin. Thus, as we study the fourth call, sifting and slaughter weapon, we see another remarkable example of their harmony and interrelation, which proves our view. 

(44) The eleventh hour call occurred two symbolic hours after the ninth hour, i.e., six years and eight months later. This would be from February, 1908, to June, 1911. C.J. Woodworth gives his eleventh hour as October, 1911, to October, 1914, and says its call was especially through the "Photo-Drama." During this period there was no sifting; hence no calling of large numbers to fill vacant crowns. Moreover, the Photo-Drama was not well under way until about May, 1914, though exhibited in a few cities previously from January onward. Hence at most his call would have been only a few months, very unlike the preceding Harvest calls; but if we look at the real eleventh hour, we find the largest call and sifting of the Reaping time taking place therein. This is another fact that proves that our dear Pastor's view of the Parable's 

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


Chronology is correct as against that of C.J. Woodworth. 

(45) In this call the Lord continued to use previously existing agencies, i.e., The Tower, the Pilgrims, the Colporteurs and the Volunteers, with the attendant literature; and especially gave the call through the newspaper and extension work, both of which were very greatly enlarged. By February, 1908, there were probably not over 20 newspapers publishing the sermons. Within two years over 2,000 were publishing them at one time, the total number publishing in this hour being about 4,000. The debate at Cincinnati, February, 1908, began to open up the call through the newspapers, a number of which were won for the sermons through printing the debates. Early in 1909 our Pastor expressed the opinion that probably 5,000 persons had recently lost their crowns, and that this meant that the call, which was then going on, would bring at least that number into the Truth. Certain it is that during no hour of the Harvest did so many people come into the Truth as in the eleventh hour, especially from 1909 to 1911. The repeated exhortations during that hour to enter the service correspond to the exhortation of vs. 6 and 7. 

(46) And surely during that time we had the greatest of all Harvest Siftings! It began in the late Spring of 1908 on the Vow, and in February, 1909, proceeded along the lines of the Ransom, Sin-offering, Mediator and Covenants controversy. Almost all the Truth people remember how Messrs. Henninges, McPhail, Williamson, etc., gave themselves up to contradicting almost everything that "that Servant" brought forth from the storehouse at that time: "Neither murmur ye [in 'the ends of the Ages'] as [typically] some of them also murmured and were destroyed of the destroyer" (1 Cor. 10:10). In these words whereby St. Paul refers to the fifth Harvest sifting is an allusion to Num. 15:37—16:50. We understand that 

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Num. 15:37-41 types the giving of the Vow to assist us to remember our consecration obligations. As Moses' commanding the wearing of the fringes was the occasion of the typical rebellion (Num. 16:1-3), so the Lord's giving the Vow was the occasion of the antitypical rebellion. We understand Korah to represent the sifters among the Truth people; Dathan, the Beast; Abiram, his Image; On, the Dragon, especially in his judicial and in his periodical mouthpieces; and the 250 Levites (Num. 26:10), the crown-losers (from God's standpoint) in the various (perhaps 250) divisions of the nominal church. Each day in the typical transaction seems to represent one year. The offering of incense by the 250 on the second day corresponds to the attacks on our understanding of the Ransom, Sin-offerings, Mediator and Covenants, beginning in February, 1909. The censers represent the Scripture passages that were used by the controversialists. Moses sending for Dathan and Abiram seems to type the Lord speaking through the Creed-Smashing Sermons and Tracts to the Beast and his Image, whose destruction is typed in the earthquake scene. The destruction of the 250 Levites represents the death of the new creatures in the antitype. Eleazar, the then most prominent under-priest, types "that Servant," who took the same passages (censers) of the contradictionists and interpreted ("beat") them in such a way as to defend the Truth on the Ransom, Sin-offerings, etc. ("a covering," a defense, of the altar). How our hearts were at that time refreshed by these blessed broadplates! The scene on the third day seems to type events from February, 1910, to February, 1911. The Scriptures and the truths on Zionism, the Kingdom, the death state and the penalty of sin seem to correspond to the censer and fire with which the High Priest in His Body members rushed among the people and delivered the deliverable from the plague of murmuring contradictionism, which by the co-operation of 

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


the antitypical Korah and his antitypical 250 Levites was infecting the masses of the Nominal Christian Church. 

(47) True to the picture, the fifth slaughter-weapon man, after the inkhorn man began the fifth call, started to slay and that in the temple, first contradicting the Vow, and then the Truth, especially on the Ransom uses, the Sin-offerings, Mediator and Covenants, and misrepresenting the Sin-offerings' doctrine as contradicting the Ransom. The fifth slaughter weapon is murmursome contradictionism. In the Nominal Church the antitypical 250 Levites began a widespread attack on the Truth in 1909; and in 1910 worldly editors and thoroughly secular people, aided by certain lawyers, judges and juries, waged a campaign of slander, especially against "that Servant," involving the whole Truth people. Thus the fifth slaughter weapon was widely used; and thus we see it to have slain first in the temple, second in its courts, third in the city, as the prophecy shows. 

(48) The sifters who engaged in murmursome contradictionism among the Truth people are the antitypical Korah, whose death represents the second death of his antitypes—those leaders who, renouncing their share in the Sin-offering and misrepresenting knowingly the Truth on this subject as teaching for the Church a share in producing the ransom-price, "counted the blood of the [sacrificial (Ps. 50:5)] covenant wherewith they were sanctified [not justified] an unholy thing," a thing not belonging to the Altar (Heb. 10:29). From this we are not to understand that all who went wrong on this subject are doomed to the second death; rather those who were deceived by the sifters into believing that the Truth teachings on the Church's share in the Sin-offering were to the effect that the Church partook in the work of producing the ransom-merit, and who hence, out of loyalty to the Ransom as alone laid down by our Lord, 

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renounced the doctrine that the Church shares in the Sin-offering, are not to be understood as being under the second death sentence. This is expressly shown in the type (Num. 26:11; 1 Chro. 9:19). However, their being deceived, amid circumstances in which the Truth could have been learned, proves that they were not living up to their privileges; and this, together with their aiding and abetting sifters, made then antitypical Levites, sons of Korah, who as antitypical transitional Kohathite Levites will wash their robes eventually, and, in the meantime, will keep themselves free from the various Societies, Corporations, among Truth people. While we may not hope nor pray for their deceivers, we are glad that there is hope for these (1 John 5:16, 17). The Lord open their eyes and lead them to repentance and thus to life. 

(49) The fact that 1 Cor. 10:1-14 and Num. 15:37—16:50 prove that the fifth sifting was from February, 1908, to June, 1911, and the fact that the former passage mentions nothing about the sixth sifting, prove that the sixth sifting would not take place until after the reaping period was over, not until after "the end of the Age" (Matt. 13:39), which was the day of the Parable, and ended October, 1914. These two facts are decisive against C.J. Woodworth's view of the day of the Parable, and corroborate our Pastor's view of it as the true one. 

(50) Matt. 20:8-16, as well as Ezek. 9:5-10, however, refer to the sixth sifting. Let us first examine Matt. 20:8-16. Since the day ended October, 1914, the evening then began. And true enough the Lord by His Providences so arranged matters that "that Servant," as "the Steward" of the Parable, first gave special opportunities perseveringly to smite Jordan to the Faithful only. These as a rule were those who came into the Truth from February, 1908, onward. For details on this point we refer our readers to Vol. III, Chapter II. It is remarkable how the bulk of the 

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


Truth people who came into the Truth during the calls prior to the fifth call, and who evinced their lack of zeal under test, either through financial cramping of the work or through disgruntlement at their not leaving the earth before October, 1914, were found so lacking in zeal as not to persevere to the end in the first smiting of Jordan, i.e., from the Fall of 1914 to that of 1916—and thus failed to receive the Penny in its first distribution. With very few exceptions, those who were called in the eleventh hour were very zealous in receiving their Penny, the special hundredfold for the end of the Age, it taking the form of special privileges of service, the honor of executing the judgment written (Ps. 149:5-9). Thus seen the Penny is the execution of judgment, confessing the sins over Azazel's Goat, partaking in antitypical Gideon's First Battle, and the first smiting of Jordan—the varied pictures of the Faithful's hundredfold at the end of the Age. They got this before the others, the measurably Faithful, "received" their Penny, their opportunity of smiting Jordan, which is that of the Elisha Class, and constitutes the second smiting, as seen in the Parable and the Elijah and Elisha type. 

(51) It will be noted that the Faithful in the fulfillment did not murmur at their hundredfold; but the measurably Faithful did murmur. As parabolic and typical conversations are usually fulfilled in pantomime, i.e., in acts, and not in words, so do we find it here. The hundredfold offered those who received their Penny last was the same thing as the others received, i.e., the privilege of smiting Jordan, its second smiting, which occurred from the Fall of 1917 to the Spring of 1918; and "that Servant," as "the Steward" of the Parable, gave them this privilege by a series of things: (1) by arranging for what proved to be the second smiting of Jordan, which gave them special opportunities of service; (2) by rearranging the workers (especially at Bethel, from which it happened 

A Miscellany. 


that the measurably Faithful took over the controllership of the work), which was done partly by his changing the positions of various workers just before he died, and partly by the changes that provisions of his will made after he died, which likewise gave them and their ardent and partisan supporters special opportunities of service in the second smiting of Jordan; (3) by instituting the Pastoral work and the V.D.Ms. he gave special opportunities of service in smiting Jordan the second time to those who availed themselves of these arrangements. In these and other ways "that Servant" gave the Penny also to the second class among the Truth people. 

(52) V. 10 proves that the second class were possessed with unholy ambition. They wanted "more," and wanted the "more" before they received their hundredfold, which proves that they had cultivated a wrong spirit. How did these murmur? We answer, by their acts. The fact that the three British Managers grasped for more powers than "that Servant" arranged to be given them was murmuring against the Goodman of the house, and against the faithful servants whom they sought to set aside. The fact that "the present management" in the Society grasped for more power than "that Servant" arranged for them to have was murmuring against the Goodman of the house and His faithful ones, whom they sought to set aside. The fact that certain ones partisanly supported these in their course, which invariably brought them rewards, was murmuring against the Goodman of the house and His faithful servants, whom they sought to set aside. Thus all who grasped for power and their partisan supporters were the murmurers against the Goodman of the house and His faithful servants, and their acts in these respects were their murmurings; and prove conclusively that they wanted "more" than the Faithful got. 

(53) These acts constituted revolutionism in unholy 

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


ambition against the Lord's arrangements for special opportunities of service connected with smiting Jordan, as given through "that Servant," "the Steward" of the Parable. In personal conversation with us several times he referred to himself as "the Steward" of the Parable. He did this also to Menta Sturgeon just before he died. C.J. Woodworth has offered us another Steward; and to give this thought even a measure of plausibility he has had to twist the Parable as very few Scriptures have ever been twisted; but the historical facts that are so beautifully harmonious, as given above, completely refute his view of things, and prove "that Servant's" view to be correct. Since C.J. Woodworth's day did not end until October, 1917, his Steward gave his Penny, Vol. VII, before his evening came, a contradiction of the Parable. 

(54) V. 13 proves that Vol. VII (against which so-called Penny not one word was said in Bethel dining room July 17, 1917, C.J. Woodworth to the contrary notwithstanding) is not the Penny of the Parable; for it was not promised in the first hour of either view of the Parable, for seven volumes were not promised until long afterward. But the hundredfold was promised in the real first hour. C.J. Woodworth's order in which the Penny was given is not that of the Parable. His definition of those who received the Penny first, i.e., the foreign brethren, the majority of whom were called before the eleventh hour, contradicts the Parable, which teaches that those (as a rule), called in the eleventh hour, no matter where they lived, first "received" it; moreover, none of the foreign brethren "received" it so soon as the American brethren. Z. 1917, p. 372, col. 2, par. 1, proves that it was sent to all Tower subscribers at one distribution; hence it was not given to the Truth people in two distinct distributions, corresponding to the Spirit-begotten classes, as the Parable requires of the distribution of the real Penny. What a mechanical,

A Miscellany. 


confused and unhistorical interpretation C.J. Woodworth has given us! Yet how true to the facts and principles involved the interpretation given above is! V. 12 shows that the murmurers did not want the others to be "equal" to them. Hence they wanted superiority, more power and lordship. Therefore they grasped for power and became lords over God's heritage, revolutionizing against the Lord's arrangements for the hundredfold given through the real Steward of the Parable! The real murmurers are thus clearly the Society leaders and their partisan supporters. 

(55) Vs. 13-15 show that the Lord would direct an especially severe rebuke to a class that he addresses as "friend." This class we believe to be the leaders in Revolutionism. V. 14 shows that this "friend" was given his Penny, the second smiting of Jordan, "the Big Drive," from the Fall of 1917 to the Spring of 1918, and was left to go his "own way," a way which, therefore, was one of selfishness with its concomitants of error and disaster. Certainly, so far their "way" has been one of much error and disaster; for they have made a fearful wreck of things in the Society. What of injury have those not done to the Society who falsely accused some of their brethren of conspiring to wreck it!! The last clause of this verse should be rendered, "I will to give to this last one [a class therefore, even as the 'friend' is a class] even as unto thee." 

(56) V. 15 proves that the Lord did the right thing; but that the class represented by the one addressed as "friend" desired and did wrong. Despite the Lord's goodness in giving them a hundredfold, their eye, perception, saw therein opportunities of evil-doing, grasping for power and lording it over God's heritage. The Lord gave them the rebukes of vs. 13-15 through certain protests and the "opposition" publications of the year 1917. V. 16 expresses the thought, to demonstrate 

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


which Jesus gave the Parable, i.e., that at the end of the Age, in connection with giving the hundredfold, as a rule late comers in the work would attain joint-heirship with Christ in the Kingdom, while as a rule those called before them would be placed in the Great Company. How clearly these events prove the fulfillment of this Parable! 

(57) The sixth slaughter weapon is Revolutionism (Ps. 107:10, 11); and the Revolutionists are represented by the sixth slaughter-weapon man. Whoever among the consecrated revolts against the Lord's Truth and arrangements given through "that Servant" is represented in the sixth slaughter-weapon man; and whoever among the consecrated imbibes his errors and supports him in his practices is represented by those slain in the temple. Revolutionism has assumed several forms among Truth people: setting aside Truth by error and setting aside right arrangements by wrong ones. Both practices are against the Lord's protective ways given through "that Servant." One of the worst forms of the latter is Clericalism, which has manifested itself in two forms, general and local. General Clericalism has gotten control of the organizations among the Lord's people, and has more or less dominated over the general Church, while local clericalism manifests itself in local elders grasping for power and lording it over the ecclesias. One of our dear Pastor's last warnings was against clericalists, given in the article on "The Hour of Temptation" (Z. 1916, p. 327). Little did we think that the three British Managers and the Society leaders would be the leaders in Clericalism! The leaders of the Pastoral Bible Institute are likewise Revolutionists, by displacing certain truths through opposing errors and by having adopted a charter that deviates from our Pastor's violently. In vain do the P. B. I. leaders point out in justification of themselves that the People's Pulpit Association's charter is different from that of the Society. We answer them on this point 

A Miscellany. 


exactly as they answered J.F. Rutherford on the same point: The charter of the Association is not the charter for a controlling corporation among the Truth people, while that of the Society is. On this point their condemnation of J.F. Rutherford is their own: "Out of thine own mouth will I judge thee," says the Lord. 

(58) Text-bookism, another form of revolutionizing against God's arrangements, is of two forms, gross and mild. In the first of these forms it starts with disowning of our Pastor as "that Servant," progresses to a repudiation of the Truth literature, ends with a denial of the Truth itself, and in the end results in the second death. In the second of these forms it sets aside the "Studies" as text-books, using the Bible as such, and doubtless results in one's being remanded to the Great Company. Revolutionism against the Lord's arrangements given through "that Servant" is a sign that the Lord in this, the Epiphany period, gives us, enabling us to recognize those who are manifested as having lost the High Calling (Ps. 107:10, 11). Revolutionism will continue among the Truth people, until all are tested and manifested by their stand toward it pro or con. 

(59) Revolutionism, as the sixth slaughter weapon, is active in the nominal churches, i.e., in the courts, among the justified. Through the Federation of Churches and the agitated League of Churches, the Clergy are leading a revolution against certain good things in the systems, i.e., are grasping for power and lording it over the Nominal people of God; and those who are succumbing to their theories are being slain by their slaughter weapon. These in their tentative justification are being slain right and left. 

(60) Then Revolutionism is active outside the courts, i.e., in the city, leading up to the symbolic earthquake of Revelation 16:18-21. It was this great earthquake of the future, in the third sphere of activity, "in the city," that enabled us, from a study of the character of the sifting movements in the Truth,

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


to conclude that Revolutionism is the sixth slaughter weapon. As early as February 24, 1917, in a cablegram sent from England, we warned J.F. Rutherford that the sixth sifting of Ezek. 9 was on in England. The sixth sifting, like all the others, began among the consecrated, then proceeded to the justified and will culminate among the mere professors, who are strangers to real faith in the Lord, even as their Savior. Thus we find in all six siftings the statement to be true: "that judgment must begin at the house of God" (1 Pet. 4:17; Ezek. 9:6). 

(61) The sixth sifting, however, has a peculiarity that none of the others had. Whereas all the others made a marked separation between those who retained and those who lost the Holy Spirit, the present sifting is mainly marked by the separation of the Priests and the Levites, both retaining the Holy Spirit. And this is exactly what we should expect for the Epiphany time (Mal. 3:2, 3; Matt. 7:24-27; 1 Cor. 3:12-15; 4:5; 2 Tim. 4:1); nor do we think the present sifting will be over for several years, and of course it will be somewhat later before the Great Company will recognize itself as such. 

(62) How marvelous is the harmony of our texts! Dovetailed together, how remarkably do they disclose Jehovah's foreknowledge of our wonderful times! And how these texts admonish us to watch, to pray, to keep ourselves in the love of God, and in the waiting for the mercy of Christ unto eternal life, to be humble as to self, trustful as to the Lord, and to be free from all idols of selfishness, worldliness, error and sin! How have we been heeding these admonitions in the past? How are we heeding them now? Are we Revolutionists or their partisan supporters, or are we their Opposers—Which? Let us examine ourselves as to our stand with respect to the sixth sifting, which is yet testing us! "Who will be able to stand when He appeareth [when He makes all His people manifest, i.e., in the Epiphany, Mal. 3:2]?" 

A Miscellany. 


Who? "He that hath a pure heart and clean hands," and none else. "Wherefore, my dearly beloved, flee from idolatry" (1 Cor. 10:14)! For other particulars on the Penny Parable, please see P '29, 106. 


(1) What is the probable reason for the publication of the "New View"? Why is this the probable reason? 

(2) Give a brief history of the writing, printing and publishing of the article entitled "Brother Rutherford's New View." 

(3) Give, according to Z. 1918, p. 51, a good rule for us to follow in our teaching. 

(4) Of what do the texts Matt. 19:27-20:16; 1 Cor. 10:1-14; Ezek, 9:1-11 treat? Why and how should we study them? 

(5) Give our Pastor's earlier and later views of the Parable of the Penny, and the reasons for his change of view. 

(6) What additional argument and its corroborative Scriptures prove the later view to be correct? 

(7) How do the Scriptures use the term "the first" and "the last"? What is the Penny? And what is implied in its being given to "the first" and to "the last"? 

(8) Give and prove the true duration and time of the day and the hours of the Parable. State and refute an erroneous view. 

(9) What two lines of thought does the Parable give? 

(10) State and prove to what periods 1 Cor. 10:1-4 apply and give a general explanation of the three divisions of this Scripture. 

(11) Briefly give the contents of Ezek. 9:1-11 and show their relation to those of Matt. 20:1-16 and 1 Cor. 10:1-14. 

(12) Give the true and erroneous views of those symbolized by Ezekiel and the slaughter-weapon men. Prove the true, disprove the erroneous views. 

(13) Give the true and erroneous views of the inkhorn man. Disprove the erroneous, and prove the true view by three arguments. 

(14) By comparison and contrast give the relation between the contents of the three texts. 

(15) Why is the time of the first call expressed differently from the times of the other calls?

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


(16) From Scriptures, instrumentalities, results, agents and facts, corroborated by Z. 1916, pp. 170-173, prove that the first call was from October, 1874, to June, 1881. 

(17) Give a history of the article "These Things Were Types."—Z. 1913, p. 198. 

(18) Why were siftings necessary, first during the first call, and second during the other calls? What bearing does this have on C.J. Woodworth's day and hours? What was the chronological relation of each call to its accompanying sifting?—Ezek. 5:9. 

(19) State the events of Num. 11:4-36; and prove their typical character. 

(20) Give the antitypes of the main feature of this history and show their fulfillment among Truth people "early in the morning." 

(21) Show their antitypes in the antitypical courts and in the antitypical camp. 

(22) Explain, symbol and reality, the first slaughter weapon, its wielder and his activities in the temple. 

(23) Explain, symbol and reality, the first slaughter weapon, its wielder and his activities in the courts and in the city; and show the distinctions in the personnel of the slayer in the Sanctuary, courts and city. 

(24) State a fact that proves that not Vol. VII, but that the hundredfold is the Penny. 

(25) Give the facts, agents, instrumentalities and results that disprove the "Penny Tract's" view, and those that prove our Pastor's view of the third hour call. 

(26) State the facts of Ex. 30:1-31; prove their typical character; and show their antitypes among Truth people during the third hour. 

(27) Show the antitypes of these in the nominal church. 

(28) Show the antitypes of these in the world; and explain, type and antitype, the slaying of the idolators by the Sons of Levi (Mal. 3:3) and the plague. 

(29) Explain, symbol and reality, the second slaughter weapon, its wielder and his activities in the sanctuary, courts and city. 

(30) Disprove the false chronology of the sixth hour call. 

(31) Give the true chronology, and the agents, instrumentalities and results of the sixth hour call. 

A Miscellany. 


(32) Give the historical facts of the sixth hour sifting among the Truth people. 

(33) State the facts of Num. 25:1-18; prove their typical character, and antitypes among Truth people. 

(34) Show the antitypes of these among the nominal people of God. Explain, type and antitype, the account of Zimri, Cozbi and Phinehas. 

(35) Explain the antitype of Phinehas in our Pastor as "that Servant." 

(36) Show the activity of combinationism in the world. 

(37) Explain, symbol and reality, the third slaughter weapon, its wielder and his activities in the sanctuary, courts and city. 

(38) Disprove the false chronology of the ninth hour, and state its true chronology. 

(39) Give the facts, agents, instrumentalities and results of the ninth hour call. 

(40) State the history of Num. 21:4-6; prove its typical character; and show its antitype among the Truth people in the ninth hour. 

(41) Show its antitype among the nominal people of God in the ninth hour. 

(42) Show its antitype in the world. 

(43) Describe, symbol and reality, the fourth slaughter weapon, its wielder and his activities in the Sanctuary, courts and city. 

(44) Disprove the false chronology of the eleventh hour, and state its true chronology. 

(45) Give the facts, agents, instrumentalities and results of the eleventh hour call. 

(46) State the history of Num. 15:37—16:50; prove its typical character; show the antitypes of its persons, events, days and things. 

(47) Describe, symbol and reality, the fifth slaughter weapon, its wielder and his activities in the sanctuary, courts and city. 

(48) Define the antitypes of Korah and his sons and show their present and future conditions. 

(49) What two facts prove that the sixth sifting would occur after the Reaping, and what do these facts do with the true and false chronology of the Parable? 

Calls—Siftings—Slaughter Weapons. 


(50) Describe the Penny and those who first received it; and how and when the real Steward first gave it. Why did some not, and why did others get the Penny first? 

(51) How are parabolic and typical conversations usually fulfilled? How was the Penny in both distributions the same thing? How and when did the real Steward give the Penny the second time? 

(52) What quality (Matt. 20:10) prompted the murmuring? How did power-graspers, etc., murmur? 

(53) What did these murmuring acts constitute? Who is the real, and who the counterfeit Steward? Why? How does the time of the counterfeit Steward's giving the counterfeit Penny contradict the chronology of the counterfeit day? 

(54) Show the disharmony of facts with C.J. Woodworth's view on the Penny, the order of its distribution and its recipients. How may we characterize the two views of the Parable? And what does Matt. 20:12 prove against the murmurers? 

(55) Who are represented by the "friend"? When did he receive his Penny? By whom and by what means was he rebuked? What kind of a course did he then take? 

(56) What are the thoughts given in Matt. 20:15, 16? 

(57) Explain the sixth slaughter weapon, its two parts, its wielder and his activities in the form of Clericalism among Truth people? By whom and where was a warning given against the Clericalists? Who are the chief Clericalists? How does one of these groups in vain defend itself against the charge of Revolutionism? 

(58) Explain the two forms of text-bookism in their operation and results. What does and will Revolutionism among the consecrated manifest? 

(59) Explain, symbol and reality, the sixth slaughter weapon, its wielder and his activity in the courts. 

(60) Explain the same features in the city. How was the "city" activity a clue to the sixth slaughter weapon? By what date had the sixth sifting been recognized? Among whom did all siftings begin, progress and end? 

(61) What especially differentiates the sixth from all others? Why is this so? How long may this sifting last? When will the Great Company recognize itself? 

(62) What lessons should we learn from this study? 

There is a mystery in human hearts, 

And though we be encircled by a host 

Of those who love us well, and are beloved, 

To every one of us, from time to time, 

There comes a sense of utter loneliness. 

Our dearest friend is "stranger" to our joy, 

And cannot realize our bitterness. 

"There is not one who really understands, 

Not one to enter into all I feel"; 

Such is the cry of each of us in turn. 

We wander in a "solitary way," 

No matter what or where our lot may be. 

And would you know the reason why this is? 

It is because the Lord desires our love. 

In every heart He wishes to be first. 

He, therefore, keeps the secret-key Himself, 

To open all its chambers, and to bless 

With perfect sympathy and holy peace 

Each solitary soul that comes to Him. 

So when we feel this loneliness, it is 

The voice of Jesus saying, "Come to Me"; 

And every time we are "not understood," 

It is a call to us to come again; 

For Christ alone can satisfy the soul, 

And those who walk with Him from day to day 

Can never have "a solitary way." 

And when beneath some heavy cross you faint, 

And say, "I cannot bear this load alone," 

You say the truth. Christ made it purposely 

So heavy that you must return to Him. 

The bitter grief, which "no one understands," 

Conveys a secret message from the King, 

Entreating you to come to Him again. 

The Man of Sorrows understands it well. 

In all points tempted, He can feel with you. 

You cannot come too often, or too near. 

The Son of God is infinite in grace; 

His presence satisfies the longing soul; 

And those who walk with Him from day to day 

Can never have "a solitary way."