Epiphany Truth Examiner


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Num. 13:14; Deut. 1:19-46 


OUR STUDY of Numbers brings us to Num. 13 and 14, which we will now take up, and in connection with these chapters we will study the parallel statements of Deut. 1:19-46. These chapters treat of the twelve spies in their individuals, their commission, their searching of the land, their report, their recommendations, their effect on the people, Moses, Aaron, Joshua, Caleb and God, God's sentence of 40 years' wandering upon the people and their disastrous effort disobediently to enter the land. Our Pastor (Tower Reprints, 3064:5) tells us that Fleshly Israel at the time of the First Advent and during the Gospel-Age fulfilled in considerable measure its antitype. Thus he held that there was also a measure of its antitype that Fleshly Israel did not fulfill, and that is, because in their wilderness journey to Canaan they typed Spiritual Israel in its journey to the Kingdom, a thought which was often brought out by him, e.g., Tower Reprints, 3060:9, and which he based on Heb. 3 and 4. Accordingly, there was a small antitype and a large antitype of these chapters, the latter on Spiritual Israel at the time of the First Advent. Again, since the Harvests are parallel, we see in addition to the application of the story to Fleshly and Spiritual Israel at the First Advent an application of it to Fleshly and Spiritual Israel in the Gospel-Age Harvest. And the connecting point between the applications to Fleshly and to Spiritual Israel in the Jewish Harvest is this: 

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Out of each of the twelve tribes of Fleshly Israel the Lord drew the Israelites indeed and made them parts of the twelve tribes of Spiritual Israel, whose justified associates became Levites of the Gospel Age and whose non-justified associates became members of the respective nominal tribe of the Spiritual tribe with which they were associated until representatives of these classes during the Gospel Age merged into their pertinent denominations among the twelve denominations as the antitypical nominal twelve tribes of the Gospel Age, as we have already shown. 

(2) Viewing the matter from the typical application of this story to antitypical Spiritual Israel in the Jewish Harvest, we would construe the type for the Jewish Harvest as follows: The twelve fleshly tribes represent all who professed faith in Christ during the Jewish Harvest—the consecrated, the justified and the unjustified. The bulk of them having been Jews and some devout Gentiles more or less interested in Judaism, they were in their bulk viewed as the twelve tribes of Israel marching toward the Gospel-Age Canaan, the sphere of the Truth and of the Spirit of the Truth, their entrance into which was to have its beginning early in the Jewish Harvest. Out of these twelve tribes the Lord during the Jewish Harvest chose the antitypical twelve spies, who at the time of their selection as such and until the report had been made were Little Flock members, particularly those among them who were "scribes instructed unto the kingdom of God" (Matt. 13:52). These explored at Jesus' command the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit during the Jewish Harvest and from time to time during those 40 years brought back their pertinent findings, the 40 days of the spying here representing the 40 years of the Jewish Harvest. We are not to understand that no reports of such findings were made until 69 A.D., for facts prove that such reports were made throughout the 40 years. Rather, we are to understand that the 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


end of the 40 days represents the limit of the time for such reports to be made, somewhat after the way we understand that the 40 days of Goliath's challenging do not mean that no attacks were made on Evolution until 1914, but that they then entered into the final attack by that Servant. Accordingly, the facts prove that the Apostles, Prophets and abler Teachers brought such reports from time to time during the Jewish Harvest, e.g., the New Testament writings, except John's writings, which were produced at least 20 years after 69 A.D., were reports of Apostles' and Prophets spy-findings. 

(3) After the time of making such reports a change took place in the standing of ten of the antitypical spies (Num. 14:37). All reported in harmony with one another (Num. 13:26-29) until it came to antitypical Caleb, the Little Flock exhorting the people to prompt consecration and its prompt fulfilment, when ten groups among the spies made a slanderous report by misrepresenting the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit and by exaggerating the strength of the spiritual enemies and the difficulties of overcoming (vs. 31-33), and thereby discouraged the people from entering and taking the Christian inheritance (the prospective sphere of the Truth and its Spirit) from its enemies who inhabited it. For this they lost their crowns, and this was proved by their becoming plague-stricken by some error. Joshua and Caleb encouraging the people to go up in the strength of the Lord represent our Lord and the true Church, particularly its leaders, during the Jewish Harvest, encouraging the people to consecrate and carry out their consecration—the invasion and conquest of that which should become the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. The Israelites in general represent other crown-losers, the justified and unjustified of that time, who became discouraged, then murmured and rebelled against our Lord (Moses) and the faithful Priesthood (Aaron), commanding that 

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doctrines contrary to those presented by the true spies be used as symbolic stones in refutation of the true spies (commanded to stone Joshua and Caleb, Num. 14:10). God by the truths that He gave through the true Church (His glory appeared on the tabernacle) called a halt to this course of the unworthy, and then sentenced them, personally and in those following them, to wander during the Gospel Age up to 1874 in the symbolic wilderness, unable to get to antitypical Canaan, the sphere of the Gospel-Age harvest Truth and Spirit of the Truth. Their efforts to enter that sphere before such wilderness wandering was over resulted in disastrous defeats, of which the Gospel Age, in error and evil triumphing, is full of examples. Thus briefly have we sketched the antitype of Num. 13 and 14 in relation to Spiritual Israel in the Harvest of the Jewish Age, because it is not our design here to give details thereon; rather we here design to give details on the antitypes of these two chapters as they belong to the Gospel Harvest, since these are the antitypes that concern us more directly. 

(4) The 40 years' journeyings of Israel in the wilderness, therefore, type mainly the journeyings of the Christian Church toward the Harvest of the Gospel Age, according to St. Paul's explanation in Heb. 3 and 4, though they also type Fleshly Israel's Gospel-Age wanderings toward 1874. And, according to the parallel, there is a second application for them: their antitypical twelve spy classes of this Harvest have brought them a report on Israel's return to God's favor and Palestine, two of them reporting favorably and ten of them unfavorably, followed by the antitypical murmuring and condemnation to wander during the Epiphany in the wilderness again, and afterwards enter and conquer their antitypical Canaan—the sphere of Truth and its Spirit in the Millennium. This phase of the antitype we will also not discuss further, since it is our purpose to discuss here in some detail Spiritual

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Israel's second application of the story of Num. 13 and 14, that of the Gospel Harvest. We repeat it: The fact that Num. 13 and 14, according to Heb. 3 and 4, apply to Spiritual Israel in the Harvest of the Jewish Age, which proves, according to the parallel Harvests, that they also apply to Spiritual Israel in the Gospel Harvest, moves us to trace the antitype of the second application of these two chapters to Spiritual Israel, i.e., the application of the story to Spiritual Israel in the Gospel Harvest. Our readers will recall that we have often told them that in the Epiphany we are living over the Gospel Age on a small scale, and hence are living in a miniature Gospel Age. While telling them this, we never gave them any Scripture on which we base this thought. The main Scripture on which we base it is the Gospel Harvest application of Num. 13 and 14 with the consequent wanderings to Spiritual Israel; for, as we will herein show, according to the second application, the Gospel Harvest is the second antitype of the story of Num. 13 and 14; and Israel's wanderings find their second antitype in the second application in Spiritual Israel's wandering in the Epiphany; for as the wanderings following the Jewish Harvest on the part of Spiritual Israel were those of the Gospel Age, so the Epiphany wanderings following the Gospel Harvest as the parallel of the Jewish Harvest on the part of Spiritual Israel are the parallel of those of the Gospel Age on a small scale. Hence in the Epiphany we are living over the Gospel Age on a small scale, which accounts for our speaking of the miniature Gospel Age, with its little Babylon, its little Protestant churches, its little Catholic Church, its little pope, etc. 

(5) Remembering that we are limiting the study of our texts from Numbers and Deuteronomy to the Gospel Harvest application to Spiritual Israel, we understand that the request of the people (Deut. 1:22) that Moses send out spies to search out the

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land, corresponds to Spiritual Israel's asking, by their needs and words, our Lord to raise up students of the Word to study out the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit (Canaan). and thus enable them to know and act in harmony with that Truth and its Spirit. Apparently this request preceded the charge of God to Moses (Num. 13:1) to send out the twelve spies, even as the felt needs and words of Spiritual Israel for the antitypical information as it approached the Parousia were requests to God for the antitypical information before God charged the sending out of the antitypical spies to get it. God's response is seen in the pertinent charge (v. 1); and our Lord was pleased with the request and charge (Deut. 1:23). As we have already learned, Canaan types the sphere of the Truth and of the Spirit of the Truth. Primarily this is the Bible; but as the Bible truths and their Spirit come increasingly into the minds of God's people their minds become increasingly the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit. As before Israel's entrance into Canaan enemies and inimical cities infested it, so before Spiritual Israelites enter antitypical Canaan, it, as the prospective sphere of the Truth and its Spirit, is filled with various evils, i.e., these infest the natural minds of God's people, which, accordingly, become the battlefield of the Truth and its Spirit against these enemies, even as after Israel invaded Canaan it became the battleground of its inhabitants and cities against Israel. The New Creature invades the natural mind and increasingly pervades the increasingly subdued heart and mind. And as Moses sent out the twelve spies (vs. 3-16; Deut. 1:23), so our Lord sent out their antitypes in the Parousia. The charge was, literally, "Send for thee" (v. 2), implying that the spies were to help the typical and antitypical Moses in the matter on hand. 

(6) Their selection, one from each tribe, represents the fact that a set of new-creaturely Scripture students

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from each of the twelve denominations of Christendom, which we have hitherto sufficiently named and described, were to be chosen as spies. The fact that not all Israelites became these spies, but that twelve individuals became such, and that each of these twelve spies was to be a ruler (literally, a prince) in his tribe, types the fact that not even all new creatures were to be the antitypical spies, but certain selected ones were to be such, and that these selected ones were to be Little Flock members, a group of such leaders being in each denomination. The fact that the ten who brought up a slander against the land died of plague before the Lord types the fact that their antitypes had ceased to be Little Flock members, evidenced by their being made siftlings (died of the plague, 14:37). Accordingly, we are to understand that at the time of sending out the antitypical spies, all of them were crown-retainers. This is further confirmed by the fact that none of the typical spies were among the princes who brought the offerings of Num. 7 and led the tribes in Num. 10, whom we know type the twelve groups of crown-lost leaders, one group for each denomination. Hence the selection of twelve others was not due to the death of these offering princes and to the former twelve becoming their successors; for the sending out of the spies occurred just about two months after the Israelites left Sinai (Num. 10:11; 13:20), within which time these twelve offering princes assuredly did not die. Thus at the sending out of the antitypical spies every member of each of the twelve groups was a Little Flock member; and they constituted all the Little Flock "scribes" (Matt. 13:52) in each of the twelve denominations of Christendom. But just after making the report a change takes place. Thereafter Joshua types our Lord. This is foreshadowed in the change of name given Joshua (v. 16). At the same time Caleb stood for all the Little Flock,

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particularly for their leaders, in the Parousia Truth, the other antitypical spies becoming crown-losers. 

(7) Moses' sending the spies out by the commandment. [literally, at the mouth] of the Lord (v. 3) types our Lord's sending out the Little Flock "scribes" in all the denominations as antitypical spies, according to God's Word, the Bible. The involved part of the Bible is that of our study—Num. 13; 14; Deut. 1:19-46. Our Lord, from the Father's clarifying this type to Him, saw that it was God's word to Him to send them out to search the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit. Perhaps God also charged Him directly to this effect. In either case, or in both cases, it would be God's charge to Him. As the typical spies were sent out from the wilderness of Paran (cavernous; v. 3), in which Kadesh-barnea (holy desert of wandering; Deut. 1:19), their place of departure, was located, so the antitypical spies were sent out in the Parousia part of the Millennium, as in a time of a consecrated wilderness condition. Kadesh-barnea is also called Enmishpat (fountain of judgment; Gen. 14:7), indicative of the testings in connection with the ransom and the sin-offering doctrines, which took place at antitypical Kadesh (Num. 20:1-13), as the chief doctrinal tests of the Parousia. As it was emphasized, by repetition (all these men were heads of the children of Israel, v. 3), that the twelve spies were leaders in their respective tribes, so in the antitype it was emphasized that the antitypical spies were the leading students of the Bible in their respective denominations, who were at the same time Little Flock members. It will be noted that neither the tribe of Levi nor Aaron's family is included. This is to show that Little Flock members are typed by the spies. Thus as Moses sent out the twelve spies to search out typical Canaan, so our Lord sent out from the twelve denominations the Little Flock "scribes" to search out the sphere of the Truth and of the Spirit of the Truth. 

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In their searching some of the members of each one of the twelve groups of antitypical spies came into the Truth movement, while others remained in their respective denominations, becoming enemies of the Truth. 

(8) Let us here, as at the appropriate place, pause awhile and consider the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit—antitypical Canaan. It embraces Bible and Bible-pertinent knowledge and its Spirit in all their ramifications. In Vol. VIII, Chap. II we showed the main forms of such knowledge, when we described the work of the Gospel-Age Kohathites. But the Gospel-Age Kohathites did not penetrate so deeply into these matters of Bible knowledge and Spirit as did the twelve Parousia spies, and that for several reasons: they were not new creatures, as were the antitypical spies; many features of such knowledge were not due until the Parousia; and the antitypical spies could discern such features of the Truth and of the Spirit of the Truth as the unconsecrated natural man could not see. In Vol. VIII, Chap. II we mentioned some as Gospel-Age Kohathites whom further light shows not to have been such, but who were new creatures, some ministering before, and some during the Parousia. We will, among others, mention hereinafter the main new creature spy-members whom we there mistakenly set forth as Gospel-Age Kohathites. While on this subject we might remark that while the Gospel-Age Kohathites did such work as came under the heads of learned works along linguistic, exegetical, historical and systematic work on Bible matters, they were not the only ones who did such work, for crown-lost leaders and other crown-losers did such work, e.g., Chrysostom, Augustine, Chemnitz, Calvin, Socinus, Menno Simon, Jeremiah Taylor, Alex. Campbell, etc., wrote, variously, commentaries, or on apologetics, doctrine and ethics, as well as on historical religious subjects. Yea, almost all Little Flock leaders did such work: e.g., Luther, Melanchthon, Tyndale, Ulphilas and Alfred the 

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Great did Bible translation work, and the first two of these produced many interpretational, apologetic, doctrinal and ethical works. Hence we are not to think that it was the exclusive function of the Gospel-Age Kohathites to do linguistic, exegetical, historical and systematic work on Bible lines. In most of these departments of Bible knowledge Priests have done best of all, e.g., our Pastor. 

(9) That the Parousia was the time of all times for the most searching investigations and the most fruitful results in the sphere of Bible knowledge and of the Bible Spirit, is evident from an examination of pen products of that and previous times. Never was there a time in which more and abler new creatures worked on such lines of thought; never was there a time in which such produced so many books on such lines of thought; and never was there a time when the results of such investigations were so rich and excellent. Such new creatures worked on every phase of the four branches of Biblical learning—linguistic, exegetical, historical and systematic. We will particularize: The best editions of the Hebrew Scriptures ever to appear were then produced. The best of these is Ginsburg's Hebrew Old Testament and the next best is Kittel's Hebrew Old Testament, the former specializing on the variant Hebrew readings and the latter on the variant readings of the ancient versions. So, too, the best editions—recensions—of the Greek New Testament ever to appear came out during that time. Here we may particularize five recensions: Westcott and Hort, Weiss, Souter, Nestle and Von Soden, the first two named working 28 years on their recension and the last named 18 years, cooperated with by 45 specialists in this department of Biblical knowledge, resulting in his producing by far the greatest recension of the New Testament. Also Gregory and (Ezra) Abbott did well on this subject. 

(10) During this time the greatest activity in

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Hebrew and Greek lexicons for the Bible took place, resulting in the production of such fine Hebrew lexicons as Brown's, Buhl's, Davies', Siegfried and Stade's and Koenig's, and of such fine Greek New Testament lexicons as Thayer's, Preuschen's, Kremer's and Abbott-Smith's. Moulton and Milligan's Vocabulary of the Greek New Testament Illustrated By The Papyri, etc., was prepared and appeared in part at this time. Splendid Hebrew grammars, like the various editions of Kautzsch's Gesenius and of Stade's and Koenig's grammars, were prepared and published during the Parousia, as also fine Greek grammars for the New Testament, like various editions of Winer, Blass, Moulton and Robertson, were written at this time. During this time Ginsburg prepared his Massorah which is also a Hebrew concordance to the Old Testament, and Rabbi Mandelkern prepared the best Hebrew concordance in existence, but he was very largely assisted by Christian scholars; and hence his work may be regarded as largely a Christian product; for it is, among others, based on the two Hebrew concordances prepared by two Hebrew converts, Fuerst and Davidson, and it received important revisions, by Christian scholars during the Parousia. During this time Hatch's and Redpeth's Concordance to the Septuagint appeared, the best in its field. Then, too, appeared the three best Greek New Testament concordances; Bruder, Moulton and Geden, and Schmoller. In English during this period Drs. Young's and Strong's concordances were prepared, the latter giving every word in the A.V., R.V. and A.R.V. everywhere that it occurs. Walker's Concordance also appeared then. So, too, during the Parousia our finest translations appeared, e.g., the R.V., A.R.V., Drs. Young, Rotherham, Moffatt, etc. Splendid translations of the Bible appeared during the Parousia in other languages than English, notably in German and French. Thus the very best and most numerous linguistic helps to the 

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Bible have appeared during the Parousia, as a part of the antitypical spies' work for our Lord. 

(11) The same applies to the branches of Bible knowledge belonging to exegetical helps—introduction, interpretation and harmonetics. In the department of introduction, which treats of the canon, text, books and circulation of the Bible, mainly from the standpoint of a history of these, are the great works of Green and Buhl on the canon and text of the Old Testament, of Zahn, Charteris, Lightfoot, Sanday, Abbott and Westcott on the canon of the New Testament in its parts or whole, of Zahn and Westcott on the books of the New Testament, of Weiss on the canon, text, books and circulation of the New Testament, of Salmon on the canon and books of the New Testament and of Harmon on the canon, text, books and circulation of the entire Bible. These are the greatest of introductional works. We pass over higher-critical introductionist works here as not having come from the antitypical spies, as we also pass by their pertinent works on other branches of Bible Knowledge and Spirit. In the realm of interpretation, as the second branch of exegetical knowledge, the greatest works of all times appeared in the Parousia as the products of the pertinent spies. Thus Keil and Delitzsch, in their later editions prepared in this period, give the ablest commentary on the Old Testament; and Zahn and Weiss and their co-laborers wrote the two ablest commentaries on the New Testament. The various scholars who prepared the Expositors' Commentary and Geikie wrote commentaries on the whole Bible. Most of the volumes of the Speakers' Commentary were written in this period. The Expositor's Greek Testament, written in this period by various scholars, and Weiss' Shorter Commentary on the New Testament contain some good work of antitypical spies. Then, men like Green on Genesis, Douglas on Isaiah, Spurgeon on the Psalms, Westcott on John, Hebrews and 

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1, 2 and 3 John, Lightfoot on Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, Philemon and in his post-humous unfinished works on other Pauline epistles, Ramsey on Galatians, Godet on Luke, John, Romans and Corinthians, Luthardt on John, Philipi on Romans, as antitypical spies brought back valuable information on interpretational lines. Schaff's revision of Lange's commentary on the whole Bible, originally prepared by a number of German scholars and translated into English, falls into this period and brings back from the spying of antitypical Canaan valuable finds. Some of the works mentioned above were produced before 1874, but their later revisions fall in the Parousia, and from the standpoint of such revised editions are referred to above as the works of editions cited as antitypical spies' work. 

(12) Antitypical spies have done good work in the harmonetical branch of exegetical knowledge, called harmonetics, which embraces: harmonies of Old and New Testament histories, reference or parallel passages and Bible indexes. Little and Crockett have produced fine harmonies of Old Testament histories. Riddle, Broadus, Clark, Robertson, Stevens and Burton did the same kind of work for the New Testament histories. Interwoven accounts of the Old Testament parallel histories are given by Little, and the same is done for those of the New Testament parallel histories by Pittinger, while Clark and Burton have made harmonies of the Acts with the Epistles. Then, Riddle, Kramer and Huck furnished harmonies of the Gospels in Greek. Many editions of the Bible appearing during the Parousia contained good sets of reference passages. Johns has furnished a New Testament with references not simply cited, but quoted in full, with the Gospels printed in parallel columns, thus also a harmony of the Gospels. Baxters published a similar work covering the whole Bible, without the harmony of the Gospels. They published it under the title, A Commentary Wholly Biblical, but do not give the date, 

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which we rather opine was before 1874, but are not sure. But the largest compilation of reference or parallel passages, 500,000 of them, is contained in a book entitled, The Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge, which is a compilation of many collections of reference passages, interspersed here and there with notes. Then, several fine indexes of Bible subjects appeared at this time, the most elaborate being that of Butler and that of Monser, who was assisted by eleven able Bible scholars. Almost all Bibles containing teachers' helps have such indexes, though on a smaller scale. The American Tract Society and Thomas Nelson have published rather elaborate Bible indexes. Thus the antitypical spies have brought back from their searching of antitypical Canaan much useful harmonetical Bible knowledge and, of course, its Spirit. 

(13) In the third general branch of Biblical knowledge, the historical, there was a very lively activity during the Parousia, as an expression of the antitypical spies' searching. The first department of this branch of Bible knowledge covers the ground of Bible history and biography and Church history and biography (the third and fourth being Biblical knowledge, because in their main features they give the antitypes of much of the Bible history and biography). In Bible history Kurtz, Edersheim, Blaikie, Ramsey, Smith, Schuerer, etc., have brought back from their search of antitypical Canaan much valuable knowledge. Under the general editorship of J. S. Exell, 17 volumes of biography on the main Biblical characters, written by ten able authors and containing much profitable knowledge, were published under the general title, Men of the Bible. But it is especially in New Testament biography that wonderful finds by the antitypical spies were made. At least 150 lives of Christ appeared during the Parousia, chief among which are those by Weiss, Edersheim, Farrar, Geikie, Andrews, Smith and Clarke. The following fine lives of St. Paul 

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appeared during this period: Conybeare and Howson, Farrar, Ramsey, Lewin, Pfleiderer and Smith. MacDonald has written a good life of St. John; Renolds likewise a good life of John the Baptist. Schaff and Farrar have brought out much that is fine on the whole of the New Testament notables, and Ramsey, Lechler and Weizsaecker on the chief actors and events in the Acts of the Apostles. In Church history much good material was discovered by the antitypical spies: Kurtz, Moeller, Hase, Geyer, Hurst, Trench, Ayer, Sheldon, Newman, Dwyer, Fisher, Lea, Nippold, Schaff (father and son), the Krueger, the Fulton, the Briggs and Salmond and the Creighton series of books on various epochs of Church history. Likewise in Church biography many fine nuggets of information on various servants of God were then discovered. We will mention here some biographies of star-members: McCabe's Abelard, Hausrath's Arnold of Brescia, Emerton's Marsiglio, Lechler's Wyclif, (David) Schaff's Huss, Miller's Wessel, Villari's Savonarola, Koestlin's Luther, Jackson's Zwingli, Vedder's Hubmaier, Willis' Servetus, Polland's Cranmer, Dexter's Browne, Penney's Fox, Curnock's Wesley and White's Miller. Other fine biographies appeared then. 

(14) The second branch of Biblical historical knowledge is chronology. As there was a correct one in the hands of God's people during the Miller movement, i.e., before the Parousia, the only uses that antitypical Moses could have made of the antitypical spies as to chronology was for them to discover corroborations of pertinent and connected matters. And various of such corroborations were then brought to light, particularly by such of the spies as were in the Truth, e.g., Bro. Russell and the five brothers who antityped the Gabriel of Dan. 9. Yet others who did not come into the Truth did some things on this line of thought, e.g., Piazzi Smyth, Rawlinson, Beecher, Hippisley, etc. Archeology is the third branch of Biblical historical 

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knowledge. More fruitful and useful have been the archeological finds of the antitypical spies who have brought to light many Biblical and Church antiquities revelatory of Biblical countries, customs, conditions, occupations, trades, social, business, religious, civil and political arrangements, etc. Very much of this information was gotten by excavating the sites of buried cities and towns. The chief workers in Biblical archeology during the Parousia were Lenormant, Naville, Maspero, Schrader, (George) Smith, Sayce, Petrie, Deissmann, Hommel, Pinches, Cobern, Smith, Cheetham, Stubbs, Plumptre, Wace, Schaff, Besant, Riehm, VanLennep, Barton, Hilprecht, Clay, Bissell, Keil, Kyle, Ramsey, Jeremias, Edersheim, Conder, Harper and a host of others. Likewise the geography of Bible and Christian lands, as the fourth branch of Biblical historical knowledge, has been diligently explored by antitypical spies, of whom the following are some of the main ones: Conder, Ramsey, Bliss, Dawson, Stewart, Hoskins, Merrill, Trumbell, Thompson, Bovet, Schumacher, McAllister and a host of others, who worked mainly in Palestine. Some of those mentioned under archeology did good geographical work in other Bible lands than Palestine. Thus we see the antitypical spies investigated questions of Biblical and Church history, using the word history in its widest sense, i.e., to include events, institutions, movements, persons, chronology, antiquities and geography of Bible and Christian lands as such. 

(15) The fourth branch of the sphere of Truth and its Spirit that antitypical spies searched is that of systematic Bible knowledge and its Spirit, embracing apologetics, dogmatics (doctrine) and ethics. It has been a time of special apologetical activity because of the atheistic, agnostic, materialistic, pantheistic, deistic, evolutionistic, higher-critical and heretical attacks on the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. Apologists, like Bruce, Dean, Harrison, Luthardt, Fisher, Rishell, 

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Shields, Redford and the numerous writers of the Present Day Tracts, etc., have investigated the general field of apologetics and have brought back many fine arguments in defense of the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit and in refutation of anti-Biblical theories. Apologists, like Dawson, O'Neil, Calderwood, Maccoll, Hall, Wright, De Pressense, McCosh, Romaines, Bateson, Mendel, etc., defended the Bible idea of creation as against evolution, having in their investigations of the pertinent subjects found many valuable arguments. Apologists, like Urquhart, Green, Bartlett, Bissel, Cook, McGarvey, Reich, Finn, Robertson, Orr, Cave, Douglas, Sayce, Rawlinson, the fourteen authors of the book, The Law of Moses, who include the preceding two, Wiener, Moeller, Koenig, Zahn, Sanday, Westcott and many others, through their investigations have found many fine lines of thought against higher criticism. Historical evidences of the Truth and its Spirit were ably examined by Zahn, Sanday, Bowman, Westcott, Koenig, Sayce, Rawlinson and many others. 

(16) In the domain of dogmatics the antitypical spies that remained in their respective denominations did good spy work in their respective denomination's stewardship doctrine. Their other efforts were mainly erroneous. The following are the principal representatives of such spies: Philipi, Hodge, Miley, Pope, Shedd, Strong, Edersheim, Riehm, Koenig, Weiss, Pfleiderer, Oehler, the last two writing on Biblical theology, an analysis of the Biblical thoughts, and the third from the last writing on it as well as on doctrine as such, Weiss, Koenig, Zahn and Westcott, often mentioned above, were perhaps the most many-sided and fruitful of the antitypical spies not in the Truth. In Christian ethics there was a great activity in the Parousia, during which ethicists like Martinsen, Janet, Porter, Harless, Weidener, Smyth, Henderson, Peabody and many others, did good work. Nominal church apologetical and ethical spies used much more

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Truth and decidedly less error than its doctrinal spies. Among the large number of contributors to the various Bible and theological dictionaries and encyclopedias produced during the Parousia were many antitypical spy members, in fact many hundreds of them, who wrote for those works on almost every branch of the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit. But the greatest and most fruitful of any individual member of the antitypical spies was that Servant, who furnished excellent matter on almost every branch of the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. Among them he was supreme in interpretational, chronological, apologetical, doctrinal and ethical findings. Though not a Greek or Hebrew scholar, his definitions of certain Greek and Hebrew words are better than those of the greatest lexicographers, e.g., ruach, nephesh, elohim, Yahveh, adon, shaphat, mishphat, pneuma, psuche, anastasis, krino, krisis, krima, gennao, parousia, epiphania, apokalypsis, etc. Good, too, were his corrections of mistranslations. In fact all of the Truth brothers who were among the "scribes" of Matt. 13:52 were parts of antitypical Caleb when the report was made. We thus have very briefly, in paragraphs 8-16 described the various ways in which the antitypical spies searched antitypical Canaan. 

(17) In pointing out above the work of the antitypical spies we did so from the standpoint of the various branches of the knowledge belonging to the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. We did not do it from the standpoint of the denominations to which the antitypical spies belonged, i.e., we pointed out the main spy members in the pertinent branches of Christian knowledge, regardless of their denominational affiliations. But we are to understand that the abler crown-retaining new creatures in every denomination participated in this work, even as Num. 13:4-15 indicates. We have not, except in the cases of four special Romanists and the Quaker Penney, mentioned the names of any

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


representatives of the Roman and Greek Catholic Church and of the fanatical sects. This does not mean that they have not participated therein, but that for the most part they were not the most eminent in the lines of thought presented above. The best pertinent work of Romanists was done in France, especially as represented in the massive French theological encyclopedia. Particularly the following parts of it belong to our subject: Bible Dictionary (4 vols.), Biblical Greek and Hebrew and other sacred languages Dictionary (4 vols.), dictionaries of Bible and Church history in its widest sense, distributed under various of its departments (48 vols.), dictionaries of systematic theology (27 vols.). There are 85 other volumes belonging to this gigantic work of 168 volumes, each of which is a quarto of over 1,000 pages. Much of the matter of the pertinent 83 volumes is good spy work. Some German Romanists did some good spy work, especially in an encyclopedic, apologetical and archeological way. Next to the fanatical sects the Greek Catholic spies did the least spy work of any of the denominational spies, though men like Byrennios did some good work therein. The spies of the Lutheran, Calvinistic and Episcopal Churches, in the order named, did the most and ablest of such work, except the work of the eventual Caleb, which is the ablest of all, not, however, from the standpoint of scholarship, but from that of the Truth and its Spirit. 

(18) Having treated in general of vs. 3-16, we will now take up the rest of the chapter. The change (v. 16) of Oshea's (deliverance) name to Jehoshua (ordinarily written Joshua,—Jehovah is salvation, or saves) types the fact that Joshua from typing the Little Flock spies of the Lutheran Church would be changed into typing our Lord. It was our Lord who sent out the antitypical spies (Moses sent, etc., v. 17). Our Lord by God's Word, Spirit and providence aroused in them the determination to do the pertinent 

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studying (spying). Thereby He charged them to surmount all the obstacles that Satan's kingdom (the mountain, v. 17, the one immediately north of Kadesh-barnea, Deut. 1:24) would place in their way of entering the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit for its thorough investigation. The translation "southward" is false, for the word (negeb) here means south country, which is the name given to the southern part of Canaan. The location of the mountain north of Kadesh-barnea is on its face a clear proof of the erroneous translation, as also the ascent from the south mentioned in v. 22 and the course given in v. 21 disprove it. To enter Canaan from its southern end types the investigation of the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit on the curse in Christendom nearest the viewpoint of the antitypical spies as belonging to the nominal churches, which in antitype would imply diverse branches of study. They were to study the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit to learn just what they are (see the land, etc., v. 18). They were also to study the evils of sin, of error, of selfishness and of worldliness that infested the minds and hearts of God's people (and the people … therein). They were to note particularly whether these evils in the natural mind and heart were strong or weak, few or many (strong … many), and then report on them. 

(19) Particularly our Lord charged them to investigate the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit from the standpoint of its spiritual qualities (whether these were good or bad, v. 19), which, of course, they found to be good. He likewise charged them to search out the fortresses of evil (the cities; 2 Cor. 10:4, 5), and to note particularly whether these fortresses of evil were weak (tents) or strong (strongholds). They were to investigate the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit to the intent of finding out whether it was fertile or barren (fat or lean, v. 20) as to developing the fruits of the Spirit, as well as to find out whether it

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had great ones as its leaders (wood, i.e., trees, which represent great ones, as of God's people or as of the world). Our Lord exhorted the antitypical spies to be courageous in the face of any danger confronting them in their spying activities. He also charged them to bring of the fruits developed in the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. What these were we will show when interpreting v. 26. The time of His starting to send out the antitypical spies was that of the reaping's beginning (time of the first ripe grapes). This we construe in part from the fact that the periods of 29-69 and 1874-1914 are set forth from the standpoint of various figures, i.e., the harvest, fishing (Matt. 13:24-30, 37-43, 47-50), gathering ripe grapes (Cant. 2:13; 7:12; Is. 24:13; Deut. 24:19-21), etc. It is also construed from the fact that it was immediately after our Lord's baptism (Oct., 29 A.D.) that He, the first member of the Jewish Harvest's Caleb, and then later its Joshua, beheld the first spiritual things seen (Matt. 3:16), and from the fact that it was in Oct., 1874, that our Pastor spied out the first Gospel Harvest Truth, the invisibility of our Lord in His Second Advent. Thus the facts of the case prove our views of the spies' time of starting. 

(20) In executing this charge of our Lord the Parousia spies investigated every phase of the sphere of the Truth then due and of its Spirit, even as the typical spies searched out the whole of Canaan, from the place where its extreme southern part bordered on the wilderness of Zin (thorn, the condition of the curse in Christendom) to the place where its extreme northern part bordered on Rehob (breadth, heathenism) and the entrance [a mountain valley or pass running from the Mediterranean Sea to Hamath] to Hamath (fortress, Parousia infidelity, v. 21). How thoroughly they did this antitypical searching we can see in part from the writings referred to in paragraphs 8-17. There was not a nook or corner in the sphere of the 

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Truth and its Spirit then due that they did not search out in detail. Their investigations covered the ground from the curse in Christendom to that in heathenism and infidelity, and covered all that lay outside of these, i.e., the Truth and its Spirit, as well as the infesting evils, including the alliance (Hebron, friendship—alliance, v. 22) between the devil (Ahiman, brother of a gift—Satan as Lucifer was a brother of the Logos, whom God gave us as our Savior, the Gift of gifts), the world (Sheshai, clothed in white, or whitish—the world seeks to palm off itself as righteous; self-justification is a prominent fault of the world in its alluring appeals to God's people) and the flesh (Talmai, furrowy,—the flesh is much rent by the plow of depravity). Very much, especially along linguistic, exegetical, historical, doctrinal and ethical lines, has been investigated in the devil, the world and the flesh, each individually and in their unholy alliance. This alliance was formed during "the world that then was" (the antediluvian order of affairs), which was a complete period (seven years) before "the present evil world" (Egypt, fortress) was established as Satan's empire (Zoan, emporium, where the goods of evil are the merchandise). These three—the devil, the world and the flesh, singly and in alliance—certainly are the children of evil (Anak, giant), and we have so found them. 

(21) In their spying they certainly advanced to the study of the Truth on the new will, the New Creature (the brook of Eschol, cluster, v. 23; Deut. 1:24, 25), and on this subject by their study (spied, cut down) they gathered together an immense amount of truths on the graces (cluster of grapes; John 15:2, 4, 5, 8). Without any doubt some of the finest of the spy work was on this subject. Here the lexicographers, concordance-makers, translators, interpreters, index-makers, sacred historians, dogmaticians and especially ethicists, did much good spying. Especially Bro. Russell and certain of the pilgrims wrought thereon fruitfully.

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They, the Truth part of the spies and the nominal-church part of the spies (between two), administered (bare) their pertinent work by means of the Bible (staff). This collection of graces consisted of the higher and lower primary, the secondary and the tertiary graces, especially the ingredients of charity: joy, peace, long-suffering, gentleness, goodness, faith, meekness and self-control, as described in Gal. 5:22, 23, and additionally the non-charity graces: patience, fortitude, piety and brotherly love, as given in 2 Pet. 1:5-7. These the spies described as they exist in God, Christ and new creatures especially, though they also described vestiges of these as they exist in the natural man. They also searched out and described in great detail the fruits of Christ's redemptive work (pomegranates; Ex. 39:24, 25; Cant. 4:3, 13; 6:7, 11; 7:12; 8:2), which are instruction, justification, sanctification, deliverance, for the four elect classes, restitution for fallen men and restoration for penitent fallen angels, the eternal annihilation of all evil and the everlasting establishment of justice and love everywhere. They also searched out and described the joys of the saved of all classes (figs, whose sweetness, like that of honey, suggests these joys—especially the joys at the prospect of the first resurrection, glorification and restitution). These the spies, especially the Truth spies, brought back from their spying work, as the most important finds in the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. Please note the repetition of the matter of Eschol and the cluster of grapes (v. 24), as emphasizing the fact of the commanding importance of the graces. Yet from certain quarters we hear strictures made against character development as an evil thing! 

(22) Having spied out in its various parts the full sphere of the Truth and its Spirit, so far as they were due to be seen during the Parousia, the spies returned at the end of forty years (after forty days, v. 25) from their spying work, which, accordingly, covered 

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the period of 1874 to 1914, i.e., the Parousia. How do we know that the spying ceased in 1914? Not only because that was the end of the Parousia, as numerous Bible passages and facts prove, to which we referred in giving our 63 proofs for the Spirit-begettals' ceasing in 1914 and the sealing in the forehead in 1916 (Studies, Vol. III, 387-404; Vol. VII, Chap. V), but because of the facts of the case, particularly the World War, whose distractions put an end for awhile to making new and continued investigations in the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. Let theological literature be searched during this time and the absence for several years of such investigations will be noted. How could war-rent Germany, France and England, the chief countries of Europe where the spying was done, afford their scholars the leisure and quiet for such work? Their scholars, particularly those in Germany and France, up to 72 years of age were drafted into the army, e.g., Gregory of Berlin, one of the ablest New Testament text critics, was killed while acting as a sentinel in a fortress. The vast bulk of American theological scholars likewise were too distracted to do further investigation after the war broke out, and this distraction was increased as America drifted toward, and became involved in the war. Little publishing work could be done on such works, which had to be written by October, 1914, because of lack of printers. Thus the great activity of spying and reporting that marked the 40 years from 1874 to 1914 ceased shortly after the outbreak of the war in Europe. 

(23) Nor are we to understand that no reporting was done in the antitype until after October, 1914; for the facts of the case contradict such a thought; for all of the writings that we mentioned in paragraphs 8-17 were either first produced or received important revisions, additions or rewriting during the Parousia time. And let us repeat the remark: We have mentioned a mere fraction, the most important fraction, of the spy 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


pen-products of that period. E.g., All our Pastor's writings appeared before October, 1914, except Tower articles and sermons, which for a large part were not newly written, but worked over or reprinted; and those containing new thoughts furnished certain foundations for the Epiphany, and hence were Epiphany, not Parousia truths, e.g., on Elijah and Elisha, on announcing manifested Great Company members as such, etc. But what do the facts of the case prove as to the time of giving the antitypical spy reports? They prove that these reports were made by the lectures given and the publications appearing from time to time throughout the entire period. In other words, the reporting was done then from time to time during those forty years, just as the parallel reporting of the Jewish Harvest was done from time to time during its forty years. We saw a parallel phenomenon in the challenging of antitypical Goliath during the Parousia and yet antitypical David was refuting him throughout the Parousia, while the type by placing the fight at the end of the forty days thereby indicates the limit when the last feature of the antitypical attack would be made. Hence we are to understand that the antitypical spies' report was given in its final installments at the end of the Parousia; and thus the forty days in the type are not intended, as likewise they were not in the parallel cases of the Jewish Harvest and of David and Goliath, to point out the beginning, but the end of the antitypical report, which in the antitype was being made in various installments during the Parousia's entire time. 

(24) The antitypical spies reported to Jesus (Moses, v. 26; Deut. 1:25), to Aaron (the Priesthood) and to the rest of God's people in and outside of the nominal church (all the congregation). They did this by their pertinent lectures before varying sized audiences and by their publications in books, booklets, magazines, pamphlets, tracts, papers, etc. This was done in the first part of the Millennium (Paran), 

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which began with the Parousia, and that while the people were in the presence of the step of consecration (Kadesh). To these they delivered, as the facts prove, in the above forms their findings (brought word back unto them, etc.). Their lectures and writings certainly contained the answers to the questions typed by the questions contained in vs. 18-20. Especially did they expound to and before these the fruits of the Spirit, in their kinds, parts and relations, the fruits of Christ's redemptive work and the joys of the Lord's people in their inheritance (shewed them the fruit). The repetition of the statement (told him, Moses, v. 27), that the spies gave their report to Moses, emphasizes the thought that he sent them, and that they reported especially to him, typing the emphasis on the thought that Jesus sent the antitypical spies, and that they made their report especially to Him. The act of giving these lectures and publishing these pen-products was the telling to the Lord that they had carried out His charge (we came unto the land whither thou sentest us). Their findings in their very nature proved very emphatically that the sphere of the Truth was one of rich abundance of spiritual nourishment (surely it floweth with milk) and of rich abundance of joy, both for the present and the future (honey; a good land which the Lord our God doth give us; v. 27; Deut. 1:25). Then in those lectures and writings they displayed to the admiring sight of all professed Christians the wondrous fruits of the Spirit, the fruits of Christ's redemptive work and the sweet hope for the Church and the World (this is the fruit of it). 

(25) Whereas vs. 26 and 27 and Deut. 1:25 contain the typical report as to the land, vs. 28 and 29 contain the typical report as to the inhabitants and cities of the land. We are not to forget that the report as given in vs. 26-29 was strictly true; only after Caleb sought to encourage the people to go up at once and possess the land did the ten spies misrepresent and slander it.

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Antitypically, the report covered in vs. 26-29 was also true; misrepresentations and slanders came after the report from the antitypical twelve spies had been given. We will now look at the particulars typed in vs. 28 and 29. Remembering that the peoples of Canaan represent the various evils that infest the fallen natural mind, we are prepared for the understanding of the antitypes of these two verses. These evils in all their particulars are strong (the people be strong that dwell in the land, v. 28). Indeed they are: Who in the battles of the Spirit against these evils has not found them strong and conquerable only by fasting (self-denial) and prayer? The strongholds of these evils (the cities), especially the stronger ones of these, are mightily fortified by pertinent institutions, customs, habits, etc. (walled, and very great). This part of the report is certainly true. And what makes matters worse is that the devil, the world and the flesh (sons of Anak) are there present (there) to fight against the efforts of the New Creature to subdue these strong evils, particularly the strongly fortified ones. 

(26) Sin in its many forms, like idolatry, faithlessness to God, unbelief, disobedience, hatred, adultery, theft, perjury, covetousness, etc. (Amalekites, valley dwellers, v. 29), is ready to resist us at our entrance into the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit (dwell in the south). Ruling selfishness in its forms acting on self (Hittites, fear), like love for the good opinion of self and of others, of ease, of life, of self-defense, of aggression, of safety, of concealing disadvantageous things, of gaining and retaining, of food and drink, etc.; and in its forms acting on the world (Jebusites, trodden down), like love for the opposite sex, spouse, children, parents, friends, home and native land, oppose attaining the heights (dwell in the mountains) of Christian character. So, too, does error (the Amorites, mountaineers) in its many forms, as seen in heathenism, infidelity, Mohammedanism, Judaism and 

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churchianity; also worldliness (Canaanites, merchants), the spirit of the world seeking through the wills of others to control our wills, seeking to draw us down to their level, which is rebellion against God (dwell by the sea), or even lower than rebellion against God, i.e., utter apostacy (by the coast of Jordan, which from the sea of Merom onward increasingly descends below sea level). Certainly, they reported well when they described sin in its many forms, selfishness in the manifoldness of its two forms, error in its multiplied forms and worldliness in its diverse forms. They surely reported truly when they said that the Christian warfare is against these inhabitants that infest our natural hearts and minds, and must be displaced therefrom by the New Creature in its ever enlarging of its sphere of the Truth and its Spirit in our minds. 

(27) The Little Flock from here on typed by Caleb, who, being of the tribe of Judah, before the events of v. 30 typed the spies of the Presbyterian or Reformed (Calvinistic) Church during the time of the delivery of the above-described antitypical report, noting in the people more or less dissatisfaction against our Lord (not "before," but "concerning" Moses, see Young's Translation, v. 30), sought to calm (stilled) the people against the spirit of fear infused by the antitypical report and of resentment against our Lord. This fear held the people back from consecration, as those of us who witnessed it during the Parousia know. The Little Flock did not attempt in combating this spirit to minimize the enemies that infest antitypical Canaan, which they truly, like the spies, set forth; but they stressed the ability of God's faithful people to conquer these enemies, since God by an oath (Gen. 22:16, 17) promised that He would enable them so to do. The Little Flock urged promptness and decision in the making and carrying out of consecration (Let us go up at once). It set forth the thought that the faithful consecrated were well able to

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


conquer all the enemies that infest our Canaan (we are well able to overcome it). In making this thought clear, it stressed the thoughts that in God's Word is all the enlightenment, energy and weapons for the conquest, that in God's Spirit are all the faculties and powers necessary for the conquest, and that in the Lord's providence are all the plans, strategies, reinforcements and reliefs necessary to make the conquest. Thus by consecration made and carried out our Canaan can be dispossessed of its present inhabitants and occupied as the eternal dwelling place of God's faithful people. Certainly, the Parousia Little Flock did so preach consecration and its sure victory for the faithful to nominal and real Christians. And in so doing they antityped Caleb in v. 30. 

(28) Now interference with the Little Flock's encouragement is made by the antitypical ten spies, who, from here on, represent those among the spies who, in their pertinent acts, lost their crowns, manifested later by their becoming plague-stricken. These claimed that God's people did not have the power to overcome their inherent evils, alleging that the latter were stronger than they (We are not able … stronger than we, v. 31). They were misled on this matter by a confusion and misunderstanding of justification by faith and sanctification by works, yea, by an ignorance of the distinction between justification by faith and an obtaining of the high calling by works and faith, as to what each gives its recipients. To them justification by faith implies that its recipients have in it a passport to heaven, guaranteeing them an instantaneous entrance thereto at death, whereas justification restores reckonedly what Adam lost, the earthly Paradise and the condition of sinless righteousness and perfection of the whole man, counts him as perfected at the Millennium's end. But the high calling, based upon faith-justification and supported by it throughout our Christian warfare, is won by the good works of consecration

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faithfully carried out, and without such works developed unto crystallized Christ-likeness no one enters the Kingdom (Heb. 12:14; Matt. 16:24). Those having the erroneous view of faith-justification entertained in the nominal church and set forth above, also usually hold the erroneous doctrine of total depravity; and, of course, to such the antitype of the ten spies' language, "We are not able to go up against the people; for they are stronger than we," seems to be gospel truth; whereas the total depravity doctrine, its basis, is false, so also is the conclusion that they base on it false—that justification by faith entitles one to inherit the Kingdom, which it certainly does not do. 

(29) By reason of our inherited depravity, which, though affecting evilly all of our faculties and qualities, is not total, we, of course, cannot justify ourselves. We are justified by God's grace through Christ's merit reckoning us perfect and accepted by faith. But after being so justified and then later Spirit-begotten, supported by God's grace, Christ's High-Priestly ministry and the operation of God's Spirit, we can by our faithful consecration qualify by works and faith for the Divine nature and joint-heirship with Christ in the Kingdom. This requires the defeat of our enemies who infest our Canaan; and unless we defeat them we will not attain the Divine nature and joint-heirship with Christ in the Kingdom. The antitypical ten spies, usually holding their false doctrines on total depravity and on faith-justification entitling its recipients to the Kingdom honor and joint-heirship with Christ, of course fought the Little Flock's Parousia preaching on consecration made and faithfully kept entitling one to joint-heirship with Christ in heaven, alleging that this doctrine contradicted their alleged Truth on total depravity and faith-justification. Hence they fought heatedly against the possibility of our overcoming various forms of sin, error, selfishness and worldliness, alleging our inability (total depravity) thereto and their greater strength than our alleged total depravity allows 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


us to have. Their combativeness led them into gross falsehoods and exaggerations—in a word, slander (mistranslated, evil report) of the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. Their first falsehood was that the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit, viewed as we look upon it as being in the consecrated condition, was a lean, starving and famine-stricken condition (a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof, v. 32). Thus they falsely set forth "Millennial Dawnism" in their controversial sermons, conversations and writings. The isolation, (usual) poverty, littleness in man's view, fewness, tribulations, persecutions and siftings of the Truth people they took as proofs that the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit was a symbolic starvation country. 

(30) The second falsehood that they brought up against the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit was that all of the forms of sin, selfishness, error and worldliness were stronger, greater and hardier than God's faithful people (all the people … men of great stature). This falsehood was based on their error of total depravity. None of these forms of evil were such, though doubtless some of them were strong, great and hardy, but others were weak, small and delicate in varying degrees. That they misrepresented the facts on this subject is manifest from the fact that there were many overcomers in the Parousia, a feature of the Gospel-Age antitype of Joshua's conquest of Canaan. In the type a third falsehood was told, i.e., that Anak's sons (v. 33) were the same kind of giants as the offspring of the fallen angels (Gen. 6:4), in fact were the descendants of those giants (nephilim [fallen ones]; this Hebrew word occurs only in Gen. 6:4 and Num. 13:33, and is translated giants in both places. Other Hebrew words are translated giant but do not refer to the descendants of the angels and daughters of men, who alone are referred to as the nephilim). Since those giants that perished in the Flood type the various combinations of governments, capital, church and labor as oppressors of the people 

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(D 359:1; 364:4; 369:3), this falsehood seems to imply the falsehood that the devil, the world and the flesh were more or less identical with these combinations. Then they grossly exaggerated the strength of these and the weaknesses of the Lord's people (we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight). What they should have said is, "By God's grace, Christ's help and the Spirit's endowments we are powerful and they are weak, and by contrast we are great and they are small, both in their and our sight." Thus not saying this, but its opposite, they slandered by untruths and exaggerations the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. We who lived in the Parousia and shared in its Truth privileges know that our nominal-church new-creaturely assailants misrepresented and exaggerated the conditions. Among such misrepresenters and exaggerators were the Mooreheads, Eatons, Whites, Blackstones, Biederwolfs, Torreys, Greys, Sundays, Gaebleins, Haldemans, Hillises, etc., of the Parousia. In fact, all of the members of the ten antitypical spies were more or less guilty of such misrepresentations and exaggerations; and their unholy course and its consequences ought to make us wary of such; and also of their soul-mates, the present uncleansed Epiphany Levites; for their gross misrepresentations and exaggerations against the Epiphany Truth, its work and its workers are like those of the ten antitypical spies. 

(31) The misrepresentation of the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit, of which the antitypical ten spies were guilty (Num. 13:31-33), had a most discouraging effect on the nominal people of God, as to their prompt and energetic consecration, and on many of the consecrated as to their carrying it out (v. 1; Deut. 1:26). The spirit of fear so seized upon them as to make them forget the good things reported by the antitypical twelve spies, and to forget the exhortations and encouragements of the Truth people as to their ability through God's grace, Christ's ministry and the

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


Spirit's power promptly to enter and to conquer the antitypical land. On the contrary, they allowed the spirit of fear to fasten their minds on the misrepresentations of the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit, as the all-engrossing and overpowering thing in their thoughts and affections, and thus mourned over the situation as offering a fair prospect impossible to realize. Therefore they resented the thought of invading and conquering for themselves the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit, as expounded by the Little Flock, fearing that they would be unable to achieve it. Hence they mourned over the thought of their supposed sure defeat (wept). This mourning persisted during the time of their error on the subject (that night). Enraged against the Truth and its Spirit, they began to fight it on all sides, which was a factual murmuring (v. 2; Deut. 1:27, 28) against our Lord as the Divinely appointed Executive, Mouthpiece and Leader and the World's High Priest (Moses and Aaron, v. 2). So much were they in their unbelief and fear disappointed that they wished that they had not turned from sin to righteousness, but had remained in the condemned condition until death (had died in … Egypt), or had died soon after consecration (died in this wilderness), accordingly as they were of the unconsecrated or consecrated class, all (all the children of Israel; the whole congregation) doing this, except our Lord and the Little Flock, His faithful followers. 

(32) By their words and acts of unbelief and fear they actually faulted God (why hath the Lord, v. 3; Deut. 1:27), blaming Him, as though He had betrayed them unto destruction through sin, error, selfishness and worldliness (fall by the sword), and their churches (wives) and converts (children) unto captivity (a prey), thus blaming Him as frustrating all their hopes, ambitions and prospects of an easy conquest of antitypical Canaan. Under such circumstances they considered in their hearts, first the question as to whether they had not better go back to the old life of 

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sin, error, selfishness and worldliness in Satan's empire (return to Egypt). Then, after such thoughts had taken lodgement in their hearts, they began by their acts to exhort one another to choose a leader to bring them back to harmony with Satan's empire (said … a captain … to Egypt, v. 4). Whether they realized it or not, that is exactly what their attitude and acts meant in God's sight. Some, of course, went to greater extremes than others; and some, the persistent crown-losers and the measurably unfaithful Youthful Worthies, did this in an attenuated manner. The main ways in which they did this was in the threefold stages—as the slain in the sanctuary, in the court and in the city—in each of the five siftings. They did it in greater or lesser degrees of taking up with various forms of sin, error, selfishness and worldliness. Among Truth people the sifting leaders were thought of by the siftlings as the captain. For the Nominal Protestant Church as a whole, the Federation of Churches, was thought of as the captain. For those that took up with anti-Christian movements the leaders of such movements were thought of as the captain. However, as in the type no captain was actually chosen to lead them back to Egypt, so in the antitype only complete apostates actually left the antitypical Camp; hence no captain was actually chosen in the antitypical Camp, Court or Holy to lead those back to Satan's empire in a way in which they were not already in it as parts of it. Many went in more private ways, as individuals, apart from siftings, back to the ways of the evils above-mentioned, and thus forsook the Lord. 

(33) The turning of all, except the Little Flock (the faithful Youthful Worthies being ignored in this type), some more, some less, against the Parousia Truth and its Spirit into more or less of the reverse of these, deeply chagrined our Lord as Executive, Mouthpiece and Leader (Moses) and the World's High Priest (Aaron) and led to Their humiliating Themself as such before all Christendom (fell upon their faces

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


before the whole assembly of the congregation, v. 5). How They did this is typed by Joshua and Caleb rending their garments (v. 6) and entreating the people to the contrary (vs. 6-9). Our Lord did it by His humble efforts to turn the people back from their murmuring through His using the Little Flock, especially in its leaders, humbly and sorrowfully to bear (rent their garments) with the people's murmursomeness as they sought to bring them into a right attitude toward the Truth and its Spirit. This is also shown in Deut. 1:29-31. All of the harvesters can testify that they suffered deep grief (rent their garments) at the unbelief and fear as to entering and conquering the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit on the part of the nominal people of God and many so-called Truth people. In them our Lord, as antitypical Joshua, and they, as antitypical Caleb, symbolically rent their symbolic garments—grieved. How earnestly did these praise the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit as nourishing and happifying (flowing with milk and honey, v. 8; the land … exceeding good, v. 7) in their contacts with such unbelieving and fearful ones. This they said from the assurance of personal and accurately acquired knowledge (we passed through to search it). They assured such unbelieving and fearful ones that all that was necessary to their obtaining it was their having the Lord's good pleasure (if the Lord delight in us, v. 8). This good pleasure, on the basis of their faith justification, they assured these unbelieving and fearful ones they could obtain by putting aside their unbelief and fear (rebel not … neither fear, v. 9) and by making and carrying out their consecration (fear them not). They did not detach themselves from, but took the place of being parts of these people (will bring us, … will give us not, bring you … will give you, v. 8). 

(34) Earnestly did the Little Flock plead with all the unbelieving and fearful not to rebel against the Lord (rebel not, v. 9), which is done by rejecting His Truth and its Spirit, and not to fear the spiritual enemies

The Parousia Messenger. 


that infest the natural mind, but to go on in courageous consecration. They assured such that these spiritual enemies were spoil within our power to take, if we but trust the Lord (bread for us, v. 9), that in the presence of the Captain of our Salvation they have no real defense (their defense is departed from them). They further, as the best thing, assured them that the Lord is on the side of the antitypical Israelites, to strengthen, enlighten, guard, lead, defend and support them in the warfare, regardless of how hard the devil, the world and the flesh would seek to support the fortresses of sin, error, selfishness and worldliness in and about us (the Lord is with us). Let us look back, beloved, at our experiences during the Parousia in dealing with the fearful and unbelieving ones, and, if we were then faithful, we will surely be able to recall many experiences in which we were privileged to act out our part in antitypical Caleb's pertinent exhortations and encouragements and expostulations as to the fearful and unbelieving; and when so doing we were showing forth our antitypical Joshua's participation with us in this good work. 

(35) The pertinent activities of our Lord and the Parousia Little Flock met no kindly reception from the Truth apostates and the members of the nominal church; for all of these cried out that their doctrines as symbolic stones should be used as refutative of our Lord's and the Little Flock's pertinent teachings (all … bade stone them, v. 10). And on all sides Truth apostates, crown-losers, the nominal church, especially the members of the ten antitypical spies, the tentatively justified clergy and laity and the unjustified hangers-on (all the congregation) attacked our Lord, the Truth and the Little Flock with their errors, which, being such, did not refute the Lord, the Truth and the Little Flock. Hence no stoning was done in the type, since that would have typed an actual refutation. The refutations of these attacks by our Lord, the Truth and the Little Flock are typed by the statement of v. 10: 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


"The glory of the Lord appeared on [not in, as in the A.V., since the people could not have seen it, if it had appeared in the tabernacle] the tabernacle of the congregation before all the children of Israel." By the glory of God the perfection of God's character is meant in the antitype (Is. 60:1, 2), while in the type a light of great splendor is meant by that expression. How did this glory appear on the antitypical Tabernacle, Jesus and the Church? We answer: In every controversy between the Truth and error during the Parousia, the Truth that rested upon Christ and the Church, and that was by them held up before Truth apostates and the whole nominal church caused the wisdom, justice, love and power of God, each in itself and each in its blending with the others to be displayed in their splendor, and that splendor was seen more or less clearly by all the antitypical Israelites. 

(36) The course of the people in unbelief of God and in fear of the devil, the world and the flesh, as to their power to manipulate sin, error, selfishness and worldliness against them, culminating in their rejection of the Parousia teachings of our Lord and His Church, even to the extent of seeking to subvert these by false teachings, ended God's longsuffering with them; for their course provoked Him (provoke Me, v. 11; Deut. 1:34); and He strongly disapproved of it by the two questions of v. 11: "How long will this people provoke Me?" and, "How long will it be ere they believe Me?" God had longsufferingly borne with their unbelief and fear from the Jewish Harvest throughout the Gospel-Age and into this Harvest, even until the time of the events antitypical of those in Num. 14:1-10. And now further longsuffering on His part would cease to be a virtue; hence He would no longer exercise it to the full as formerly. Had God not shown His Gospel-Age people the many wonders and signs which He did throughout the Age and in the Parousia (for all the signs … showed), He would have continued His longsuffering with them. But their course was one of

The Parousia Messenger. 


sinning against much light, which forbade Him longer to exercise full longsuffering toward them. There were two courses open before God as to how to deal with this situation: (1) entirely to cut off the fearful and unbelieving and substitute another people for them (smite … disinherit them … make of thee a greater nation and mightier); or (2) to keep them as His people, but subject them to severe punishments. The former was to Him the preferable course, hence He mentions it first; but to please our Lord in His intercession for them (vs. 13-19), God accepted the to Him less preferable course (I have pardoned according to thy word, v. 20). The threatened pestilence (v. 12) seems to type an accentuation of one or more of the five siftings, probably the no-ransomism and infidelism siftings, to such a degree giving liberty to Satan, the great sifter, as would result in all, except antitypical Joshua and Caleb, renouncing the Ransom and the Bible and thus reducing them to utter heathen; and then from Christ God would raise up a new people greater and mightier than those, apart from the Little Flock, developed during the Gospel-Age. 

(37) In vs. 13-19 our Lord's resourcefulness and effectiveness as an Intercessor are most strikingly typed. What antitypical Moses meant in the antitype by deliverance from Egypt can be understood when we remember (1) that during the Gospel-Age there has been a reckoned deliverance from antitypical Egypt going on, and (2) that during the Epiphany there will be an actual deliverance therefrom. It is to the former of these that the deliverance of v. 12 refers; for the deliverance here referred to must be one prior to that effected in the Epiphany, since the antitype of Moses' statement in v. 13 was made in the Parousia, and hence refers to one that had been operating from before the Parousia. This deliverance refers to faith justification. There has also been during the Gospel-Age, for the consecrated, an actual deliverance from the power of darkness (Col. 1:13) in antitypical

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


Egypt, a deliverance to which even the crown-losers, after the destruction of their fleshly minds at Azazel's hands, have attained; but it is to the reckoned one that reference is made in v. 13. Of course, if God had allowed the justified and the unclean crown-losers to be reduced to utter heathen, the unjustified nominal people and the heathen, from whose midst God had delivered these (broughtest up this people, v. 13), could have charged, after learning of it (shall hear it), that God allowed Satan to reduce these to utter heathen, because He was not able to bring them to actual salvation (not able to bring this people into the land, v. 16). Such antitypical Egyptians would have told (tell … the inhabitants of the land, v. 14) the various evils that infest antitypical Canaan of this supposed inability, not by word, but by their inveigling such returning "heathen" into all sorts of evil, i.e., by subjecting them in defeat to the evils that infest antitypical Canaan. These evils, viewed from their antitypical Egypt and wilderness standpoints, had experienced (heard) certain defeats at the hands of antitypical Israel. These defeats these had experienced as due: (1) to God's having favored antitypical Israel (Thou … among this people, Deut. 1:29, 30); (2) to God's having revealed Himself clearly to antitypical Israel (Thou … seen face to face, Deut. 1:30); (3) to God's Spirit and providence having been exercised on behalf of antitypical Israel (Thy cloud standeth over them, Deut. 1:31); (4) to God's giving them during the Harvests the New Testament truths especially (Thou goest before them by day time in a pillar of cloud, Deut. 1:33); and (5) to God's giving them during the interim between the Harvests the Old Testament teachings especially (in a pillar of fire by night, Deut. 1:33), though not exclusively so. 

(38) If God had thus reduced all the Parousia crown-losers, the tentatively justified and the mere hangers-on to pure heathen (kill all this people as one man, v. 15), the evils infesting antitypical Canaan by 

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their acts of triumphing over such would be boasting that they were stronger than God (not able to bring this people into the land, v. 16), despite the fact that these evils had experienced defeats (heard the fame of Thee, v. 15) from antitypical Israel in antitypical Egypt and in the antitypical wilderness. Thus by act they could boast of God's alleged inability, despite His oath-bound promise (will speak, saying … into the land which He sware unto them). Our Lord, therefore, prayed (I beseech Thee, v. 17) that God would exercise His power (let the power … be great) to deliver and bring to victory His people for His glory's sake, despite the unworthiness of the involved antitypical Israelites. He grounds His intercessory prayer upon God's gracious character (longsuffering, great mercy, forgiving, v. 18) and promises (according as Thou hast spoken, saying, v. 17). But He did not ask God to violate His justice by His forgiveness, but to temper it with such longsuffering, mercy and forgiveness as were in harmony with the demands of justice (by no means clearing … visiting the iniquity). Thus our Lord's intercession did not imply that He prayed that the Parousia wicked people of God be freed from punishment, rather that their weakness and ignorance be forgiven and that their wilfulness be punished, the punishment to be inflicted until the wilfulness would be entirely striped out of the sinners (unto the third and fourth generation). Thus He seized on the principles of Truth, righteousness and mercy, in their varied applications to the case in hand, as the basis of His intercession for these Parousia sinners against God's Word. Please note His earnestness in the intercession, as well as its fairness and kindness (Pardon, I beseech Thee, v. 19). How complimentarily, as a wise Intercessor, does He address the Aggrieved One (according to the greatness of Thy mercy—literally, kindness)! He ended His prayer by showing that He is not praying for a new course on God's part, who had hitherto been exercising His forgiveness 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


toward antitypical Israel from the time of their first exercising repentance and faith even unto and during their undergoing sanctification (hast forgiven … until now). Surely, our Lord is a faithful and merciful Intercessor (Heb. 2:17, 18), as the entire typical prayer shows. Of His intercession we should gladly and quickly avail ourselves in every time of need; and His faithfulness as an intercessor will help us. 

(39) Our Lord's intercession was successful. Had it not been made, God would have executed His preference as stated in v. 12; but it prevailed unto sparing the guilty from a complete cutting off from God's favor. That it prevailed unto averting a complete cutting off from God's favor, is evident from God's answer (the Lord said, I have pardoned [forgiven] according to Thy word, v. 20). That the forgiveness was only of that degree of guilt which deserved a complete cutting off from God's favor, is evident, not only from the fact that God punished them only short of a complete cutting off from His favor, but also from the fact that His answer proves that the forgiveness was only partial (I have forgiven according to Thy word). Our Lord did not ask for a complete forgiveness, but only for such a forgiveness as would prevent their entire cutting off from God's grace. For the forgiveness was according to Christ's intercession; and He interceded only against such a cutting off (vs. 13-16) and expressly asked that the forgiveness be one of power, i.e., efficacy (v. 17), in harmony with not clearing [entirely] the guilty, but visiting their iniquity on them and their descendants to the third and fourth generation (v. 18). V. 19 also shows that the forgiveness did not leave the antitypical nation free from condign punishment (as Thou hast forgiven this people, from Egypt even until now). 

(40) Hitherto God had forgiven antitypical Israel's sins of weakness and ignorance, even from the time of their repentance and faith at the beginning of the Age onward into the Parousia; but their wilfulness or

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partial wilfulness He certainly punished, even as He had done with Fleshly Israel from Egypt unto Kadesh-barnea; for the latter's wilfulness He repeatedly punished (Num. 11:1-3, 4-6, 10, 33, 34; Ex. 32:1-14, 25-35). Hence at our Lord's prayer the Lord forgave antitypical Israel in the Parousia enough to allow them to remain as such, but inflicted severe punishment upon them by making them undergo some Parousia and much Epiphany punishment. Thus we see the forgiveness was according to our Lord's intercession: only that much of grace was exercised as was not against justice. In other words, our Lord interceded with God for antitypical Israel in harmony with God's wisdom, justice and love, and not contrary to His wisdom and justice in an effort to make love override these. Not only does God so deal with the unjustified, justified, Youthful Worthies and Great Company, but also with the Little Flock, whose measurable wilfulness He stripes out. In speaking above of God's forgiving the unjustified we are not to be understood as implying that He gave them justification by faith, in which case they would no more be unjustified, but that He forgave them to the degree that they could still remain the unjustified camp and thus not lose all favor. 

(41) The greatest objection that the antitypical ten spies, the other (nominal-church) crown-losers, justified and unjustified ones had to the sphere of the Truth was the doctrine of probation for the unsaved dead in the Millennium—restitution to be offered to all. Their slogan against this teaching was: a second chance! To them that objection seemed to be the end of all controversy on that subject. And this objection is the occasion of God's confirming this doctrine by an oath (as truly as I live, v. 21). This assurance God gave by the Truth witness during the Parousia on this subject, backed by numerous Scriptures, particularly the Oath-bound Covenant, which is especially alluded to in the oath of v. 21; for the restoration of the obedient to human perfection and holiness and the turning 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


of the earth into a Paradise for them is what is meant by the expression, "all the earth shall be filled with the glory of the Lord." This teaching is a proof that the scene in Num. 13 and 14 had its antitype in the Jewish and Gospel Harvests; for it was during these times that restitution was purely taught; for shortly after the Jewish Harvest this doctrine was lost and was not clearly discovered again until the Parousia, though just shortly before the Parousia some light began to come on it, as we will see in the chapter on David's First Appearance. 

(42) That antitypical Israel's sins were not entirely forgiven is shown typically in vs. 22-25. God charges them with the guilt of sinning presumptuously (tempted Me, v. 22), and that despite their having seen His character and works (seen My glory and My miracles) displayed against Satan's order of affairs (Egypt) and in their condition of isolation therefrom (wilderness), from the beginning of the Gospel Age. The ten times' (these ten times) tempting of God refers to their provoking God in each one of the ten denominational groups of Christendom, as pictured forth by Jacob's ten sons (see Chapter 1), exclusive of Joseph and Benjamin; for the course of these ten denominational groups, beginning with the Greek Catholic Church and ending with the Adventist Church, was very evil as to rejecting and persecuting the true Church and as to sins against doctrine, organization, discipline and practice, which, of course, provoked God. But, one may ask, why does God blame the Parousia ten tribes for these Gospel-Age provocations of these denominations? We answer: (1) These continued during the Parousia in the same evils as these denominations committed during the Gospel Age; and (2) they knew of these evils and in committing them made themselves share in the guilt heaped up by the pertinent Gospel-Age sins of these denominations. Hence God in the Parousia could justly accuse them as guilty of the Gospel-Age sins of their respective denominations, on 

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the same principles as He exacted of the generation of Jesus' time the sins committed against His Truth and His faithful people from Abel to Zacharias (Matt. 23:35). The charge is concentrated in these words: Have seen My glory and My miracles … and have not harkened to My voice. In other words, God accuses the antitypical Israelites of sinning against light and knowledge, which proves wilfulness to have permeated their sins. Hence, Christ's merit not canceling wilful sins, they were not forgiven, but had to be expiated. 

(43) Hence God solemnly (surely, v. 23) affirmed that such would not enter into the inheritance granted and sworn to the faithful Little Flock, the heavenly Canaan (shall not see the land, Deut. 1:35). But this passage solemnly affirms more than this: it solemnly affirms that they will not even see it, i.e., perceive the rewards of the faithful Little Flock. Accordingly, to the truths on the high calling, particularly to those on its rewards, they in some cases became blind and in the others were left in their blindness. The last clause of v. 23 should be rendered as follows: Even all who provoked Me shall not see it. This clause defines who these blinded and blind ones were, and why they would not inherit the high calling rewards. By their unbelief, fear and disobedience they could not enter in (Heb. 3:4). This clause serves to define the wrong-doers and by repetition of the word "see" emphasizes the two things implied in it—not enter nor perceive the heavenly inheritance. V. 24 assures us who of the Parousia antitypical Israel would enter the heavenly Canaan—antitypical Caleb, the faithful Little Flock (Deut. 1:26). The reasons for this are also stated in v. 24: (1) they have a spirit other than the rest of antitypical Israelites; and (2) they have fully followed God. That spirit was the Divine disposition developed and crystallized; and that full following of God consisted of deadness to self and the world and aliveness to God unto death, whereby they practiced self-denial and world-denial, study, spread and practice of the

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


Truth in character development, watchfulness, prayer and a faithful endurance of the incidental experiences. Antitypical Caleb's seed (his seed) consists of all who imitate his course of faithfulness. Here they are the Little Flock from the standpoint of being developed by their faithful brethren, while antitypical Caleb is the Little Flock from the standpoint of their developing their Little Flock brethren, as servants of the Truth. 

(44) It will be noted that nothing is here said of Joshua as entering the land. This is well left unsaid, because our Lord, whom Joshua types, from the standpoint of both Harvests' fulfillments was already in heavenly Canaan. It will also be noted that God promises to bring the Little Flock into heavenly Canaan (I will bring him into the land). This God promised through the Parousia preaching on the Sarah Covenant. Antitypical Caleb went into heavenly Canaan (where into he went) in the sense that by faith he explored it, i.e., searched out its teachings and spirit, and by hope he looked forward to inheriting its glories. Nigh in spirit and act to the provoking antitypical Israel were the spirit and acts of sinners (Amalekites) and the worldly (Canaanites; the Amalekites and the Canaanites dwelt in the valley); for the first mentioned did sin; and they did practice worldliness in their provoking the Lord. Now comes the sentence—one to a wandering in the wilderness (Tomorrow … to the wilderness, v. 25, Deut. 1:40). The first failure to enter in led to the long Gospel-Age wandering; and the second failure to enter in has led to the Epiphany wandering; and only the antitypical Caleb of the Parousia generation enters the heavenly Canaan, all others of that generation failing so to do, as typed by the death of all of the Israelitish men of 20 years and upward. And what a wilderness experience has been ours during the first 24 years and more of the Epiphany! The "tomorrow" of v. 25 for us represents the period following the Parousia, even the Epiphany, even as the tomorrow of the Jewish Harvest was the interim

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between the Harvests. Yea, the wandering in both cases is "by the way of the Red Sea" (Deut. 1:40)—near the condition of the curse of both the Adamic and the second death, as this sea types both. 

(45) That our Heavenly Father was provoked by the Parousia murmuring is set forth typically in vs. 26-37. This provocation He first expressed to our Lord as His Executive, Mouthpiece and Leader (Moses, v. 26) and to the World's High Priest (Aaron) for antitypical Israel. He indicates that He will no longer bear with the iniquity of antitypical Israel (How long … evil congregation? v. 27). He had directed a highly disapproving attention to their murmurings, which, while in word were expressed against the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit, were in deed and in truth directed against Jehovah Himself (they murmur against Me). Now God charges our Lord, as His appointed Executive, Mouthpiece, Leader and High Priest for antitypical Israel, to tell them in all solemnity (as truly as I live, v. 28) that He would do to them (so will I) as they had wished and said (Would God we had died in the wilderness, v. 2) in the dissatisfied hearing of God (spoken in My ears). They would fall from their standing before the Lord outside of antitypical Canaan (fall in the wilderness, v. 29), either in one of the general siftings (plagues, as typed in Num. 16:46-49; 21:5-9; 25:3-9; see 1 Cor. 10:5-14), or in their individual sins (Num. 27:1-3). Those who would thus fall were the ones who had reached a developed condition for their standing before the Lord (twenty years old and upward). This would include everyone of the developed ones not in the Little Flock (whole number, … murmured against Me). There would be no doubt as to its turning out as God said (doubtless ye shall not come into the land, v. 30; Deut. 1:34, 35), despite the fact of the Oath-bound Covenant (which I sware to make you dwell therein). They having fallen out from the conditional Seed, not being any longer of it, because of their unfaithfulness 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


(for the Seed consists of the faithful alone), and the oath-bound promise being given to the Seed alone, despite their having had a conditional share in that promise, it is taken from them, because of their losing seedship (v. 29; Deut. 1:36-38). The only ones that enter are antitypical Caleb (dog, the Little Flock has appeared contentious and unclean to the nominal people of God), the son of Jephunneh (he shall be turned, i.e., to the Divine nature), and antitypical Joshua (Deliverer), the son of Nun (fish, our Lord was once of an earthly nature). The mention of Joshua here, as distinct from its omission from v. 24, and that as the son of Nun (fish), applies to Jesus as a prophecy for the Jewish Harvest, to assure Him while in the flesh that He would overcome, and as history to Him in the Parousia, while the application to Caleb is for both Harvests. 

(46) The immature ones (those recently begotten, especially, though not exclusively, those begotten in the eleventh hour: Feb., 1908, to June, 1911) would, as a rule, win out in the high calling (your little ones, v. 31; Deut. 1:39). Many of the older Parousia new creatures and others not new creatures feared for these that they would not be able to fight well enough to overcome the enemies that infested antitypical Canaan, and thus would fall a prey to these enemies (ye said should be a prey, Deut. 1:39). They complained very much against the standard for overcoming that the Little Flock (Caleb; Num. 13:30) set forth. All except the Parousia Little Flock (the faithful Youthful Worthies everywhere in this chapter being ignored in the picture), especially the antitypical ten spies, complained that this standard was too high, and would crush and defeat the beginners in the way (little ones; literally, infants). These very babes and sucklings (Ps. 8:2) God declared, by our Lord through the ministry of the Little Flock, speaking as our Lord's Parousia mouthpiece (v. 39), would be the ones whom God would make overcomers (they shall know the 

The Parousia Messenger. 


land, v. 31) and who would inherit heavenly Canaan, which God, by our Lord speaking through the Parousia Little Flock, declared all except the latter had despised—in the sense of rejecting, through unbelief, fear and murmuring—the opportunity of winning it. As we look back to the Parousia times we will recall that more than once the rejected ones in and out of the Truth were rebuked for despising the Parousia Little Flock as weak and good for nothing for the conquest of heavenly Canaan, in contrast with the despisers. These rejectors of the Truth and its ways of entire consecration, made and carried out, were by God, through Christ speaking in the Little Flock, told that, because of their unbelief, fear and murmuring, they would die (your carcasses … shall fall in the wilderness, v. 32) from their standing before the Lord: the despising new creatures dying from the high calling and dropping into the Great Company, the despising Youthful Worthies dying as such and falling back into the justified class, the tentatively justified ones dying as such and falling back into the world of the camp, and the despising campers dying as such and becoming heathen—wholly cut off from God's people. 

(47) The Parousia sentence was that these murmurers would give the immature ones (little ones) the evil heredity of wandering the antitypical 40 years of the Epiphany in the wilderness (shall wander … 40 years, v. 33; Deut. 1:40). We have already wandered in this Epiphany wilderness, condition of isolation, over half of this period and have found it to be a most trialsome experience. How thirsty, weary and footsore have we been therein! What symbolic wastes of desert sand, symbolic storms and clouds, symbolic sun heat and cold have we therein experienced! How often have our hearts turned back in yearning to the good old days of the Parousia! In these experiences we are suffering for the wickedness of the unfaithful in the Parousia (bear your whoredoms). Yet it is the Divine will that these little ones do this wandering, 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


and continue it until all the Parousia murmurers, unbelievers and cowards become manifest as fallen from their Parousia standing enjoyed before they sinned against the Lord (until your carcasses be wasted in the wilderness). And are we not now witnesses of these fallings? Among the Truth people we see it in the Great Company manifestations through revolutionisms against the Truth and its arrangements, in Youthful Worthies falling back among the justified, and in tentatively justified ones just nibbling at the Truth and then falling away to the world, and in the campers falling into the condition of actual heathen. Yea, this falling away (carcasses falling in the wilderness) began during the Parousia, manifested both in the siftings and in a more private way in daily life apart from siftings. And did we not in the Parousia, and do we not now in the Epiphany witness these fallings of the symbolic carcasses, the dead who died from their Parousia standings before the Lord? The six sifting classes as they have slaughtered in the sanctuary, in the courts and in the city, have caused these carcasses to be thickly strewn everywhere and often in heaps. In more private ways we see this in the fallings about us in everyday life. The resultant havoc in doctrine, organization, discipline and practice is appalling! Contrast the indifference to religion and the overspreading of secularism everywhere in Christendom in our times with the early Parousia and the fallen carcasses now become apparent most impressively. This will continue until all the unbelieving fearful and murmurers become manifest as fallen carcasses. 

(48) In Bible symbols 40 days and 40 years are often used to represent trialsome periods for God's people. This we can see from the typical uses of the 40 years in the wilderness, the typical uses of the 40 years in the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon, the 40 years of the Jewish, Gospel and Millennial Harvests, and the 40 years of the Epiphany—all trialsome periods. The many 40 typical days typing some 

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of these 40-year periods in their trialsomeness give us the same thought. Vs. 33 and 34 bring this thought to mind and also give us a key helpful in opening many time prophecies in which a day is used to represent a year. In both Harvests there was a 40-years' searching of the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit, followed by a symbolic 40-years' wandering of 40 symbolic years, the interim between the Harvests being the first of these, lasting 1845 years, and the Epiphany being the second of these. The question arises, Why was the first of these wandering periods 1845 years and the second not one of 1845 years, seeing both were antitypes of the 40 years' wandering in the literal wilderness? Why is the second period one of 40 years? The following answers seem to be satisfactory so far as the first question is concerned: (1) The parallel dispensations, the Jubilee, the Times of the Gentiles, the 6,000 years of evil, the 1335 days of Daniel and the Pyramid required the first antitypical wilderness to last 1845 years. (2) To have made the second one last 1845 years would have put the Millennium too far into the future. (3) It would have destroyed the time symmetries of the plan. (4) It would have given us many generations after the first and second phases of our Lord's Second Advent were completed before its third phase would set in for Kingdom purposes. 

(49) As to the second question the following answers seem sufficient: (1) The intensification of the Epiphany trials in contrast with those in the interim between the Harvests is sufficient to bring about the full falling of the symbolic carcasses in the Epiphany wilderness. (2) In the Epiphany we have been living over the interim between the Harvests on a small scale. (3) The five siftings that marked the interim (the same in kind as the five siftings of each Harvest) are all being enacted in the Epiphany on three small scales: (a) in the smallest miniature Gospel Age (a day of it standing for a year in the Gospel Age proper), (b) in the smaller miniature Gospel Age (a year in it standing 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


for a century in the Gospel Age proper), and (c) the small miniature Gospel Age (25 months in it standing for a century in the Gospel Age proper). For each of these three cases the Gospel Age proper begins with the birth of our Lord. And in each of these three miniatures we have the five siftings (the large revolutionism sifting divided into five smaller revolutionism siftings) corresponding to the five Gospel-Age interim siftings, the latter as distinct from the five of each Harvest, all of which siftings following the same five general lines. These three reasons satisfactorily explain why the second antitypical wilderness wandering is not so long in duration as the first. Thus, in the second wilderness wandering—that of the Epiphany—the wandering is on the scale of a year for each of the 40 years of the Parousia searching out of the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit. In the Hebrew of v. 34 the expression for, "each day for a year," is repeated: "a day for a year, a day for a year." Do we have in this repetition a hint that there would be two periods of wandering respectively following the two periods of searching out the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit? We think not, since two spyings of the land would then have to apply to the type; for the repeated expression undoubtedly primarily refers to the type. Rather, we would understand the repetition to make both the typical and the antitypical sentence as to time emphatic. Truly, we in the Epiphany have experienced God's breaking off (literal translation for the A.V. mistranslation, "My breach of promise") from giving us our inheritance by 1914 as we had expected. This experience has been one of much sorrow; for the Epiphany experiences have been largely those of sorrow, while the Parousia experiences were largely those of joy. Beloved, have we not "known'" [experienced] this—the sorrows of God's breaking off from giving us our inheritance in 1914 and consequently causing us to live over the Gospel Age from three standpoints, as so many wilderness experiences,

The Parousia Messenger. 


during the Epiphany? Thus have we and the fallen ones been bearing their iniquity (your children … ye bear your iniquities), amid distressing experiences. 

(50) In v. 35 the Lord repeats the sentence without adding its length. He does this to emphasize His typical and antitypical earnestness and determination. "I, the Lord, have said," is the A.V.'s rendering of v. 35's first clause. Dr. Young's translation seems better: "I am Jehovah; I have spoken." This translation distinctly adds emphasis to the typical and antitypical sentence. The A.V. gives the thought, though not the literal translation of the next clause: "I will surely do it." We see that He did it in the type. We see that He did it in the first antitype to both Fleshly and Spiritual Israel; and now we see by experience and observation that He is now doing it in the second antitype to both Fleshly and Spiritual Israel. The Parousia congregation, with the exception of the Little Flock, was an evil congregation (v. 35), the faithful Youthful Worthies here as everywhere else being ignored in this picture. It certainly did gather together against the Lord as He spoke by our Lord through the Church in the Parousia. Hence it, except the persistent Little Flock, must be consumed—it must die in the sense above pointed out—by the time the Epiphany is over—in the antitypical wilderness. Then, God caused His Word to be spoken during the Parousia by Christ through the Little Flock as respects the ten antitypical spies, who in their rejection of the Parousia Truth and its Spirit brought a slander against it, many of them writing against it, some of them entering into formal debates against, and all of them speaking and preaching against more or less of its phases (v. 36). Their high privileges as antitypical spies made them all the more responsible as to themselves and as to antitypical Israel. Despite the responsibility, they turned the bulk of the people against the Truth and its Spirit, causing them to murmur against that goodly land (made all the congregation to murmur against Him). These would, 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


during the wilderness condition, beginning in the Parousia and reaching into the Epiphany, fall from their standing in the Little Flock, and become manifest as Great Company members, by their revolutionisms against the Truth, its Spirit and its arrangements in their ministries in religious matters (died by the plague before the Lord, v. 37). It will be noted that in v. 37 a repetition of the charge brought against the ten spies in v. 36 is made. Certainly in the antitype there was an emphasis placed on this sentence by its repetition, which emphasis was made in the Parousia and repeated in the Epiphany. Note, e.g., how often some Parousia spy-members are spoken of as having died from the high calling. The antitypical plague is in all cases error connected with the six great siftings—five in the Parousia and one in the Epiphany. And it was in and by these that the antitypical ten spies symbolically died. The two spies antitypical of Joshua (our Lord) and Caleb (the persevering Little Flock) survived this plague unscathed (v. 38). 

(51) After getting the messages of vs. 20-25 and 26-38 from Jehovah, our Lord made them known unto the people of the classes to whom they referred (v. 39). Whether God told our Lord these things directly, or indirectly by opening His mind to understand vs. 20-25 and 26-38, or in both ways, we are not informed; nor is it necessary that we be curious on the subject. Enough it is for us to know that, whether directly or indirectly, God made it known to Him. This is only another among many instances proving that our Lord, since His resurrection, ascension and glorification, is still dependent upon the Father for knowledge. Certain it is that Jesus did not tell these things to the involved classes directly, but used the Church, more particularly its leaders, and most particularly the Parousia messenger mainly and the Epiphany messenger subordinately, to tell these things to the people. The declaration of these things began, and that in a small way, in the Parousia, during the first sifting (1878-1881).

The Parousia Messenger. 


It grew in volume as the antitypical ten spies enlarged their attacks and slanders on the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit. It increased more as others than the antitypical ten spies, especially the non-spying clergy, attacked and slandered the promised antitypical land. It abounded as the laity increasingly joined in these slanderous attacks, and was made to reach a climactic end in the Epiphany work toward Azazel's Goat in the Truth and in the nominal church. 

(52) At first sight it seems not harmonious with the picture to put some of the telling of the antitype of these messages into the Epiphany, which is the special wilderness wandering time of the second application, and, as it were, not to place all of it into the Parousia, the special time of such telling. But the facts of the case are decisive in the matter. And we harmonize this as follows: The 40 years of each period, as a rule, was the respective time for its particular feature, but just as in each of the five siftings of the Parousia certain ones died from their standing to a lower standing before the Lord, which proved that they were already in their wilderness wandering, so during the Epiphany some have begun their murmuring and then did their antitypical dying, e.g., many crown-losers (all having lost their crowns by Sept. 16, 1914) took no exceptions to the Truth and its Spirit until in the Epiphany, and when these exceptions were taken they fell from the Priesthood into the Great Company. The same in principle is true of some of the Youthful Worthies, tentatively justified and mere campers. Following their murmuring in the Epiphany the antitypical messages were delivered to such. As there was an ever-increasing going forth of these messages, so was there an ever-increasing mourning (and the people mourned greatly) as they became understood by the fallen ones. This, too, began in the Parousia in the first sifting and increased until it will reach its climax in the mourning of the Great Company, reprobate Youthful Worthies, tentatively justified and campers when they recognize 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


their real standing later on in the Epiphany. But all of the fallen ones in their sentenced and fallen condition have had or will have other features of sorrow in the antitypical mourning, which includes in addition to sorrow more or less of fears, conscience upbraidings, chagrin and the discouragements and despairs as to their standings experienced during the Parousia by many of the classes just mentioned as coming to the climax of their mourning when fully manifested and convinced of their fall later in the Epiphany, for this mourning includes every kind of sorrow, fear, restraint, discouragement, etc., experienced by these fallen ones, at the time of the sentence and in their wandering times. Surely this is woeful indeed! 

(53) The scene described in vs. 40-45, though in small ways shadowed forth by some of the fallen ones' Parousia course, finds its antitype during the Epiphany. It started September 21, 1914, with the trench warfare, whereby some nations sought to make the Divine Right prevail and other nations sought to make Democracy and the world safe for Democracy prevail, all hoping thus to enter into their ideas of the promised land. With their ideas practically the whole world joined, including capital and the nominal church. Then it started among the Truth Levites in England in the Fall of 1915 and spread from them to the other Levites (including the unclean Youthful Worthies) world-wide. All of these started out in their own way, unsanctioned and unfavored by God, to realize their own notions as to gaining their supposed promised land. Practically all worldly and religious movements of the Epiphany, seeking to attain the alleged ideals of their alleged promised land, are expressions of the antitype of the people's endeavors and words of v. 40. Yea, "they rose up early in the morning" (the beginning of the Epiphany, v. 40). They mounted Satan's empire, even to its top (into the top of the mountain). They made themselves conspicuous in these deeds 

The Parousia Messenger. 


(Behold us,—literal translation; not, Lo, we are here; Deut. 1:41). In all the involved classes of fallen ones they were determined to force through their ideas of attaining the promised land (we will go up unto the place). They are and have been sure that the Lord wills that they execute their own plans (which the Lord hath promised). They pursue this course, even though they recognize their previous wrongs (though [not for] we have sinned). All the while they embark on realizing, apart from the Lord's sanction and favor, their notions of the promised land, our Lord Jesus through the Church remonstrates with them (Moses said, Wherefore now do ye transgress the commandment of the Lord, v. 41). These protests were sounded out against the World War and its purposes by the Church, especially by Bro. Russell, the pilgrims, colporteurs with Vol. IV, the Volunteers, and the conscientious objectors, and against the Truth Levites and nominal-church Levites by the Epiphany Priesthood, all of whom disapproved of the involved courses. Similar protests have gone forth from these against other movements in state, church, capital, aristocracy, labor and private life, undertaken to realize various notions of conquering their alleged promised lands. In all cases the Lord's Priesthood, as antitypical Moses' mouthpiece, forecast disaster instead of prosperity for these undertakings (it shall not prosper). 

(54) Their cry to the fallen ones, intent on carrying out their own notions of reaching their alleged promised land, was, "Go not up, for the Lord is not among you" (v. 42), i.e., God does not sanction nor favor your endeavors, hence will not prosper your undertakings; therefore desist therefrom (Deut. 1:42). Furthermore, they warned these presumptuous ones that they should not go up lest they be smitten by their enemies (smitten before your enemies, … the Amalekites [sins], the Canaanites [worldlinesses], vs. 42, 43, and the Amorites [errors], Deut. 1:42, 44). The sword (v. 43) of sin, worldliness and error would

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


smite all who would presume to follow their own notions in this matter, because they were sinning in turning away from the Lord, who would not prosper them in a sinful course (v. 43). The antitypical sword of sin, worldliness and error, differs from the Amalekites (sins), Canaanites (worldlinesses), and Amorites (errors), as follows: the sword of each of these is the tempting arguments offered by each of these classes of evils to succumb to these evils, while the evils themselves wield these arguments. And when one yields to these arguments he falls by the swords of these evils. But despite these remonstrances, in state, church, capital, aristocracy, labor and private life and among Truth and nominal-church Levites, these daring ones presumed (they presumed, v. 44; Deut. 1:43) to overcome Satan's empire, as each group viewed it (go up unto the hill top). But God's plan as due (the ark of the covenant) and our Lord (Moses) did not lead them; they remained in and with the Priesthood (departed not out of the camp, i.e., out of the tabernacle). The result of this presumption was and is an utter defeat (Hormah—destruction, v. 45) for the presumptuous; for they were defeated and are being defeated by sins (Amalekites), worldlinesses (Canaanites) and errors (Amorites, Deut. 1:44). These sting the one who fondles them, even as a host of pursuing bees sting their victim, hurting and poisoning him. Everywhere we look in state, church, capital, aristocracy, labor, private life and Levitism, we witness these terrible defeats on the fallen, but presumptuous ones at the hands of sin, worldliness and error, even as their course is one of selfishness, which makes one amenable to such defeats. And the end is not yet: for during the remainder of the Epiphany such defeats will be the lot of the presumptuous. And no matter how greatly they grieve when they learn of their fallen condition, they will not be able to induce the Lord to change His mind into restoring them to their former standing before Him (Deut. 1:45; Heb. 12:16, 17). 

The Parousia Messenger. 



(1) What parts of the Bible will we study in this chapter? Of what do they treat? In what respects? What was one of the antitypical applications of this story made by our Pastor? What other application did he give the story? On what Scripture did he base the second application? How may these two antitypes in the Jewish Harvest be contrasted? What Biblical consideration warrants such contrasted antitypes in the Gospel Harvest? What is the connecting point in the double application of the Jewish Harvest? Into what did the real and nominal church of the early Gospel Age merge as the Gospel Age advanced? 

(2) How would we construe the larger antitype in the Jewish Harvest? What justified this viewpoint? How were they viewed? When did the march toward antitypical Canaan have its beginning? What is antitypical Canaan? Who were drawn out of these antitypical twelve tribes? When? To what class did they belong? Especially which ones of them? How does Matt. 13:52 prove this? What at Jesus' command did these do? What do the 40 days of spying type? What are we not from these 40 days to conclude? Why not? How are we to understand this? What case parallels this? What do Jewish Harvest facts prove on this point? What example proves this? 

(3) What took place when the antitypical report had been delivered? How was the report proper given? What occurred thereafter? What effect did this have in the Jewish Harvest? What resulted with ten of the antitypical spy classes? What proves this? What is typed by Joshua's and Caleb's encouraging the people to go up against Canaan's inhabitants? Whom do the Israelites represent for that Harvest? What is represented by their discouragement? Murmuring? Rebellion? Desire to stone Joshua and Caleb? God's glory appearing? Its effect? His decision? The Israelites' efforts to enter the land before the completion of the 40 years? How have not, and how have these matters been presented above? Why this answer for each course? 

(4) What is the main antitype of Israel's 40 years' wandering? Its secondary antitype? The secondary antitype's second set of spies? Their report? Their murmuring? Their second wilderness wandering? What will we not do further with this phase of matters? Why not? Why are we warranted in making a second main application

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


to Spiritual Israel of the events of Num. 13 and 14? What statement has often appeared in our writings? What has never been shown on this matter? On what Scriptural application, among others, has this thought been based? How do we draw the conclusion based on this application? What is the reasoning that proves it? What is the conclusion? For what does this account? 

(5) What are we to keep in mind during this study? What is typed by the people requesting that spies search out the land? Why was the antitypical request made? What did the typical request precede? What does this type? What were God's and Jesus' response to the request? What does Canaan type? What is it primarily? Secondarily? How so? What is typed by Canaan's being infested with inhabitants and cities inimical to Israel? What results from this? How is this typed? What is typed by Moses' sending out the twelve spies? What is implied in type and antitype in v. 2 by the Hebrew words "for thee," omitted in the A. V.? 

(6) What is represented by their selection, one from each tribe? What is typed by the fact that not all Israel, but only twelve individuals as princes, one from each tribe, were chosen as spies? What is typed by the fact that ten of them, bringing up a slander against the land, died of plague? What does this prove? What fact further confirms this thought? Why? What conclusion is to be drawn from these facts? What occurred just after the report was made? What was this change as to Joshua, Caleb, the other ten? 

(7) What is typed by Moses' sending out the twelve spies at the mouth of the Lord? What is the involved part of the Bible? How was this made known to our Lord? How additionally may the charge have been made? Whose charge would it in any case have been? What is typed by the spies' being sent out from Kadesh-barnea in Paran? What is Kadesh-barnea also called? Why? What proves this? Why is the fact of the spies being leaders repeated, type and antitype? What is typed by there being no mention made of a spy coming from the tribe of Levi or the house of Aaron? What is a summary of the teaching of this paragraph? Into what did some of the members 

The Parousia Messenger. 


of the twelve antitypical spies come? Where did the others remain? 

(8) For what is here the appropriate place? What is embraced under the expression, the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit? Where and under what type were the main forms of this knowledge set forth? What was the difference between the antitypical spies and the antitypical Kohathites as to their insight into such knowledge? Why this difference? What mistake was formerly made on some as being Gospel-Age Kohathites? What will serve to correct this mistake? What is further said as a safeguard against another natural mistake? What kind of crown-losers also wrote on such branches of knowledge? Who were some of them? What in this respect did Little Flock leaders do? Who are some of these and what was some of their pertinent work? Accordingly, what is not to be regarded as the work of the Gospel-Age Kohathites alone? What class has done the finest work in these four departments of work? E.g., who? 

(9) What proves that the Parousia was marked by the most searching investigations and most fruitful results as to the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit? In what three ways does this appear? In how many and what branches of Bible knowledge did they work? How is this proved as to recensions of the Hebrew Scriptures? How do Ginsburg's and Kittel's Old Testament recensions differ? How is this proved as to recensions of the Greek New Testament? How long did Westcott and Hort work on their recension? Von Soden? What is the character of his recension? Who else did good work on this subject? 

(10) What was then done as to Biblical Hebrew and Greek lexicons? How many extra fine Hebrew lexicons appeared then? Greek lexicons? Hebrew and Greek grammars? Hebrew concordances? What may be said of Rabbi Mandelkern's concordance? How many superfine concordances to the Greek New Testament? The Greek Old Testament? The English Bible? English Bible translations? How may we sum up the quality and quantity of linguistic Bible helps of this time? 

(11) Of what other branch of Bible knowledge may a similar remark be made? What are its three divisions? Of what subjects and from what standpoint does introduction treat? How many are the finest of these works on the canon of the Old and the New Testaments? On

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


the books of the New Testament? On the canon, text, books and circulation of the New Testament? On the canon and books of the New Testament? On the canon, text, books and circulation of the whole Bible? What is their character? What do we here do with higher-critical books? What is the second branch of exegetical knowledge? What is the character of Parousiac commentaries? What is the ablest on the Old Testament? The New Testament? How many commentaries on the whole Bible are mentioned? How many other commentaries on the whole New Testament are mentioned? How many writers prepared the best commentaries on separate Bible books? What is said of Schaff's revision and translation of Lange's Bible Commentary? 

(12) What is the third branch of exegetical knowledge? What are its three kinds? How many harmonies of Old Testament histories are mentioned? New Testament histories? Interwoven accounts? Interweavings of Acts and the Epistles? Of Greek Gospel harmonies? Wherein do we find reference passages? What has Johns furnished? Baxters? What may be said of this? What is here said of The Treasury of Scriptural Knowledge? What are the two chief Bible indexes of this period? In editions of what kind of Bibles are such indexes found? What two other Bible indexes are mentioned? How may we sum up this paragraph? 

(13) What is the third general branch of Bible knowledge? What existed as to it during the Parousia? What is the first department of this branch of knowledge? Why do we call Church history and biography Bible knowledge? How many were the main workers in Bible history? What did they produce? What appeared under the general editorship of J. S. Exell? In what field of Bible biography was the best work done? At least how many lives of Christ appeared during the Parousia? What are some of the ablest? What are some of the ablest Parousia lives of St. Paul? What other New Testament biographies have we? What can be said of the number of writers of Church history? Of writers on its epochs? Of Church biographers, especially biographers of star-members? 

(14) What is the second department of Biblical historical knowledge? Why was not much spying on chronology done during the Parousia? What kind of beneficial 

The Parousia Messenger. 


spying was then done thereon? Who especially did profitable spying on chronology in this time? Who else did some good work on chronology during the Parousia? Of what does Biblical and Church archeology treat? What kind of work has been done in this line? How was much of this information gotten? Who were some of the chief Parousia archeologists? What is the fourth department of Biblical historical knowledge? How did it fare during the Parousia? Who were some of the leaders in this branch of work? What have the last two paragraphs shown to be a fact on pertinent historical matters? In what sense do we use the word history in this connection? 

(15) What is the fourth sphere of Bible knowledge and its Spirit? What are its three branches? Why has this period been one of especial apologetical activity? Who are some of the main investigators in the field of general apologetics? Opponents of evolution? Of higher criticism? Who were especially fruitful in the field of historical proofs of the Bible's veracity? 

(16) What were mainly the limits in good work on the part of the dogmatician spies? Wherein is their work usually erroneous? Who were some of the main representatives of the doctrinal spies? What is said of Weiss, Zahn, Koenig and Westcott? Who were some of the main representatives of the ethical spies? How did they compare with the doctrinal spies as to Truth and error? What kind of books treat in one work of many branches of knowledge belonging to the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit? What were many of their contributors? Who was the greatest and most fruitful of all individual spies? What did he furnish? In what six particular branches was he supreme? Despite his not being a Hebrew and Greek scholar, what was the character of some of his definitions of Hebrew and Greek words? His correction of mistranslations? Who else were among the antitypical spies? What have we done briefly in paragraphs 8 to 16? 

(17) From what standpoint did we point out the work of the antitypical spies? And not from what standpoint? Despite this, what are we to understand as to participation in the spy work? With but five exceptions, spy members of what three denominations did we not mention? What does this not mean? Why were such not mentioned above? Where and in what work was the best 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


Romanist spy work done? Describe this set of encyclopedias somewhat? What other Romanists did some good spying? What can be said of the Greek Catholic spies? What denominational spies, and in what order, did the best and ablest spy work? With what exception? How? 

(18) What kind of treatment have we given vs. 3-16? What is typed by the change of Joshua's name? Who sent out the antitypical spies? How did He do it? What is typed by surmounting the mountain just north of Kadesh-barnea? How are we to understand, and not to understand the word negeb, mistranslated southward in the A. V.? Why? What is typed by the spies' entering Canaan from its southern end? What is typed by their seeing what the land is? By their seeing the people that dwell therein generally? Particularly; as to their mentioned qualities? 

(19) From what particular standpoints were they to study the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit? What else did He charge them to search out? What about them in particular? From what other standpoints were they to search out the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit? What is typed by Canaan's wood or trees? To what did our Lord exhort the antitypical spies? What did He charge them to bring back with them? In connection with what will the antitypical fruits be explained? What is typed by the spies' going out at the time of the first ripe grapes? How do we come to this conclusion? How do the facts of the beginnings of the Jewish and Gospel Harvests corroborate this? 

(20) In what way did the Parousia spies execute their commission? What is typed by searching the land from the wilderness of Zin to Rehob and the entrance to Hamath? By what can we recognize the thoroughness of the antitypical search? Where did it start? What is meant and typed by Hebron, Ahiman, Sheshai, Talmai and Anak, and the first three giants living at Hebron? By Hebron's being seven years older than Zoan of Egypt? 

(21) In their Truth study to what did the spies advance? How is this typed? What did they gather by this study? What was the quality of this work? Who especially took part therein? Who more especially? What is typed by carrying the cluster of grapes on a staff between two? What was the antitypical cluster of grapes? More especially which, according to Gal. 5:22, 23 and 2 Pet. 1:5-7?

The Parousia Messenger. 


As whose graces did the spies describe these? What is typed by the spies' getting the pomegranates? The figs? Who especially brought back the antitypical clusters, pomegranates and figs? What is typed by the repetition of the allusion to the brook of Eschol and the cluster of grapes? With what does this stand in contrast? 

(22) After the antitypical spying, what was done by the antitypical spies? How long was this work continued? From what two general reasons do we know this? By doing what can we see this to be true? How did the World War put an end to the spying and reporting? What do we conclude from these facts? 

(23) Against what natural mistake should we be on guard? Why is this a mistake? What was the period of writing the works mentioned in pars. 8-17? What remark is here repeated? When were our Pastor's main works produced and published? What may be said of his Towers and sermons after 1914? Of what did his new finds consist, and to what did they belong? What do the facts prove as to the time of giving the antitypical reports? What is a somewhat parallel wording? How are we to understand the report at the end of the forty days? 

(24) To whom did the antitypical spies report? How is this typed? How did they do it? When did they do it? How is this typed? What proves this to have been done in those ways? What did these lectures and publications contain? What does the repetition of the statement that the spies reported to Moses type? How did they report matters to our Lord? What did their findings prove emphatically of the spheres of the Truth and its Spirit? How is this typed? What else did their writings display? 

(25) What is the contrast between vs. 26, 27; Deut. 1:25 and vs. 28, 29? What was the character of the reports therein contained? Only after what did the ten spies misrepresent and exaggerate things? How did these matters stand with the antitypical spies? What do the peoples of Canaan type? What does remembering the antitypical fact help us to understand? What quality of these evils was truly reported? How is this typed? What do our experiences prove on this point? What are typed by the walled cities? What are the antitypical walls? What is the quality of this part of the antitypical report? What makes matters worse for us? How is this typed? 

(26) What do the Amalekites type, in themselves and 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


in their location? What are some of its forms? What do the Hittites type, in themselves and in their location? What are some of its forms? What do the Jebusites type, in themselves and in their location? What are some of its forms? What do the Amorites type, in themselves and in their location? What do the Canaanites type, in themselves and in their location? In what respects did the antitypical spies report well? Truly? 

(27) From v. 30 onward whom did Caleb type? Before this? What did the Little Flock note in the people during the delivery of the report? What did it thereupon do? By what is this typed? What does fear hinder? What did the Little Flock not attempt? Why not? How is this typed? What did it stress? Why? What did it urge? How are these things typed? What is typed by the second part of Caleb's speech? By what three considerations did the Little Flock prove these thoughts true to the people? Accordingly, how can our Canaan be dispossessed of our enemies and be occupied by us? What did the Little Flock certainly do in this matter? How is this typed by Caleb? 

(28) What did the spies, type and antitype, now do? What did they claim? What led to the ten antitypical spies' contradicting antitypical Caleb? What was their confusion as to faith-justification and the high calling? What is the truth as to their relations and contrasts? What other doctrine contributed to their misrepresenting the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit? How are their positions to be refuted? 

(29) What does our natural depravity prevent our doing for ourselves? Hence how are we justified? What empowers the justified Spirit-begotten people of God? Unto what? What did the false doctrines of the ten antitypical spies prompt them to do? In justification of their course, what did they allege? How and what did they fight? On what grounds? Into what were they led by their combativeness? What was their first falsehood? How is this typed? What did they thereby misrepresent? What things in the Truth people did they mistake as proofs of their misrepresentations of the antitypical land? 

(30) What was their second falsehood? By what was this falsehood typed? On what was the antitypical falsehood based? What is the refutation of the involved falsehood? What fact proves their pertinent teaching to be false? What typical fact? What was the third typical 

The Parousia Messenger. 


falsehood? What did the antediluvian giants type? What did this third antitypical falsehood imply? What did they grossly exaggerate? How is this typed? What should they have said? As a result of their omissions and commissions, what did they do to the antitypical land? What pertinent knowledge do those of us who shared the Parousia privileges have? Who were some of these misrepresenters and exaggerators? In fact, who all were guilty of these two evils? What should make us wary of such? Of whom else should we be wary? Why? 

(31) What effect did the misrepresentations of the antitypical ten spies have? What quality in the people produced this effect? What did it make them forget? What did this fear cause them to do? What did this effect make them do? How is this typed? What did they resent? What did they fear? How long did their mourning persist? How is this typed? What did their rage prompt them to do? Even to what extreme did their unbelief and fear move them? How is this typed? How universal was this condition? 

(32) Whom did they consequently blame? For what? How is this typed? What did they consider in their hearts? To what did such thoughts influence them? By what did they do this? How is this typed? What varying degrees as to this were present in the people? What were the main ways in which they agitated for making a captain to return them to symbolic Egypt? In what three spheres? What were some of the sought captains? How is this typed? What was not selected, though sought? How is this typed? In what other ways was it sought to go back to symbolic Egypt? 

(33) What effect did the people's course have on our Lord? As what? How is this typed? How did He do this? How is this typed? What did our Lord and the Church seek to do to the people? How is this typed? Where else is this also typed? Who can testify to their grief? In whom was this grief? How did they praise the antitypical land? How is this typed? How did they assert this? How is this typed? What was necessary for the antitypical conquest, according to the Church's assurance? How is this typed? What would be against their success in the war? How is this typed? To what two classes did they give this assurance? How did they place 

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


themselves in relation to the people? How is this typed? 

(34) Against what did the Little Flock plead? How is this typed? How was the rebellion possible? How did they assure the people of victory? How is this typed? What would insure their enemies' defeat? How is this typed? What is the best thing in their assurance of victory? How is this typed? What did this assurance promise? Despite what? What will a view of our Parousia experiences on this head show us? What antitype did we thereby fulfil? Whose activity also do we see in this? 

(35) What kind of a reception did our Lord's and the Church's pertinent activities meet? Why? What kind of persons attacked them? How is this typed? Why was no stoning done, type and antitype? What types the Truth refutations made by our Lord and the Church? What considerations prove this? How did this glory appear on Christ and the Church? 

(36) Why were the people unbelieving and fearful? In what did this culminate? How did this affect God? By what two questions did He indicate it? How is this typed? How and how long had God borne with them? Why did He cease from such forbearing? To what degree did He, and did He not forbear? What induced Him to modify His forbearance? How is this typed? What two courses were open to Him in the premises? How is this typed? Which did He prefer? What induced Him to yield His preference? What seems to be the threatened pestilence? What would it have effected? How is this typed? 

(37) What is typed in vs. 13-19? How many kinds of deliverance from antitypical Egypt are there? What are they? Where does each belong? Why is the first kind here meant? Additionally, what kind of a deliverance has operated during the entire Age, and will to its end? What would the antitypical camp and the heathen have charged had God executed His first alternative? How would these antitypical Egyptians have told this to the evils infesting antitypical Canaan? What had these evils already experienced? From their being considered in what aspects? To what five things were these defeats due? 

(38) Had God realized the first alternative, what boast would the evils have enacted? Despite what fact? Despite what even, would they have enacted this boasting? For 

The Parousia Messenger. 


what did our Lord, therefore, pray? How is this typed? On what did He ground His prayer? How is this typed? What did He not ask God to set aside? How did He ask Him to exercise it? How is this typed? For what, accordingly, did He not pray? For what did He pray? How are these things typed? Upon what did He, accordingly, seize? How is this typed? What is His character as an Intercessor? How is this typed? How did He end His intercession? What kind of an Intercessor is our Lord? How is this typed? To what should this lead us? 

(39) What did our Lord's intercession achieve? Only to what degree did it prevail? To what did it not prevail? What proves this answer? What two things prove that the forgiveness was of that only which would have completely cut off antitypical Israel from all favor? For what did our Lord not ask? For what did He ask? What proves this? What does v. 19 show on this point? How are these facts typed? 

(40) How had God hitherto forgiven His people? What was not forgiven them? What proves this in type and antitype? What conclusion do we draw from these things? When were the punishments inflicted? What do these considerations enable us to see? How may it be stated in other words? Toward whom does this principle show itself in operation as to wilfulness's? How are we, and how are we not to understand the above-mentioned forgiveness of the unjustified? 

(41) What is the greatest objection of non-Truth people to the sphere of the Truth? How do they express it? To what did this objection give God an occasion? How did God give the pertinent assurance? To what does the oath of v. 21 allude? Why does it prove restitution? Of what is this teaching a proof? Why so? 

(42) Wherein is it typically shown that antitypical Israel's sins were not fully forgiven? With guilt of what sin does, God charge them? Despite what? What is meant by the tenfold provocation? What were the main sins leading to this provocation? For what two reasons does God justly blame the Parousia ten tribes of the guilt of the ten denominational groups from their beginnings? Wherein do we see Him acting on the same principle?

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


In what is the charge concentrated? In other words, of what does He accuse them? What does this prove? What results, as to Christ's intercession and the punishment? 

(43) What does God solemnly affirm? What else does the pertinent passage affirm? What resulted? How should the last clause of v. 23 be rendered? So rendered, what does it teach? Why could they not enter in? How is this shown in Heb. 3 and 4? What assurance does v: 24 give? Why this for antitypical Caleb? What did that spirit produce? What did fully following God include? Who are meant by antitypical Caleb's seed? How differentiate between the Little Flock as mother and as seed? 

(44) How are we to explain the omission of mention of antitypical Joshua in this verse? What did God therein promise? Through whom and what did He utter this promise in the Parousia? In what sense did antitypical Caleb go into the land? Who dwelt nigh unto antitypical Israel during the Parousia murmuring? What is meant by this? To what was antitypical Israel sentenced? To what did the two mentioned failures lead? Who succeeds and who fails to enter antitypical Canaan? How are the latter typed? What does the "tomorrow" of v. 25 represent? What is typed by the wandering by the way of the Red Sea? 

(45) What is set forth typically in vs. 26-37? To whom did He first express it? What does it indicate? What had He directed to the antitypical murmuring? Against what two things was it expressed? What in all solemnity did God charge Jesus to tell antitypical Israel in the Parousia? What would happen to them? In what two ways did the falls occur? How do the cited passages respectively prove these two ways of falling? Who would thus fall? How is this typed? Who are included in this fall? How is this typed? Of what is there no doubt? Despite what fact? How can the oath-bound promise made to them be harmonized with His swearing not to bring them into the land? Who only enter the land? How does the meaning of the name of Caleb's father prove antitypically that the promise was made to him while in the flesh? The meaning of the name of Joshua's father

The Parousia Messenger. 


prove antitypically that the promise was made to our Lord while He was in the flesh? 

(46) Who especially of the Parousia called ones win antitypical Canaan? How is this typed? What did the older ones fear of these? How is this typed? What did they do as to the standard of overcoming? How is this typed? Who especially did this? In what respects? In direct contradiction, what did God say thereon? How is this typed? How did the fallen ones feel toward the sphere of the Truth and of its Spirit? How is this typed? Through whom did God declare this of them? How is this typed? What is meant by their despising it? What will a review of the Parousia bring to mind as to this matter? What were they told by God? By and through whom? In what classes? How are the matters of the last three questions typed? 

(47) What did the immature ones inherit as a result of the sentence? How is this typed? How long has the Epiphany wandering gone on? How has it been found to be? What have these hard experiences aroused in our hearts? For what sins are these evils suffered? How is this typed? How long, according to the Divine Will, are these evils to be suffered? How is this typed? Of what are we witnesses? What are some of the classes involved in the fallings? When did they begin? In what were they manifested? Who witnessed and witness these fallings? When? Where? In what ways does the resultant havoc appear? What contrast will make the fallings clear? 

(48) What do 40 days and 40 years symbolize Biblically? What are some proofs of this? What two things do vs. 33 and 34 teach? What was there in both Harvests? By what were they followed? What was the first of these? The second? Why was the first period one of 1845 years and the second not one of 1845 years, and yet both antitypes of the 40 years in the literal wilderness? 

(49) Why was the second period one of 40 years? On what three scales are the five Gospel-Age siftings being re-enacted? With what does the Gospel-Age proper begin for these three miniatures? What do we have in each of these three miniatures? How are they harmonized with the thought of the sixth, the revolutionism, sifting? What have these three sets of five siftings in common? What do these three reasons satisfactorily explain? What

The Twelve Spies—Type, Antitype. 


are alike as to the duration in the Parousia and in the Epiphany? What is done in the Hebrew with the expression translated, "each day for a year?" What does this not mean? Why not? What does it mean? What have we experienced in the Epiphany? How is this typed? What had we expected for 1914? What is the character of this experience? The Parousia experience? What have been largely our experiences in the Epiphany? What in these experiences have we been bearing? 

(50) What does God repeat in v. 35? What does He add thereto? Why so in both cases? What are the A.V.'s and Dr. Young's renderings for the first clause of v. 35? What does Dr. Young's translation add to the sentence above that of the A.V.? What should be said of the A.V.'s rendering of v. 35's second clause? What do we see as to the type? As to both fulfillments of the first set of antitypes? Of the second set of antitypes? Excepting the eventual Little Flock, what was the character of the whole Parousia congregation? What did it do against the Lord? In connection with what? Except the faithful, what must it undergo by the end of the Epiphany? Where? What did God next do in the Parousia? In what ways did the antitypical ten spies bring a slander upon the Truth and its Spirit? What made them all the more responsible? As to whom? Despite their high privileges, what evil things did they accomplish? What would happen to them? When? By what? What do we find in v. 37? What is the antitype of this? How did the antitypical ten spies die? What was in all cases the antitypical plague? With what was it connected? What did it effect in the antitypical ten spies? Who passed safely through the plague? 

(51) What did Jesus do with the messages of vs. 20-25, 26-38? Of what is there no certainty on these messages? What should we not be on the subject? How is this typed? What should suffice us? What does this instance, among many, prove? How did Jesus not, and how did He tell these things to the involved classes? In what degrees of uses of these? How did this telling begin, proceed and come to a climax? 

(52) What at first sight seems inconsistent with the picture? Why so? What decides the matter? How is it harmonized? What examples clarify this point? At their 

The Parousia Messenger. 


manifestation what occurred? What similarity is there between the going forth of the antitypical message and the antitypical mourning? How did it begin and proceed? In what will it reach its climax? What features other than sorrow has the antitypical mourning had? When will this reach a climax? 

(53) Despite what, when will occur the antitype of the scene in vs. 40-45? When did it start? Wherein? Who join in this? When and where did it start among Truth Levites? Spread? What is characteristic of all of these starters? How do practically all worldly and religious movements of the Epiphany stand related to this purpose? Of what are these the antitype? How are these things typed? What is the antitype of the people's rising up early in the morning? Of mounting the hill? Their saying, Behold us? On what were they determined? How is this typed? Of what were they over-confident? How is this typed? Despite what did they pursue this course? How is this typed? While they were so engaged, who remonstrated? Through whom? How is this typed? Against what and whom were protests, sounded out? By whom? Against what else have similar protests gone out? Why? In what relations? What did the Priesthood in all cases forecast? How were these things typed? 

(54) What was their outcry? To whom? What reason did they give? How were these things typed? With what warning did they caution the presumptuous? How was this typed? What were the enemies, type and antitype? With what would they be smitten? Why? How is this typed? What is the difference between the antitypical sword and the antitypical Amalekites, Canaanites and Amorites? Despite this warning, what was done? In what spheres? How is this typed? What and who did not cooperate therein? How is this typed? What was the result of this presumption? How was it typed? By what was and is the defeat inflicted? How is this typed? Wherein are such defeats experienced? How is this typed? What other enemy, not typed as such here, animated their whole course? How is this typed? What is yet during the Epiphany to be expected? What will the people's resultant grief, on learning their fallen condition, not avail to change?