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1 Sam. 18-20


SO FAR we have studied David, type and antitype, as set forth in 1 Sam. 16 and 17; and herein we propose to study 1 Sam. 18, 19 and 20, praying the Lord to bless the study to all of us. Chap. 18 begins with a description of events following David's conversation with Saul after his slaying Goliath. We saw that the antitypical conversation was carried on by our Pastor's speaking through his pertinent writings and on antitypical Saul's part by their studying those writings. The main, but not exclusive, representative of antitypical Saul in this matter was Dr. Joseph Cook, who read pertinent writings of our Pastor before, during and after his world tour from Sept., 1880, to Dec., 1882. Dr. Joseph Seiss was another member of antitypical Saul who acted in certain features of the antitype of 1 Sam. 17. Besides these there were other members of antitypical Saul more or less active in the antitype of matters set forth in that chapter. These same brethren continued to act as antitypical Saul in chapters 18, 19 and 20, with Dr. Cook acting as the chief representative of antitypical Saul. The close connection between the end of chap. 17 and the beginning of chap. 18 would suggest this, even as the antitypical facts themselves prove it. So close is this connection that in the Hebrew 1 Sam. 17:55—18:5 together forms a paragraph, a thing that our chapter division here obscures in the A.V. The more thoroughly consecrated and Truth-loving of the crown-losers (Jonathan, Jehovah gave, v. 1) gave our Pastor (David) 

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especial appreciation and love for his refutation of evolution (soul of Jonathan … loved him). The crown-lost princes, not desiring to lose from their service so able a warrior against infidelity as our Pastor was, numbered him among their supporters in the pertinent warfare (Saul took him), desiring him no more to go back to the Truth people to serve, but to give his service in their warfare against infidelity (would let him go no more home to his father's house). Antitypical Jonathan and David became especially bound to each other in the best of bonds (made a covenant, v. 3). The former, recognizing the latter's superiority, gladly and fully subordinated themselves (stripped himself of his robe, v. 4) to antitypical David in their equipment (garments, i.e., armor), discourses (sword), creed (bow) and service (girdle). 

(2) Against every form of infidelity that the crown-lost princes desired him to oppose Bro. Russell fought (David went … Saul sent him, v. 5) and was victorious (prospered, see margin), as can be seen in pertinent Tower articles from the outstart onward. This made the crown-lost princes esteem him as an anti-infidelity warrior above all others of their warriors (Saul set [esteemed] him over [above] the [other] men of war). His pertinent course was pleasing to church members and fellow-warriors (accepted … people and … Saul's servants). Each time his writings against evolution added to his refutations of it, he was hailed with the acclamations of church members (when David was returning from the slaughter of the Philistine … women … of all cities of Israel, v. 6), heralding the victory (singing) and acting concordantly (dancing) with testimonies in their gatherings (tabrets [timbrels]) and conversations (three-stringed instruments, see margin). They acclaimed Bro. Russell in this matter as abler than the crown-lost princes (Saul … thousands; and David his ten thousands, v. 7). This was too much for the double-minded crown-lost 

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


leaders to endure, since they had always been regarded as highest in ability and achievement in nominal-church circles; hence in envy they resented this esteem and praise for Bro. Russell (Saul was very wroth and … displeased … ascribed unto David ten thousands … me … thousands, v. 8). Their love for honor made them think that only in office were they being esteemed above Bro. Russell (can he have more but the kingdom?). Henceforth with envious eyes they regarded him (Saul eyed David from that day and forward, v. 9). Their envy, producing dejection (evil spirit … upon Saul, v. 10) on the next occasion (morrow), was with them even while they preached in the nominal church (prophesied in … the house). Bro. Russell sought to soothe them as formerly he had done to them, particularly Dr. Seiss, as shown in Chapter VIII (David played … as at other times); and he sought to do this through Tower articles and tracts on restitution for the non-elect in the Millennium. Against this they had articles (javelin) ready to publish against him (in Saul's hand). 

(3) While several of the crown-lost leaders took part in the attack (Saul cast the javelin, v. 11), the chief actor therein was Dr. Cook, who will here be used as a representative of all of them, and who sought to refute Bro. Russell, without naming him, by whipping him over the back of Prof. Dorner, of the Berlin University. The latter in nominal-church circles was then a much more widely known man than was Bro. Russell, and was then advocating probation for the non-elect in an alleged intermediate state, i.e., between death and the awakening of the dead. His back, as that of the most eminent intermediate-state-probation advocate, Dr. Cook selected as the one over which he would administer a beating to Bro. Russell. And in this act he performed his part in antitypical Saul's casting the antitypical javelin at antitypical David. This antitypical javelin is the prelude to the first 

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lecture of Dr. Cook's book entitled, Occident. In that prelude of 18 pages he made a savage attack on future probation as taught by Prof. Dorner. Dr. Cook thought that this attack would refute all advocates of future probation, thus also would prevail over Bro. Russell (I will smite David, even to the wall). But Bro. Russell foiled Dr. Cook's purpose by two turns of argument: (1) by proving that the intermediate state is one of unconsciousness, and that hence there could be no probation there; and (2) by proving that the Millennium will be the time for probation for the non-elect dead and living (David twice turned around from out of his presence, I. V.; see Dr. Young, also). Such an answer nonplussed Dr. Cook and his co-warriors; for it proved that his argument, so far as Bro. Russell's position was concerned, was a straw man. This caused him to fear our Pastor (Saul was afraid of David, v. 12), whose answers troubled him, and proved that Jehovah was with Bro. Russell, and had forsaken him (the Lord was with him, and was departed from Saul). This mental attitude in antitypical Saul moved them to withdraw their use of, and favor from, antitypical David, and made them seek to limit his activities to Truth people (Saul removed … and set him by himself leader of a thousand, v. 13, I. V.). Nevertheless, as the leader of such, Bro. Russell freely mingled with the public (went out and came in before the people), and prospered in all his undertakings (David prospered [see margin] in all his ways, v. 14) under the favor of the Lord (the Lord was with him). Observing this, the crown-lost princes increasingly feared him (v. 15). But both the nominal and the real people of God (Israel and Judah, v. 16) thought highly of him for his works (because … before them). 

(4) Noting Bro. Russell's popularity, certain of the crown-lost princes sought to bring about his ruin at the hands of infidelity, and thus they would be spared the pains of undoing him (Let not mine … but the 

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


hand of the Philistines be upon him, v. 17). They hoped that Bro. Russell would become involved in a controversy with infidels who would overpower him, and thus ruin him as a religious controversialist. Therefore, they proposed to give Bro. Russell one of their powers (my elder daughter, Merab [increase]), the power of holding public meetings under the support of all Protestant churches in various towns and cities as interdenominational evangelists do, on condition that he use such opportunities to fight infidelity, not, of course, to spread the harvest Truth, which by now these leaders were increasingly opposing. Thus in this limited sphere they were willing to offer him a measure of support and sanction (be thou valiant for me, and fight the Lord's battles). In this they acted as many a nominal-church preacher did during the reaping time when they expressed the desire that various brethren remain in, and help the churches, believing as they wished, only keeping the harvest Truth to themselves; but these leaders hoped that Bro. Russell would become overmatched therein. On receiving the offer Bro. Russell's humility asserted itself (who am I … that I … son-in-law to the king? v. 18), asserting that in person, powers and standing he was unequal to the office proposed. But the crown-lost princes begrudged him even this office so limited, and gave it to evangelists, like Moody, Whipple, Jones, Small, Torrey, and later, Sunday, Biederwolf, Gray, etc. (she was given unto Adriel [flock of God], the Meholathite [dancer], v. 19), who danced as the crown-lost princes piped. Antitypical Saul had another office power (Michal [brook], v. 20), that of addressing the membership of individual churches. This power was more inclined to suitableness for Bro. Russell (loved David), both because of his then development and the inclination of separate congregations, which welcomed him as a speaker in their midst. These made known to antitypical Saul their pertinent preference (they told

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Saul), and they were willing to lend their support and sanction to it, on a condition and for a purpose similar to the former one (pleased him … will give him her … be a snare … the Philistines … against him … Saul said … thou … my son-in-law by the second, v. 21, I. V.). Then the crown-lost princes suggested to various pastors and principals of the flocks to encourage Bro. Russell to accept such a power and office (Saul commanded his servants, Commune with David … be the king's son-in-law, v. 22). As instructed, these pastors and principals of the flocks encouraged Bro. Russell to accept such powers (Saul's servants spake these words in the ears of David, v. 23), who again in humility hesitated to accept it (Seemeth it to you a light thing … I am a poor man, and lightly esteemed). This quality he always showed. 

(5) These messengers reported to the crown-lost princes what and how Bro. Russell replied (v. 24). The crown-lost princes told these messengers to assure Bro. Russell that they desired not a human reward, but would instead be satisfied with the refutation of the infidelistic, i.e., unconsecrated [uncircumcised] universalists, whom they regarded as nothing less than infidels (the king desireth not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, v. 25). Having great difficulty in coping with such, the pertinent crown-lost princes felt sure and desired that such would refute Bro. Russell (Saul thought to make David fall by … Philistines). The messengers told Bro. Russell of this proposal (servants told David these words, v. 26). He accepted it (pleased David … the king's son-in-law). Therefore, before the time of exercising the office came (the days were not expired) Bro. Russell with his cooperating warriors among the Truth people (he and his men, v. 27) entered into a controversy with Mr. Paton and his co-warriors, who were no-ransomers (one hundred of the antitypical Philistines) and universalists (the second hundred of the antitypical Philistines) 

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and completely refuted them (slew of the Philistines two hundred men) and through their refuted unholy [uncircumcised] theories (foreskins) gave evidence that he had refuted the holders of both classes of infidels (gave them in full tale [count] to the king), thus claiming the right to exercise the office of a lecturer in local churches among the denominations (that he might be the king's son-in-law). The crown-lost princes then allowed and sanctioned his use of such power (Saul gave him Michal, his daughter, to wife). This victory of Bro. Russell's over the infidelistic sifters among Truth people all the more impressed the crown-lost leaders with the fact that the Lord favored Bro. Russell (Saul saw and knew that the Lord was with David, v. 28) and that the power of addressing various nominal-church congregations was very favorable to Bro. Russell (Michal … loved him). These facts, instead of pleasing the crown-lost princes in various of their members, aroused them to still more and lasting fear and suspicion of, and enmity toward Bro. Russell (Saul … more afraid … enemy continually, v. 29). It was in the third hour of the Harvest, June, 1881 to Oct., 1884, that the infidelism sifting was especially active in the Sanctuary, the Court and the City, and it was of such a sifting movement that the type of v. 30 treats when it says that the princes of the Philistines went forth. And in such campaigns of the infidelistic leaders (princes of the Philistines went forth, v. 30), Bro. Russell succeeded more against them (David prospered more) than all the other helpers of the crown-lost princes (than all the servants of Saul). This, of course, enhanced him in the estimation of anti-infidels (so that his name was much set by). And of it he was worthy. 

(6) Our study brings us now to 1 Sam. 19. Bro. Russell's successes against the infidelistic sifters, instead of pleasing the crown-lost princes, as it should have done, aroused their envy to symbolic murderous 

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proportions, moving them to advise the most consecrated and Truth-loving of the crown-losers and their supporting co-warriors to cut off Bro. Russell from all fellowship in nominal-church circles (Saul spake to Jonathan, his son, and to all his servants, that they should kill David, v. 1). This charge greatly pained antitypical Jonathan, who much appreciated Bro. Russell (Jonathan … delighted much in David, v. 2) and who told him of their superiors' orders (told David … father seeketh to kill thee). They counseled him to be on his guard and to retire for a while from activities in the churches until times would change (take heed … morning … in a secret place and hide thyself). They offered to take Bro. Russell's place of service supported by the crown-lost princes (go out and stand beside my father … where thou art, v. 3) and to speak favorably of him to them and then report to him the results (commune … of thee … will tell thee). These then praised Bro. Russell to the crown-lost princes (spake good of David unto Saul, v. 4). They expostulated with them not to sin against Bro. Russell by cutting him off from fellowship and service, since therein he did no wrong against, but did much good to the crown-lost leaders (sin against David … not sinned against thee … his works … thee-ward very good). Especially did they emphasize Bro. Russell's courage and skill in his successful refutation of evolution (life in his hands, and slew the Philistine, v. 5), which none of the crown-lost princes nor their co-warriors were able to do, by which the Lord wrought a signal victory for His people, thus showing that He favored Bro. Russell (Lord wrought a great salvation for all Israel), and which the crown-lost leaders witnessed with joy (sawest … didst rejoice). Why, then, they reasoned, should the crown-lost leaders sin against an innocent one, causelessly cutting him off from fellowship and service (Wherefore … sin

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


against innocent blood, to slay David without a cause)? The fine plea had its intended result. The crown-lost leaders relented and gave solemn assurance that Bro. Russell would not be cut off from fellowship and service in nominal-church circles (Saul harkened … the Lord liveth, he shall not be slain). 

(7) True to their promise these most faithful and Truth-loving crown-losers informed Bro. Russell of what they had said to the crown-lost princes in his favor and of their resultant assurance (called David … showed him all, v. 7). Furthermore, they re-introduced him to the crown-lost leaders as one acceptable to them (brought David to Saul); and he was in their favor again as formerly (was in his presence [favor] as in times past). The no-ransomers, the no-substitutionists, began toward the end of 1883 again to set forth their views against the Bible teachings on that point (there was war again, v. 8), and Bro. Russell, the champion of the Ransom, again entered the lists in its defense and in refutation of the no-ransomers (David went out, and fought against the Philistines) and he certainly mightily overthrew them (slew them with a great slaughter). Among others, the article in Reprints 573-575 is a part of this slaughter, as the battle referred to in 1 Sam. 18:27 finds its antitype in articles like those in Reprints 481-482 and 483. Under such onslaughts the no-ransomers fled from the field of battle (fled from him). The melancholy spirit that God's forsaking antitypical Saul brought upon him troubled him as he administered the matters of his office (evil [sad] spirit … upon Saul … as he sat in his house, v. 9). Again he had a writing on future probation ready to publish (javelin in his hand) and Bro. Russell as before used the Bible to bring out the sweet music of the Song of Moses, restitution, numerous examples of which can be found in the Towers from Jan., 1884, onward. Among other crown-lost leaders, Dr. Cook again took part in the antitype of the javelin-throwing

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of v. 10. While a newspaper report of his attempting to beat Bro. Russell over Dr. Dorner's back (1 Sam. 18:11) appeared in Boston papers of Jan. 9, 1883, what proved to be the antitypical javelin of v. 10, though given as the prelude to his lecture of Jan. 15, 1883, did not appear in print until in 1884, i.e., when his book containing it, entitled, Occident, appeared. The former prelude was entitled, New Departures in and from Orthodoxy; the prelude now under consideration was entitled, Does Death End Probation? By this time, 1884, Dr. Cook was quite aroused against Bro. Russell's teaching on Restitution, and he aimed mainly at Bro. Russell, though, as delivered Jan. 15, 1883, and printed in 1884, this prelude ostensibly aimed at Dr. Dorner (Saul … smite David … wall … javelin, v. 10). Bro. Russell overcame its damaging effects as before (slipped away out of Saul's presence). This prelude as respects Bro. Russell failed of its purpose (smote … the wall); for Bro. Russell's pertinent teachings enabled him to evade (David fled) its force and to escape its effects (escaped that night). 

(8) Connected with the prelude (entitled, Probation at Death) to Dr. Cook's lecture of Feb. 12, 1883, but not appearing in print until over a year later, we find the acts of the crown-lost princes and their messengers illustrated, as typed in vs. 11-17. Dr. Cook's attacks on Dr. Dorner in the above-mentioned two preludes not only drew fire from Bro. Russell, but also from certain professors of the Congregational Seminary at Amherst, Mass., notably from Dr. Smyth, at whom in the prelude of the Feb. 12th lecture Dr. Cook aimed, as well as at Bro. Russell. The type refers to its aim at Bro. Russell. By this time Dr. Cook had aroused a considerable number of his sympathizers (messengers, v. 11) to be in waiting to catch Bro. Russell in his words (watch him … slay him), especially in his future lecturing in various churches (morning). The exercise of this office brought with it a warning of 

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


his danger (saying, If … not tonight … slain), which with the assistance of this office he escaped, by quietly retiring from such work (Michal let David down … escaped, v. 12). Bro. Russell's pertinent powers as lodged in his sympathizers in local churches defended him by representing his teachings (bed, v. 13) as nominal-church doctrines (Michal took an image), stressing his justification (goat's hair) teachings as the rest of his doctrines (pillow … bolster), and thus hid them from clear sight (covered … cloth). Dr. Cook's coworkers demanded the surrender of Bro. Russell by his nominal-church sympathizers (Saul sent messengers to take David, v. 14); but these made plausible excuses for him (she said, He is sick). But Dr. Cook, suspecting the excuses, incited them to the task again (Saul … see David, v. 15), charging them to bring Bro. Russell's teachings in his writings (bed) to him for refutation (bring … in the bed … slay him). These messengers could get no more of his teachings from his nominal-church sympathizers than those centering in justification, set forth by them as exactly like orthodoxy's pertinent teachings (image … goats' hair, v. 16). When Dr. Cook and other crown-lost leaders expostulated with those sympathetic with Bro. Russell's pertinent powers as attempting to deceive him and them, they used deception to shield themselves (Saul … Michal … deceived me so … enemy … escaped … said … I kill thee, v. 17). 

(9) Thus Bro. Russell escaped the plots of the crown-lost leaders to undo him, and found safety and solace among some of the brethren who survived from the Philadelphia phase of the Church (Samuel, v. 18) in the heights of Christian character development (escaped, and came to Samuel to Ramah). Of course, Bro. Russell told these dear Philadelphia survivors of his experience with antitypical Saul, and these could from certain of their experiences with antitypical Saul sympathize with him (told him all that Saul had done 

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to him). Then these occupied themselves with feeding God's sheep (dwelt in Naioth [pastures]). The news of their activities and character development was soon brought to Dr. Cook and other crown-lost princes (it was told Saul … David is at Naioth in Ramah, v. 19). They sent messengers to take Bro. Russell captive (Saul sent messengers to take David, v. 20). Again we will illustrate this part of the crown-lost princes' activities through those of Dr. Cook. Dr. Smyth, of Amherst, replied to Dr. Cook's prelude of Feb. 12, 1883, by some questions, immediately submitted to Dr. Cook. This led to a further controversy between them, in which each replied to the other three times, Dr. Cook doing so Feb. 12, 19 and Mar. 12. These replies of Dr. Cook were published as an appendix to his book, Occident, in 1884, and only with their publication did they affect Bro. Russell. It is in connection with these three replies of Dr. Cook to Dr. Smyth that the antitypes of 1 Sam. 19:20-24 occurred. These we will briefly trace. The messengers antitypical of those of v. 20 were those who were stirred up by Dr. Cook's reply of Feb. 12 to Dr. Smyth's questions. Apparently Bro. Russell's and Dr. Cook's first personal meeting at Pittsburgh, where the former handed the latter Food for Thinking Christians and Tabernacle Shadows, occurred between Dr. Cook's oral controversy in 1883 and its publication in 1884 in the book, Occident. This will account for Dr. Cook's continued beating of Bro. Russell over others' backs. He, therefore, by these three replies incited various ones to make three attempts to make Bro. Russell a captive, restrained by Dr. Cook's arguments. And these three attempts ended in the would-be captors' accepting more or less of the Truth teachings, and preaching them when they perceived that those who were presenting them were affiliated with, and led by antitypical Samuel, as the old-time Millennial advocates (vs. 20, 21). 

(10) This led Dr. Cook and other crown-lost leaders

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to make a closer investigation of the harvest Truth, activities and advocates (he went to Ramah) as these appeared in its ever-growing literature which was in the lookout of the Truth people (a great well in Sechu [lookout], v. 22). They asked for the views and activities of antitypical Samuel and Bro. Russell (Where are Samuel and David?). And they were told that these were dwelling in the heights of Christian character, and were tending God's sheep (at Naioth in Ramah). Thereupon they gave attention to these two things in these (went … Naioth in Ramah, v. 23), and they were so influenced as to preach the Millennial message, though, of course, not with probation for the dead then (Spirit … upon him … prophesied, until [but not at Naioth in Ramah, i.e., did not give the full Millennial message] he came to Naioth in Ramah). While so doing, they divested themselves of their authority and prerogatives as crown-lost princes (stripped off his clothes, v. 24). They continued to preach as on the way to antitypical Samuel, i.e., advocating the Millennium as blessing the then living only (prophesied … in like manner). This seems to be the last time that antitypical Saul met antitypical Samuel, even as in the type it was the last time that typical Saul saw typical Samuel (before Samuel). Thus before the few remaining members of the Samuel class of the Philadelphia epoch the crown-lost princes humbled themselves (lay down naked). And from that time onward antitypical Saul for a long time humbly preached, increasingly in his members, the pre-Millennial Second Advent of our Lord, the bulk of them in retraction of their former opposition thereto (all that day and all that night). This led to the saying on the part of many of their sympathizers, Are these leaders among the teachers of the pre-Millennial Advent of Jesus also (Wherefore they say, Is Saul also among the prophets)? We may well rejoice that these crown-lost princes, who are our brethren, though crown-losers, got even a partial 

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glimpse of the coming time of blessing and glory. And with fear and trembling at the possibility of a fall, we may humbly thank and praise God for the larger and happier views of that blessed period which Divine grace has vouchsafed little us, who are so much less able than these crown-lost princes. 

(11) Next 1 Sam. 20 will engage our attention. Antitypical Saul's pursuit of our Pastor to his sphere of reaping and character activities, as just seen, made the latter turn his attention to justifying himself before his friends of the Jonathan class in the nominal church against the charges of heresy, tearing down the churches, etc., that antitypical Saul and the latter's messengers were hurling against him (David fled … came and said before Jonathan, v. 1). His rhetorical questions (What … what … what) imply that he denied practicing wrong works (done), teaching error (iniquity) and committing injustice (sin) against the crown-lost princes (thy father), who therefore were not justified in seeking to cut him off from fellowship and service in the churches (seeketh my life). The more faithful and Truth-loving crown-losers (he, v. 2) felt abhorrence at such a course on the crown-lost princes' part (God forbid; literally, a profanation) and assured Bro. Russell that he would not be cut off from such fellowship and service (thou shalt not die). Antitypical Jonathan felt that the crown-lost princes had such confidence in them as would move them to tell them whatever they planned to do (my father will do nothing … but … will shew it me). And seeing no reason for not having been told of such a plan, if it existed, they felt it was not entertained (why … hide … from me … not so). But Bro. Russell solemnly affirmed (David sware, v. 3) that the plan was entertained, and was by the crown-lost princes concealed from antitypical Jonathan, because the former knew of their favoring Bro. Russell (thy father … knoweth that I have found grace in thine eyes) and desired to spare their feelings

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(Let not Jonathan know this, lest he be grieved). Again Bro. Russell solemnly assured antitypical Jonathan that he was on the verge of being cut off from the fellowship and service of his nominal-church sympathizers (as the Lord … thy soul liveth … a step between me and death). Thus Jonathan was convinced of the danger and offered to carry out Bro. Russell's desires in the situation (Whatsoever thy soul desireth, I will even do it for thee; literally, What thy soul saith, I will also do for thee, v. 4). 

(12) On being assured by antitypical Jonathan that he was willing to fulfill his pertinent desires, Bro. Russell told them of a plan that would certainly manifest antitypical Saul's real designs. He suggested that shortly there would be special solemn occasions (tomorrow is the new moon, v. 5) at conferences, synods, assemblies, etc., where the crown-lost leaders and their chief supporters would feast, and where he should certainly be expected in attendance (I should not fail to sit … at meat; literally, I should surely sit with the king to eat). By his absenting himself from such and engaging in some secular matters until these feasts were passed (I hide myself in the field … third day at even), it could be ascertained whether he was missed and whether his being missed would not give occasion to a more free expression of opinion on him, favorably or unfavorably, on the part of the crown-lost leaders. To test out antitypical Saul all the more thoroughly Bro. Russell suggested that antitypical Jonathan tell antitypical Saul, if the latter missed him, that Bro. Russell was engaged in seasonal harvest work in cooperation with the Truth people and others (father … miss me, then say, David … asked … run to Bethlehem … yearly sacrifice … for … family, v. 6). If antitypical Saul would under such conditions speak well of Bro. Russell (If he say … well, v. 7), it would be favorable for Bro. Russell (peace); if he would be very angry at Bro. Russell's engaging in such 

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activities instead of his being at the feast, it would mean that his cutting off from fellowship and service had been sealed (very wroth … evil is determined). Under the circumstances it would be difficult to devise a better plan to bring to the light antitypical Saul's real intentions. Bro. Russell gave the covenanted friendship between him and antitypical Jonathan as the reason that Jonathan do him this desired favor (deal kindly with thy servant; for … thy servant into a covenant … with thee, v. 8). Bro. Russell assured these dear friends that if he were an evil-doer, he desired them to cut him off from fellowship and service; for why should they betray him to the crown-lost princes (if … iniquity, slay me thyself; for why … bring me to thy father)? These dear friends were far from desiring to see Bro. Russell so cut off (Far be it from thee; literally, [it would be] a profanation to thee, v. 9). They assured him that if they were certain that the crown-lost princes were so minded toward him, they would surely make it known to him (if I knew … evil were determined … tell thee). 

(13) Antitypical Jonathan agreeing to sound out antitypical Saul and reveal the results as per Bro. Russell's suggestion, Bro. Russell inquired, "Who shall tell me?" (v. 10) of the results of the test? Then feeling sympathy with antitypical Jonathan, he solicitously asked, What if antitypical Saul should answer sharply (what if … roughly)? Instead of answering at once, antitypical Jonathan, likely fearing that they would be overheard, suggested that they continue the conversation under more private conditions (Jonathan said … go out into the field, v. 11). This was done (they went … field). Then antitypical Jonathan solemnly invoked a curse from God upon themselves if, learning at or after the feasts that antitypical Saul was well disposed toward Bro. Russell, they would not reveal it to him (Lord God … sounded my father … if good … and shew it thee … do so and much more 

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


to Jonathan, vs. 12, 13). But if they found that antitypical Saul intended to do the evil to Bro. Russell, they would reveal it to him, and send him away in safety (please my father … evil … I will shew it thee, and send thee away … in peace). They expressed their hearty wishes for the Lord's favor upon him as the leader of God's people, even as that favor had been on antitypical Saul (the Lord be with thee, as … with my father). Then antitypical Jonathan desired that Bro. Russell not only continue to show them favors from the Lord: grace, mercy and Truth, throughout their earthly sojourn, that their New Creatures be preserved (while yet I live show me the kindness of the Lord, that I die not, v. 14), but also not cut off his kindness from those who will have and show antitypical Jonathan's spirit (not cut off thy kindness from my house, v. 15), not even when the Lord would make him victorious over all his enemies (when the Lord hath cut off the enemies … from … the earth). Then antitypical Jonathan promised to abide in the attitude that desires God to execute judgment against Bro. Russell's opponents, i.e., to take his part against his enemies (made a covenant … Let the Lord require … of David's enemies, v. 16). Antitypical Jonathan's great love for Bro. Russell prompted them to ask that Bro. Russell repeat their pertinent solemn mutual promises (caused David to swear again … loved him, v. 17). Antitypical Jonathan realized that Bro. Russell would not and could not partake with fellowship in the feasts of the crown-lost leaders in their various conventions (Jonathan said … Tomorrow is the new moon, and thou shalt be missed … thy seat will be empty, v. 18). 

(14) Then antitypical Jonathan proceeded to suggest a course for Bro. Russell to pursue after such convention feasts would be over, since the plan had already been made as to what he was to do during the full time of these feasts, as we saw when commenting

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on v. 5 (hast stayed three days, v. 19). Immediately after these conventions (quickly) Bro. Russell was to betake himself to the same activities, i.e., more or less secular work, as those in which he was engaged when antitypical Jonathan had interceded with antitypical Saul for Bro. Russell (1 Sam. 19:2; where thou didst hide thyself when the business was in hand), encouraging him that he should hold fast the Truth (stone) that supports one who must depart (Ezel [parting]) from Babylon. From this we infer that antitypical Jonathan had little hope that antitypical Saul would relent and become friendly toward Bro. Russell. Then antitypical Jonathan unfolded to Bro. Russell the various features of the sign that he would give him: (1) They would set forth three sharp truths (Ps. 45:5): (a) that error, (b) wrong practices and (c) false hopes were increasingly prevailing in the churches as to leaving Babylon (shoot three arrows on the side thereof [of Ezel], v. 20), and would do it as though they had a definite thing in view (as … at a mark). (2) They would charge their immature helpers (the, not a, lad, v. 21) to lay hold on these sharp truths after studying them (Go, find the arrows). (3) If they told these immature ones that these truths lay between antitypical Jonathan's pertinent teaching position and the teaching position (stone, Ezel) of Bro. Russell against saints remaining in Babylon, antitypical Jonathan's being in favor of remaining in the nominal church, and that the immature ones should accept his sharp sayings, then this would mean that all was well between antitypical Saul and David, and that, therefore, Bro. Russell might come to antitypical Jonathan (arrows are on this side of thee [David], take them; then come … peace to thee, and no hurt). This antitypical Jonathan solemnly asserted (the Lord liveth). (4) If they told the immature ones (say unto the young man, v. 22) that the sharp truths went beyond his and into Bro. Russell's teaching position 

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


on leaving Babylon, i.e., were in favor of leaving Babylon and thus were in Bro. Russell's and beyond antitypical Jonathan's teaching position (beyond thee [David]), it would mean that antitypical Saul was intent on cutting Bro. Russell off from privileges and services in the nominal church, and this would require him of his own accord to give up such fellowship and service (go thy way; for the Lord hath sent thee away). After giving this token as to how the word would be given to Bro. Russell on antitypical Jonathan's sounding out antitypical Saul, antitypical Jonathan for a third time impressed upon David's mind their mutual agreement, which was to guarantee antitypical Jonathan and all like-spirited crown-losers coming later from such refutative attacks as Bro. Russell would make on enemies of the Truth, assuring Bro. Russell that the Lord would be its Umpire and Blesser or Avenger, as the case, might require (the matter … spoken of … the Lord be [is] between thee and me forever, v. 23). This reminder, as well as what is said in vs. 13-16, implies that antitypical Jonathan realized that Bro. Russell would become the Lord's executive instead of the crown-lost princes. As crown-losers, antitypical Jonathan, as noble as they were, would naturally cast in their lot with antitypical Saul, and not with Bro. Russell and the Truth people, even as typical Jonathan cast in his lot with Saul, and not with David. This is pathetic. 

(15) According to their understanding, Bro. Russell busied himself awhile in secular matters; and the crown-lost princes in the various denominations occupied themselves at the feasts connected with various conventions (David hid … new moon … king … eat meat, v. 24). Antitypical Saul took the place of chief prominence and influence, as was their custom (as at other times, upon a seat by the wall, v. 25). Antitypical Jonathan showed these respect (Jonathan arose); and the controversial theological professors

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(Abner [father of light]) occupied the next most prominent places (sat by Saul's side); but Bro. Russell was there neither in person nor in his writings (David's place was empty). In the first part of these feasts the crown-lost princes, while missing Bro. Russell, said nothing thereon, but internally made excuse for him, that he was absent through some Adamic weakness overtaking him (Saul spake not … that day … thought … befallen … not clean, v. 26). Later in these feasts (on the morrow, v. 27) these crown-lost princes, noting Bro. Russell's continued absence (David's place was empty), inquired of antitypical Jonathan, as close friends of Bro. Russell, why the latter had not come to the first and last part of the feast (Wherefore cometh not … to meat … yesterday, nor today?). Thus the situation was furnished to tell antitypical Saul what Bro. Russell had suggested as the means of sounding out the crown-lost princes (vs. 28, 29; compare with v. 6). Thus his absence was ascribed to his being active in harvest work. This indeed was a tester for the crown-lost princes' attitude toward Bro. Russell; and it brought it into clear light: for it brought, first of all, an angry rebuke upon antitypical Jonathan as being under the influence [mothered] of the alleged perverse and rebellious teachings of Bro. Russell (Saul's anger … against Jonathan … said … son of the perverse rebellious woman, v. 30). Then these princes publicly rebuked antitypical Jonathan as setting his choice upon Bro. Russell, which would bring them and the erroneousness of these teachings to public shame, in suffering refutation (I know … chosen the son of Jesse to thine own confusion [shame] … mother's nakedness). The crown-lost princes warned antitypical Jonathan, as the crown-prince, that Bro. Russell's continuance in fellowship and service among the churches prevented their full development and their future pre-eminence (as long as … liveth … thou shalt not be established, nor thy kingdom, v. 31). This 

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


consideration prompted the crown-lost princes to require that Bro. Russell be brought in person or in his writings to the feast, there to be disfellowshipped and bereft of his office as lecturer in the churches after an alleged refutation (Wherefore … fetch him … he shall surely die). This hostility was final. 

(16) This led antitypical Jonathan to expostulate with the crown-lost princes in a defense of Bro. Russell's innocence (Jonathan answered … Wherefore … slain? what hath he done? v. 32). This was too much for the headstrong crown-lost princes. Therefore they released publications censuring those leaders who favored and furthered Bro. Russell and his teachings (Saul cast a javelin at him to smite him, v. 33). Among such publications one of Dr. Cook featured, in which he bewailed the support that various Christian scholars gave to future probation and their furthering of its advocates. Thus finally was antitypical Jonathan disillusioned as to antitypical Saul's intentions (whereby Jonathan knew … determined … to slay David). Antitypical Jonathan was greatly displeased (arose … in fierce anger, v. 34), refusing to share in the later feasts of the pertinent conventions (eat no meat the second day of the month). Two things grieved this class: (1) that it was determined to disfellowship Bro. Russell, and (2) that the crown-lost princes had put Bro. Russell to shame publicly as a false teacher and an evil-doer (grieved for David, because … done him shame). The time had now come to bring the pledged word to Bro. Russell (in the morning … at the appointed time, v. 35) and for these dear friends to part, no more to fellowship one another in this life (Jonathan went out … David). The only ones with antitypical Jonathan were certain immature supporters (a little lad with him). Antitypical Jonathan charged these immature ones to seek and find out the sharp truths that he was about to set forth (said … Run, find out now the arrows which I shoot, v. 36). While 

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these prepared to study these (as the lad ran), antitypical Jonathan issued these teachings at marks far beyond these immature ones (shot beyond him); for they implied that there should be a leaving of Babylon, as Bro. Russell taught, and that was beyond the immature ones' appreciation. And when these immature ones mentally reached this teaching (come to the place of the arrow, v. 37) antitypical Jonathan said that this teaching was beyond their comprehension (beyond thee), i.e., they were of such as were not intended to follow that teaching. Antitypical Jonathan greatly hurried these immature ones, to remove them from the scene of such, to nominal-church members, too advanced teachings, as being too strong meat for them (cried … Make speed, haste, stay not, v. 38). This had the intended effect: such strong meat was assembled, but not partaken of by the immature ones (lad gathered the arrows, and came to his master). 

(17) The immature sympathizers and supporters of antitypical Jonathan did not understand the real nature of the service that they were performing (the lad knew not any thing, v. 39), but unconsciously served the occasion of antitypical Jonathan's informing Bro. Russell of the actual state of affairs (Jonathan and David knew). Then antitypical Jonathan sent their immature supporters and sympathizers into the nominal church with their sharp sayings and general theory of things and the writings that contained it (artillery, i.e., bow and quiver, v. 40), there to set these forth as they were in the eyes of nominal-church people (said … Go, carry them to the city). After these went on their way to perform their errand (as soon as the lad was gone, v. 41) Bro. Russell showed himself as standing upon New Testament grounds as those of the symbolic sun (arose out of a place toward the south), and very politely and deferentially approached his beloved brethren, whose crown-lost character-condition made them amenable to remaining out of the Truth movement 

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


and in the nominal church (fell on his face … and bowed himself three times). They were very affectionately disposed to one another (kissed one another), and were deeply grieved at their parting from one another, which especially saddened them since they knew that it was to be to the end of their earthly journey (wept one with another; literally, each one be-wept his friend). But Bro. Russell's grief was the greater, doubtless due to his knowing that these dearly beloved brethren were taking a backward, though easier step (David exceeded). As Bro. Russell was the departing one, it was fitting that words suitable to utter to a departing one were spoken to him by antitypical Jonathan, as Bro. Russell's greater grief more naturally disposed him to say little, and the lesser grief of the former made him more communicative. 

(18) Antitypical Jonathan wished him prosperity (Jonathan said … Go in peace, v. 42). They emphasized their mutual agreement (we have sworn … in the name of the Lord) as the ground of their wishing Bro. Russell prosperity. They repeated, as the thing that gave binding force to their mutual agreement, that Jehovah was the Umpire and Blesser or Avenger of the agreement (the Lord is between). They also stressed the fact that the agreement was between them (me and thee) and between those that had the spirit of each party to the agreement (my seed and thy seed unto the Age). Both parties in the coming years kept the agreement; for antitypical Jonathan and all in the nominal church who had his spirit always thought kindly of, and defended Bro. Russell, refusing to fight his views and partake in the campaign of slander and opposition to Bro. Russell that became so general in the nominal church, in part typed by Saul's future course toward Bro. Russell. And on Bro. Russell's part and on the part of those who had his spirit in the Truth there was always a very charitable attitude and speech maintained toward antitypical Jonathan and 

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those of his spirit. Then, deeply moved, Bro. Russell tore himself away from these dear brethren; and they returned from fellowship and service with him to those of the nominal church (he [David] arose and departed; and Jonathan went into the city). The pathos of the typical and antitypical partings is indescribably feelingful. As we visualize and realize this antitypical scene of parting, our heart-strings are much strained; for, beloved brethren of the holy and royal Priesthood, did we not in the Parousia times have similar experiences when and after we left Babylon, where some with whom we had had goodly fellowship remained; and at the parting were not all much pained, and we more than they? And, like antitypical David, have we not made a lamentation over them at their defeat at the hands of the Modernists (1 Sam. 31:1, 2; 2 Sam. 1:17-27)? But we have consoled our saddened hearts with the hope that in the Kingdom there will be a blessed reunion never to end. 


(1) How much of the David type have we so far studied? What chapters of 1 Sam. will be now studied? What should accompany this study? With what does chap. 18 begin? How was this conversation between antitypical David and Saul carried on? Who was the main, but not exclusive representative of antitypical Saul in this conversation? When did he read our Pastor's pertinent writings? Who else acted in the antitype of 1 Sam. 17? Who else? What did they continue to do? With whom acting as antitypical Saul's chief representative? What two considerations prove this? How is the closeness of the connection of 1 Sam. 17:55—18:5 indicated in the Hebrew? How is this obscured in the A.V.? Whom does Jonathan type? What did they give our Pastor? Why? How typed? What did the crown-lost princes not desire to lose in the warfare against infidelism? What did they, accordingly, do? How typed? What did they not desire? How typed? How did antitypical Jonathan and David become especially bound to each other? How typed? What did the former do? How typed? By what details was this done? How was each one typed? 

(2) Against what did Bro. Russell fight? How typed? 

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


With what result? How typed? What was the effect on the crown-lost princes? How typed? To whom was his pertinent course pleasing? How typed? What occurred after the circulation of each of his anti-evolution writings? How typed? What two things did church members do about it? How typed? How did they acclaim Bro. Russell in contrast with the crown-lost princes? How typed? How did this affect them? Why? How typed? How did their love of honor affect them? How typed? How did they henceforth regard Bro. Russell? How typed? What did their envy produce? How typed? Even when doing what? How typed? In these times of dejection what did Bro. Russell seek to do to him? How typed? With what did he seek to do this? Against this what did they have ready? How typed? 

(3) Who, in general and in particular, took part in the attack? How typed? Over whose back did he administer a whipping to Bro. Russell? Why did he so use Dr. Dorner? Whom did he really mean to whip? How typed? What was the antitypical javelin? What did Dr. Cook do in that prelude? What did he think that this attack would do to all advocates of future probation? Including whom? How typed? By what two turns of argument did Bro. Russell foil this attack? How typed? What effect did this have on Dr. Cook and his co-warriors? Why? What effect did this have on him and them? How typed? What did it prove to antitypical Saul? How typed? What did this mental attitude in antitypical Saul prompt him to do? How typed? How did Bro. Russell act in the premises? How typed? With what fruitage? By whose favor? How typed? How did this affect antitypical Saul? How typed? The nominal and real people of God? 

(4) What did crown-lost princes do anent Bro. Russell's popularity? How typed? What was their pertinent hope? What did this prompt them to do? How typed? Under what condition and not with what liberty? Why not this liberty? What did they agree to do for him in this limited sphere of service? How typed? What parallel acts illustrate this? Why did the crown-lost leaders do this? How did Bro. Russell view the offer? How typed? What did they begrudge him even in this limited service? To whom did they give it? How typed? How

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did these evangelists respond? What other power did antitypical Saul have? How typed? What attitude did the offer of this power have as to Bro. Russell? How typed? Why was it more suitable to him? What did such congregations make known to antitypical Saul? How typed? What was his response? Why? How typed? Thereupon what did the crown-lost princes suggest? How typed? What did these pastors and principals of the flocks then do? How typed? What did Bro. Russell's humility prompt him to do? How typed? 

(5) What did these messengers do? How typed? What message was then put into their mouths? How typed? Of what did the crown-lost princes feel sure? Why? How typed? What did the messengers then do? How typed? What did Bro. Russell answer? How typed? What did he and co-operating Truth warriors then do? How typed? What were Mr. Paton and his co-warriors as the two hundred antitypical Philistines? What did Bro. Russell, etc., do to them? How typed? How did they prove their success? How typed? What did Bro. Russell thereupon claim? How typed? How did the crown-lost leaders respond? How typed? How did his victory impress the crown-lost princes? How typed? What other impression did they get? How typed? How did these facts not, and how did they affect them? How typed? When in the Harvest did these events occur? In what, under another picture, is this shown? Of what sifting movement did the type of v. 30 treat? By what statement? In what campaigns did Bro. Russell succeed against the antitypical Philistines? How comparatively? How typed? What did these successes effect for Bro. Russell? 

(6) To what does our study now bring us? What effect should Bro. Russell's success have had upon the crown-lost princes? What effect did it have? What did it move them to charge? How typed? How did this charge affect antitypical Jonathan? Why? How typed? What did they do? How typed? What counsel did they give? How typed? What did they offer to do? How typed? What else did they offer to do? How typed? What did they promise? How typed? What did they then do before the crown-lost princes? How typed? On what matter did they expostulate with them? What reasons did

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


they give for their expostulations? How typed? What especially did they emphasize? How typed? How did they describe Bro. Russell's great feat? How typed? As evidencing what, did they claim? How typed? What did they say of the crown-lost leaders' witness and attitude thereat? To what conclusion did they reason therefrom? How typed? What resulted from antitypical Jonathan's advocacy of David? How typed? 

(7) What did antitypical Jonathan then do? How typed? What else did they do? How typed? With what result? How typed? What did the no-ransomers do toward the end of 1883? How typed? What did Bro. Russell then do? How typed? With what result? How typed? What is a part of this slaughter? Wherein does the battle of 1 Sam. 18:27 find its antitype? How did the slaughter affect the no-ransomers? How typed? What troubled antitypical Saul as he functioned in his office? How typed? What did he have ready to publish? How typed? How did Bro. Russell seek to soothe him? How typed? Among others, who took part in the antitypical javelin-throwing of v. 10? How typed? What is the time difference of the appearance in print of the preludes of Dr. Cook's lectures of Jan. 8 and 15, 1883? In what did the second prelude appear? What were the titles of these two preludes? What did the second prove to be? By 1884 what was Dr. Cook's mental attitude toward Bro. Russell's teaching on Restitution? At whom was this antitypical javelin mainly aimed? Despite what? How are these things typed? How did Bro. Russell meet the attack? How typed? What was the effect as to Bro. Russell? How typed? What did his teachings enable him to do? How typed? 

(8) Where do we find an example of the antitype of vs. 11-17? From whom did Dr. Cook's attacks on Dr. Dorner draw fire? From whom else? Why from all of these? To which of these does the type refer? By this time what had Dr. Cook aroused? How typed? For what object? How typed? What did Bro. Russell's exercise of his office bring with it? How typed? With what result? How typed? How and by whom was he defended? How typed? What was especially stressed? How typed? With what result? How typed? What did Dr. Cook's 

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co-workers demand? How typed? How were they foiled? How typed? What did Dr. Cook then do? How typed? What other charge did he give them? How typed? For what purpose? How typed? Of what could the messengers not get more? How typed? How did Bro. Russell's sympathizers quiet the accusations of the crown-lost leaders? How typed? 

(9) What was the result to Bro. Russell? How typed? Where did he find safety and solace? How typed? In what? How typed? What did he tell antitypical Samuel? How typed? How could they sympathize with him? With what did they occupy themselves? How typed? To whom was news of this soon brought? How typed? What did they do? How typed? By what will these acts be illustrated? What did Dr. Smyth do to Dr. Cook's prelude to his lecture of Feb. 12, 1883? When? To what did this lead? When and in what were Dr. Cook's replies published? Only with what did they affect Bro. Russell? In connection with what did the antitypes of 1 Sam. 19:20-24 occur? Who were the first set of messengers? How typed? During what period did Bro. Russell's and Dr. Cook's first personal meeting occur? What did the former give the latter at that time? For what will this account? What did Dr. Cook incite by his three replies? In what did each of the three attempts result? What conduced to this result? How are these things typed in vs. 20, 21? 

(10) How did these things affect crown-lost princes? How typed? From what works? How typed? For what did they ask? How typed? How were they answered? How typed? What did they then do? How typed? With what effect? How typed? While so doing, what did they do? How typed? How did they continue to preach? How typed? What was the last meeting of Saul and Samuel, type and antitype? What did these do before antitypical Samuel? How typed? What did they continue to do? Many in retraction of what? How typed? To what saying did this lead? How typed? To what two things should this fact move us? 

(11) What will we next study? What effect did antitypical Saul's pursuit of Bro. Russell have on the latter? How typed? What did his rhetorical questions imply? How typed? What did his innocence not do as to 

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


antitypical Saul's intentions? How typed? How did antitypical Jonathan feel as to the pertinent course of the crown-lost leaders? How typed? Of what did they assure Bro. Russell? How typed? What further conviction did antitypical Jonathan have? How typed? Why could they not believe that the involved act was planned by the crown-lost leaders? How typed? What two things were contained in Bro. Russell's reply? How typed? What did he give as the reasons for their concealing their intention from antitypical Jonathan? How typed? What solemn affirmation did Bro. Russell then make? How typed? What effect did this have upon antitypical Jonathan? What promise did he make? How typed? 

(12) After being assured of co-operation, what did Bro. Russell propose? What did he suggest as an occasion of operating the plan? Why was it such? How typed? What would his absenting himself provide? What was added to make the test more certain of success? How typed? What two possibilities and their results were pointed out? How typed? What characteristic did this plan have? What did Bro. Russell then suggest as involved in their pledged relationship? How typed? What did he then request of them, if he were an evil-doer? Rather than what? How typed? What was antitypical Jonathan's pertinent attitude? How typed? What assurance did they give Bro. Russell? How typed? 

(13) What did Bro. Russell ask after antitypical Jonathan agreed to his proposition? How typed? What else did he solicitously ask? How typed? What did antitypical Jonathan thereupon suggest? How typed? What was then done? How typed? What did antitypical Jonathan under a solemnly invoked curse promise Bro. Russell? How typed? If the report was unfavorable, what did he promise? How typed? What wish did they express? How typed? What did antitypical Jonathan ask for themselves? How typed? What did they ask for those of the same spirit? How typed? Even under what conditions? How typed? What further did antitypical Jonathan promise? How typed? What did antitypical Jonathan's love prompt him to ask Bro. Russell to repeat? What did antitypical Jonathan realize? How typed? 

(14) What did antitypical Jonathan then proceed to 

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suggest? How typed? What was Bro. Russell to do immediately after the conventions? How typed? To what did they encourage him? How typed? What may we infer from this? What were the four features of the sign that they would give him? How is each one typed? After giving this token, what for a third time did they do? How typed? Who did they say would be the Umpire and Blesser or Avenger of their pledges? How typed? What does this reminder suggest? As crown-losers what choice was to be expected of antitypical Jonathan? How typed? 

(15) According to the understanding, with what did Bro. Russell and antitypical Jonathan busy themselves? How typed? What did antitypical Saul do at the feast? How typed? How did antitypical Jonathan conduct themselves there? How typed? Who was next to antitypical Saul in prominence? How typed? How was Bro. Russell not present? How typed? While noting his absence, what did antitypical Saul not do, and how did they account for his absence? How typed? What did they notice during the later parts of the feast? How typed? What did they thereupon ask antitypical Jonathan? How typed? What was thus furnished? How typed? What was the answer? How typed? What did this answer prove to be to the crown-lost leaders? How typed? How, in the first place, did it bring their attitude to light? How typed? In the second place? How typed? In the third place? How typed? In the fourth place? How typed? 

(16) What did this fourfold manifestation move antitypical Jonathan to do? How typed? What was the effect on antitypical Saul? How typed? What was Dr. Cook's part therein? What was the first effect on antitypical Jonathan? How typed? The second effect? How typed? What two things grieved them? How typed? For what had the time come? How typed? Who only was with Jonathan then? How typed? What charge did antitypical Jonathan give them? How typed? What did Jonathan then do as these were studying his sharp sayings? How typed? What is implied in this teaching? What did antitypical Jonathan say when these mentally reached this teaching? How typed? What did antitypical Jonathan then do to the immature ones? Why? How typed? What effect did their statement have? How typed? 

David's First Oppositions, Etc.—Type, Antitype. 


(17) What did the immature ones not understand? How typed? What did they unconsciously serve? How typed? What then did antitypical Jonathan do? How typed? With what commission? How typed? What did the immature ones do? How typed? What did Bro. Russell then do? How typed? What did he then do to antitypical Jonathan? How typed? How were they mutually disposed? How typed? How did they feel at parting? Why? How typed? Whose grief was the greater? How typed? Why did antitypical Jonathan prove the more communicative? How typed? 

(18) What did antitypical Jonathan wish him? How typed? As what did they emphasize their agreement? How typed? What did they repeat? How typed? What two things did they stress? How typed? What did the parties of the agreement do in coming years? How did antitypical Jonathan do it? Bro. Russell and his faithful brethren? How did the separation take place? To what did Bro. Russell and antitypical Jonathan betake themselves? How typed? What quality marked the typical and antitypical parting? How can we enter into this experience? How did we, like Bro. Russell, do, over antitypical Jonathan, when such have been defeated by the Modernists? With what reflection may we comfort ourselves as to those dear ones whom we left behind in Babylon? 

For a while he stood in greatness 

Before King Saul upon his throne; 

But as told in sacred story, this monarch 

Loved to reign and rule alone. 

Saul pursued the people's darling 

With keen hatred's heavy stress, 

From rock to rock, from cave to cave 

Of the houseless wilderness. 

Like a hunted thing he wandered, 

From all bonds of fealty free, 

Till the hour to honor David 

Came in God's foreknown decree.