Epiphany Truth Examiner


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THE FIRST and second chapters of Judges give us, antitypically considered, a bird's-eye view of the large Gospel Age and the three miniature Gospel Ages, the first recording the triumphs and failures to triumph over evil, and the second recording the main evils that the professed people of God did during those times. Hence there are four applications to the things presented in these two chapters; indeed, this is true of all the succeeding chapters of this book. In our study of Judges, in harmony with the subject of this volume, generally speaking, we will stress its application to the Small Miniature, and but briefly indicate the applications to the Gospel Age proper. Our comments necessarily will be brief, to keep this chapter within reasonable size in relation to the others of this volume. In Judg. 1 Judah in the large application represents the Little Flock from Pentecost until the end of the Parousia, and in the Miniatures he represents it during the Epiphany; while Simeon for the large application represents the crown-losers from Pentecost to the end of the Parousia and for the Miniatures, the Great Company. And because Simeon here stands for the Great Company as a whole, he also seems to be used to represent one of the eight subdivisions into which the crown-losers are divided during they Gospel Age as crown-losers whom God viewed as the anticipated Great Company Levites and during the Epiphany as such actually, i.e., the Societyites, even as Elisha types both of these; for it will be noted that, apart from Judah and Simeon, there are but seven other tribes mentioned in Judg. 1, corresponding to the other seven Great Company, Levite, groups, i.e., Benjamin

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


(v. 21), Manasseh (v. 27), Ephraim (v. 29), Zebulun (v. 30), Asher (v. 31), Naphtali (v. 33) and Dan (v. 34), all eight of whom are represented as failing so to run as to win, and as being overcame by one or more of the disgraces, whereas in Simeon as joined with Judah (v. 17) they are represented as finally overcoming. The house of Joseph (vs. 22-25) represents the star-members from Pentecost to the end of the Epiphany, as overcoming, before the Epiphany, great Babylon and, during the Epiphany, little Babylon, by the assistance of crown-losers (v. 25) who were allowed to go on building up, first great, then later little Babylon, while Israel (v. 28) represents the Little Flock as supporters of the above-described star-members. 

The preceding paragraph gives a mere outline of the generalities of Judg. 1. For the Judah antitype general details in the two applications will now be briefly given. God answered the question of His people in both applications as to who would be more than conquerors over self, by answering, the Little Flock (vs. 1, 2). The Little Flock desired the cooperation of the crown-losers for overcoming self, promising them their help for their overcoming, which desire was granted (v. 3). The Little Flock went forth, conquering both self and the world, especially in the fight against error, misnamed light, and defeated the leading error teachers of the two Babylons (vs. 4, 5), who were by the Little Flock deprived of their power to serve and act out their teachings, who by their deceptions had deprived the two Babylons' counterfeit teachers from real ability to serve truth and practice righteousness, and compelled them in great subserviency to partake of the small bits of Truth falling from the leading error-teachers' table, and who thus suffered a similar punishment. These error-teachers were in their teachings brought to the Truth people, and in their teachings were refuted (vs. 6, 7). The Little Flock delivered from both Babylons the embryo kingdom, after refuting and demolishing them (v. 8). It fought against the high, the medium and the low teachings and practices of both Babylons (v. 9). 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


It fought against the fourfold organism of evil: sin, error, selfishness and worldliness, and overcame the devil, the flesh and the world (v. 10). It likewise attacked and overcame the creeds of both Babylons (v. 11). The large Parousia and the little Parousia Little Flock assured the large and little creed-conquerors, the Parousia and Epiphany messengers, that they would have the Bible as their special study, as made one with them (vs. 12, 13). The Bible secured from the Parousia and Epiphany Little Flock's possessions pertinent truths on the elect and non-elect classes for these two messengers, as it had also secured from this Little Flock through these messengers a field of service for them (vs. 14, 15). The great and little Jews escaped from the clutches of the great and little nominal churches, and found comfort and refuge in the Little Flock, especially along the lines of Zionism (v. 16). The Little Flock has assisted in both Babylons the crown-losers against their false viewpoints there, and together they utterly destroyed these (v. 17). The Little Flock has overthrown the great and small Greek and Roman Catholic and Protestant Churches (v. 18). The Little Flock by God's help refuted the nominal great and small embryo kingdom, but could not destroy their organizations as such, because of their great power (v. 19). To the large and small Parousia Little Flock the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit was given, where they conquered the three powers of evil: the devil, the flesh and the world (v. 20). The summaries that were given on vs. 21-36 in the first paragraph will suffice for the purposes of this chapter. 

As indicated in the first paragraph above, Judg. 2 points out the main sins of which God's people became guilty during the Gospel Age and its Miniatures, and is thus a summary of such sins, their consequences and the Lord's pertinent acts, and thus sums up what the rest of the book gives in detail. In every crucial period of the Gospel Age and its Miniatures it was found that there had been apostacies from truth and righteousness among God's people; and, accordingly, God raised up messengers of 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


the Truth to preach repentance to His people. They reminded these of God's having delivered them from Satan's kingdom, and of his having translated them into the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit sworn to their predecessor brethren by an irrevocable covenant (v. 1), and binding them not to enter into a covenant with sin, error, selfishness and worldliness as the unlawful natural inhabitants of their hearts and minds, which should be the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit, but to overthrow the heart and mind qualities that would serve evil; but they did not obey the Lord's Word, for which God demanded to know why (v. 2). Hence God said that He would not drive such evils out of their hearts and minds, that they might be a torment to their doers, and that the objects of these bad qualities would ensnare them into evil (v. 3). The effect of this teaching of God's messengers has always been contrition in the hearts and tears in the eyes of God's people (v. 4). Hence this condition has been called repentance (Bochim [weepers]); and thereafter God's people renewed their consecrations (v. 5). Our Lord in the Gospel Age or in the Miniatures put each of His professed people into his pertinent class, i.e., justified, crown-retainers and crown-losers, Youthful Worthies, Campers, Out-of-the-campers and Second Deathers, as the case called for, and each one went to, and received his assigned place (v. 6). During the Harvests and in the lapping of the Parousia into the Epiphany, during which times the leaders saw God's great works toward God's people, His people served the Lord (v. 7). But at the end of the reaping and gleaning Jesus ceased from harvesting and entered into a different work (v. 8). 

He was greatly reverenced for His exaltation in His office as the Inspirer of the Bible in large and little Christendom, and as the Overthrower of large and little Jewry and Christendom (v. 9). As old times and dispositions changed into new ones in the great and little nominal church, the brethren got dispositions that did not experience the Lord's dealings as of former times and dispositions (v. 10). 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


Beginning in the large and small Smyrna epochs and continuing throughout the rest of the large and small epochs the Lord's people apostatized by doing various evils, especially serving ecclesiastical autocracy and clericalism (v. 11), forsaking the Lord that they had loved and served in the two Harvests, and that had delivered them from the present evil world, and following after the gods of leaders, of creeds and of the disgraces that remained in their hearts and minds, even yielding to these their consecrated all unto provoking the Lord (v. 12). Thus the large and small people of God forsook the God of perfect wisdom, power, justice and love and served ecclesiastical autocracy, clericalism, and a combination of secularism and religionism (v. 13). Naturally, this displeased God with His great and small peoples. As a result He abandoned them to such evil qualities as devastated them of the Truth and its Spirit, and allowed them to become the purchased slaves of power-graspers and lords over God's heritage and their perverters as to truth and righteousness, against whom they were powerless to offer effective resistance (v. 14). No matter what they did or whither they turned, the Lord's power opposed them unto their injury, as God had by word and oath forewarned them, all of which greatly straitened them (v. 15). Nevertheless, in great and little Babylon God raised up star-member leaders, who by God's Word and Spirit delivered them from the power of their spoilers (v. 16). But they refused in both Babylons to heed their Divinely raised-up star-member leaders; for they inordinately followed their sinful, selfish and worldly desires, to which they devoted themselves, and which they obeyed and served, turning quickly away from the Truth and its Spirit, in which their better dispositions had formerly walked in obeying the Lord's commandments, which now they refused to do (v. 17). 

In both Babylons God raised up star-member leaders, whom He supported, and caused them to deliver His large and small people from the power of their injurers all the

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


days of such star-member leaders' activities; for the Lord in compassion changed His procedure with His wandering peoples on account of their distress wrought on them by their oppressing and vexing evil qualities and misleaders (v. 18). But when the star-member leaders' activities ceased God's two peoples apostatized and corrupted their faith and character structures more than formerly, walking after the evil characteristics of their fallen dispositions, gratifying and serving these, and not ceasing from their evil practices and their wilful characteristics (v. 19). Therefore God's displeasure burned against both of His peoples; and in this displeasure He declared that because they had violated the covenant into which they had entered with Him, at His invitation made with them formerly, and had refused to fulfill obediently their consecrations to Him (v. 20), He would not enable them to overcome the faults that our Lord's previous (uncompleted) ministry had left in their dispositions (v. 21). This He designed as a test on His two peoples, in order that it might be demonstrated as to whether they would observe the Lord's Word, Spirit and providences, to live according to these as they had formerly done, or not (v. 22). It is for this reason that God allowed these faults to remain in them and not to be extirpated entirely by Jesus' former ministries (v. 23). Truly in Judg. 2 a brief summary of the Lord's dealings with His apostatizing and repenting peoples in great and little Babylon after the Harvests is given, as students of Church history and of the Epiphany history can readily see. 

The Lord proceeds to tell of the evil qualities and leaders that the Lord left in the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit as a test to His peoples living after the Harvests, when the battles were against the errors and faults there existing (Judg. 3:1). The sole design of leaving these was to afford His peoples of these two post-Harvest times opportunities to fight and overcome them, since otherwise they would not know the good fight of faith (v. 2). The special evil leaders

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


were the autocratic and clericalistic leaders in the five chief sects—Greek, Roman, Lutheran, Calvinistic and Anglican Churches. It will be seen that in v. 5 six nations are listed; and six, the number of full evil or affliction, here means the totality of evil, and the six nations there, therefore, represent the totality of the disgraces as contrasted with the graces. Thus more or less imperfection is in every faculty of fallen humans. But in v. 3 three nations are mentioned apart from the five lords of the Philistines and in their order they represent the flesh, the world and the fallen angels, the latter being in harmony with Satan's empire, stretching from its religious to its secular aspects (v. 3). All these were by God designed to test His peoples between the Harvests and during the Epiphany as to whether they would be loyal to the truths and the spirit of the two Harvests (v. 4). And stronger New Creatures became one with weaker disgraces and weaker New Creatures became one with stronger disgraces; and in such oneness they yielded their consecrated powers to the fallen angels and their own faults (v. 6). Accordingly, in the Interim and in the Epiphany the Lord's people wrought evil in exercising the disgraces and serving the interests of fallen angels, and forgot the Lord and their consecration vows (v. 7). The sins that are here referred to are those resulting from the apostacy beginning in the early Smyrna periods, resulting in the Church's going in the large and miniature 539's into symbolic captivities, i.e., captivity to the great and miniature papacies. 

To make this clearer we will make a few explanations: There are four progressive oppressions referred to in Judg. 3–8, from each of which the Lord progressively sent deliverance through antitypical judges in the Gospel Age and its three Miniatures. Knowing for the Gospel Age that there have been four corresponding progressive deliverances, we should have no difficulty in locating these oppressions and deliverances. This remark on four progressive oppressions and deliverances must not be taken to mean that there have

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


been only four typical and antitypical oppressions and deliverances, for more than that many are recorded in Judges, but it should be taken to mean just what it says: there have been only four antitypical progressive oppressions followed by four of such deliverances. The others are detached from one another as to time succession. We know that the first oppression began in 539; and the first deliverance therefrom occurred during the earlier part of the Sardis period, i.e., during the period of the reformation by individuals. This one corresponds to the oppression and deliverance of Judg. 3:8-11. We further know that the next deliverance was the one in the Philadelphia Church, through the reformation by sects; accordingly its oppression was that which set in after the death of Hus, when persecution greatly increased until Luther and Zwingli began their reformations. This corresponds to the oppression of Judg. 3:13-31. The next deliverance was that of the cleansed sanctuary and Parousia, whereby God's people were called out of Babylon. Consequently, their oppressions were those endured in the sects from 1522 onward to 1846. This corresponds to that of Judg. 4, 5. These three oppressions were by the nominal churches. The fourth set of our oppressions was from the secular and religious Gentile powers during the Times of the Gentiles. And the deliverance is during the Epiphany. This corresponds to that described in Judg. 6–8:32. Briefly it should here be remarked that as the large antitypical judges were the star-members from the large Sardis onward and as during the corresponding Miniatures J. corresponds to these star-members, he has been privileged to act as the three miniature sets of judges, the small one being entirely in the past, the medium one now drawing to a close, and the Sardis part of the large one now operating. In tracing the corresponding times in the Gospel Age and its small Miniature it is suggested that the reader make a constant use of the comparative time and thought tables of them in Chapter I. 

The first great and small apostasies began in St. Paul's 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


and Bro. Russell's days respectively (2 Thes. 2:7) and continued long. They consisted in God's people forgetting the Lord in His truths and arrangements and in yielding themselves up to the service of clericalistic autocracy and union of themselves with the large and small world, combinationism (v. 7). This, of course, displeased God with His justified and consecrated great and small peoples; and in 539 and Oct. 30, 1916 (the date that Bro. Russell in the toga scene gave up his office as that Servant), the Lord gave them up to religious and political oppression for a long time in great papacy and in little papacy (first in the Society and then in the P.B.I. features of the little papacy; Cushan [Ethiopian] -rishathaim [double fraud, i.e., in state and church, large and small], v. 8). Under these oppressions, which made God's great and small peoples groan, the large and small Adelbert of France (the small one in J.'s appeals to the Board), Claudius of Turin (the small one in J.'s Harvest Siftings Reviewed), Ratramnus (the small one in J.'s pertinent lectures), Berengar of Tours, Peter Abelard and Arnold of Brescia (the small ones in J.'s activities in the Fort Pitt Committee), Peter Waldo (the small one in the earlier preparations for Another Harvest Siftings Reviewed) and like-minded supporting brethren made unavailing protests, which moved the Lord to compassion; and He raised up in the Sardis star-members judges: large and small Marsiglio, antitypes of Zerubbabel (the small one in The Present Truth, Nos. 1, 2), large and small Tauler (the small one in Truth, No. 3), Wyclif, large and small antitypes of Ezra (the small one in Truth, No. 4) and Hus, the large and small antitypes of Nehemiah (the small one in Truth, No. 5), whose writings not only thoroughly refuted great and little papacy, but freed not a few from their bondage, which resulted in their resting from evil for a full trial period (vs. 9-11). 

Just after the large and small Hus' end another large and small apostacy set in, in the two 1459's. The Lord allowed the great and small papacies (the latter in the 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


Society) to arise in another oppression through a line of large and small very wicked popes (in the small pope different aspects in the one, J.F.R.; Eglon [frisky, careless], v. 12). These great and little autocratic popes gathered to their side the clericalists and the wicked, and attacked the large and small leaders and led of God's people, like the large and small John Wessel, John Wesel, Savonarola, etc., and got possession of crown-losers (v. 13). The result was that the Lord's people were for some time oppressively enslaved to the great and small popes, who ruled in autocracy and wickedness, e.g., the large and small Innocent VIII and Alexander VI (v. 14). Under this oppression God's two peoples groaned for the oppressions and repented of their evils, e.g., Luther's worries under Romanist errors on "good works" as the means of justification. God, therefore, compassionately raised up both Luthers as deliverers from both oppressions (Ehud [strength], Gera [grain]), who were strong in refutative Truth, through whom supporting brethren sent a gift of service to the great and little popes, the large Luther bearing this gift of service as an active monk, priest, theological professor, preacher, author and vice-vicar-general of his monastic order, and the little Luther bearing this gift of service as pilgrim, editor and letter-writer (v. 15). From 1512 onward the large Luther developed the doctrine of justification by faith, as a two-edged sword that worked constructively as to truth and destructively as to error, but held this doctrine unobservedly under his graces; and the small Luther, beginning June 30, 1919, developed secretly by certain of his graces the work of preparing to send out the Truth on the separation of Elijah and Elisha in Truth, No. 6, which as a double-edged sword cut constructively as to truth and destructively as to error (v. 16). Each Luther, supported by his brethren, brought the gift of service to his respective pope, who respectively reveled in self-indulgence, on which they had fattened in power (v. 17). 

When both Luthers, cooperated with by their supporters, 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


had rendered their respective services, they sent their supporters away, in the sense that they entered into a secret mental work of which their supporters were unaware (v. 18). The secret mental work is described typically in vs. 19-26, and it consisted in their studying unto clarity the questions belonging to a refutation of the pertinent views of the great and little popes. When we look at the pertinent histories of the two Luthers, we see that the contacts between them and the large and small popes were not personal, nor, until the activities typed in v. 28, by the printed page. In the large Luther this study covered the question of justification by faith, including the related questions on sin, sin atonement, the Savior's pertinent offices, repentance, faith justification and good works, i.e., the relation of the two classes, the sinners and the justified, and their distinctions. It was in 1516 that he became clear on these subjects. Not only the facts of the large Luther's life up to the time that he issued his first publication, in 1516, which he would not issue until clarity was reached on the pertinent subjects, prove that from 1512 to 1516 he did this secret fighting of the pope's views on the above-mentioned subjects, but also the four Universal Empires' parallels prove it. In these parallels Alexander the Great in his conquest of the Persian empire, 334-330 B.C., parallels Luther's mental conquest of the papal empire in its main teachings, 1512-1516. In the small Luther this study, June 30-July 4, 1919, as secret fighting of the little pope, was along the lines of the last related acts of Elijah and Elisha, particularly stressing the sins of antitypical Elisha leading up to and connected with the separation, the justification of antitypical Elijah therein and the distinction between the two classes, thus the study and overthrow of the main errors of the little papacy, led by the little pope, J.F.R. This secret study and conquest is the key that unlocks vs. 19-26 and shows how their events preceded the publication of both Luthers' 95 theses, Oct. 31, 1517, and July 5, 1919, typed by the blowing of the trumpet of v. 27. 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


With these prefatory remarks we are ready to study vs. 19-26 fruitfully, type and antitype. Both Luthers not only did certain things that served both popes, but they also after meditating on their creed idols turned at a crisis in their lives from these back to their respective popes for what proved a hostile study and refutation of these creed idols, which was secretly done, only the popes' being present to their minds as they so studied, the popes' attitude telling both of them to keep their thoughts in silence and to their minds ordering all others away (v. 19). The thought of both Luthers considered the two popes in their luxurious privacy, and they told them in thought that they had a message from God for them, which to their minds made the two popes arise from their seats of authority to give attention (v. 20). Their refutative powers seized upon the pertinent thoughts and mentally drove these refutations deep into the pertinent papal theories, so deep that nothing could withdraw them; but they made the corruptions associated with these theories become manifest (vs. 21, 22). All this was done in the secrets of the two Luthers' minds and was kept there secretly (v. 23). Both Luthers in mind, after the refutations were clear to their minds, saw how the papal supporters would be in oblivion of the actual refutation of the two popes for some time, and think them certainly to be in security and comfort (v. 24). They further in mind saw them as ashamed of their long waiting and finding no suggestion of the popes' pertinent activity; furthermore the two Luthers in mind saw the papal supporters in mind coming to the two secluded popes in their theories, and, finding them completely refuted (v. 25). Both Luthers mentally saw themselves safe during the delay, and passing by the papal creed idols, and in safety reaching the position of those who proved to be good crown-losers whom they thought to be of the Little Flock (v. 26). 

After the pertinent study of both Luthers was finished (1516 and July 4, 1919), they sent forth as by a trumpet blast their respective calls to war with the two popes: the

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


large Luther in his 95 theses against indulgences nailed to the doors of the Castle Church at Wittenberg, Oct. 31, 1517, the small Luther in his answers to the questions in the Question meeting at the Philadelphia Convention, July 5, 1919, attacking the Society's indulgence of the wrongs of its adherents and its strictly holding "the Opposition" as Second Deathers, both blasts going out to their respective Christendoms, and both Luthers leaving off their respective support of their Christendoms, and leading their supporters to battle: the large Luther starting this in 1518 as increasingly multitudes gave him their confidence and support, and the small Luther beginning this on July 6, after the Convention had the day before voted him confidence and support in his battle with J.F.R. (v. 27). Both Luthers by act told their supporters to follow after them, because the Lord had delivered their enemies, the strongest examples of autocracy, into their hands. Following the lead of the two Luthers, they got control of both fords of the Jordan, in the sense that they held the Truth on access for the peoples of both Christendoms to be in the respective two involved classes in dispute, which prevented any but Truth peoples from access (v. 28). 

Verbally and by pertinent writings the two Luthers, the large Luther, e.g., by many sermons and lectures and by his first Commentary on Galatians, his books, An Address to the German Nation's Nobility, The Babylonian Captivity of the Church, etc., the small Luther by the circulation of No. 6, thoroughly smote all the defenders of the two popes, especially the more powerful and able ones among them; and none of them escaped these refutations (v. 29). Thus the Romanists and Societyites were subdued at the pertinent times under the power of the two Luthers and their supporters; and the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit was freed from the oppressing Romanists and Societyites (v. 30). And after this conflict of the two Luthers the large and small Zwinglis, the large Zwingli with the Truth on the Lord's Supper as

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


against transubstantiation, and the small Zwingli with the Truth on the murmurers of the parable of the penny, published in Truth, No. 9, against the transubstantiation of the Great Company into the Little Flock that C.J. Woodworth attempted by his interpretation of the murmurers, overthrew by the pertinent truths, as spurrers-on of the sacrificed humanity, the two counterfeits, and thus delivered the two Israels from the tyranny of the two errors (v. 31). The large and small Lutheran and Zwinglian reformations are here mentioned, because they were the main ones of the large and small reformations, the former turning into the large and small tribes of Ephraim and the latter into the large and small tribes of Judah. 

We now come in Judg. 4 and 5 to the study of the third progressive deliverance of God's two true peoples from, what is otherwise called large and small Babylon in both its large and small Romanist and Protestant sections. The two peoples of God, after the deliverance of the two reformations, which even for both Romanisms themselves made not a few reforms in certain of their teachings and, especially, practices, sinned especially after each reform of the two reformations in failure to carry out their consecration and by living selfishly and secularly and more or less sinfully (Judg. 4:1). Hence the Lord gave them up to the large and small sectarianisms; and the leaders of their armies were large and small anti-millennialist clericalism, which was active in all the large and small nations (v. 2). These things made God's people "howl" (Is. 52:5); for doctrines like the large and small trinity, immortality, eternal torment, absolute predestination and numerous other contradictory teachings, as well as the tyrannous services in both sectarianisms and clericalisms, made God's two peoples greatly sigh and cry for the prevailing abominations, while the strong sectarian and clericalistic organizations added to their strong and long oppressions (v. 3). God's real Church, first, as the large and small cleansed sanctuary, respectively from 1846 to 1874 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


and from May 29, 1920 to June 26, 1920, and, secondly, as the large and small Parousias' Churches, respectively from 1874 to 1914 and from June 26, 1920 to Aug. 5, 1920, industriously in true thinking and light taught the brethren of the real and nominal churches (v. 4). These were, somewhat in the fellowship of the large and small crown-losers associated with them, occupied between high character development and activities toward the two Christendoms; and in this condition God's large and small people came to both Deborahs for instruction and direction (v. 5). These two phases of the Church called upon the large and small acceptable Russells, the Parousia and Epiphany Messengers as light-givers in the large and small Parousias, in their consecrated condition away from the two nominal peoples, reminding them that the true God had charged them to advance toward the heights of Christian life and warfare and to draw to their standards all the responsive warriors of Truth (v. 6). 

Furthermore, the two Russells were to draw toward the developing Truth as to a battle-field the large and small anti-millennialist clericalists as the leaders of large and small sectarianism, together with their large and small sectarian organizations and their large and small armies, which God pledged to deliver into the power of the large and small Russells (v. 7). The large and small Russells by their acts said that they would not undertake the fight, unless God's real large and small peoples would go with them to the conflict (v. 8). Humbly God's large and small real peoples by their acts indicated that they would be in truth with them, but that their going with the two Russells and their warriors would detract from their prestige; for it would be said that the large and small Church led them in the two battles, and that by these the Lord delivered the two sets of clericalistic anti-millennialists into their power. Accordingly, the two Deborahs, the Lord's two Parousias' Little Flock, accompanied the two Russells to the consecrated battle-field (v. 9). Therefore the large and small Russells called the large and 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


small crown-retainers and crown-losers to the holy battle-field, and the totality of the enlightened of these responded to the two calls to battle, as also did the two real peoples of God as the Church (v. 10). The large and small pre-millennialist foolish virgins who remained in both Babylons severed themselves from the large and small non-pre-millennialist foolish virgins who remained in both Babylons; and they drew near and pitched their battle position near that of the two Russells in the holy battle under strong but erroneous leaders, like Dr. Seiss in great and Carl Olson in little Babylon (v. 11). The two anti-millennialist sets of clericalists learned that the large and small Russells had taken up their position on the two Millennial kingdom positions (v. 12). Both anti-millennialist clericalistic leaders summoned all their strong organizations to battle, as well as all their warriors active in the large and small denominations, to the developing Truth of the large and small Parousias (v. 13). Both Deborahs encouraged the large and small Russells to betake themselves to the conflict, declaring that these two times were the periods when the Lord would deliver, the two sets of anti-millennialist clericalists into heir power, assuring them that the Lord, with the necessary Spirit, Truth and providences, would go before them. Accordingly, they went down from their position with all their fellow-warriors with them (v. 14). 

In the ensuing controversy, carried on during the large Parousia by the pertinent literature, in Dawns, Towers, tracts, sermons, etc., and by lectures and conversations and in the small Parousia with Present Truths, No. 19, on Azazel's Goat, No. 20, on The Court, Type and Antitype, Reviewed, on J.F.R.'s Bearing False Witness and on Shearno-Crawfordism Analyzed, Part I, and No. 21, on That Evil Servant and Shearno-Crawfordism Analyzed, Part II, as well as with lectures and conversations, the Lord utterly overthrew the two sets of anti-millennialist clericalists (we should here explain that a small millennium of 1,000 days set in with the small Parousia and that this was 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


denied by the Levites of all classes; hence we call their leaders small anti-millennialist clericalists) and all their organizations and warriors, by the controversial truths contained in the above-mentioned literature, etc., as these truths were given through the two Russells; and the anti-millennialist clericalists, leaving their organizational helps, fled by their conduct from the field of battle (v. 15). Both Russells pursued after the fleeing organizations and warriors unto the large and small nominal churches' fields of service, and utterly refuted all the warriors of the anti-millennialist clericalists by their controversialist truths, so that none were left of them to fight back (v. 16). But the large and small anti-millennialist clericalists fled by their acts, unaccompanied by any controversial activity of theirs, to the shelter of the large and small foolish virgin pre-millennialists, who were a part of the large and small nominal-church foolish virgins; for there was no controversy between these large and small nominal-church foolish virgins and the large and small sectarianism (v. 17). The large and small pre-millennialist foolish virgins went forth to greet the defeated and fleeing large and small anti-millennialist clericalists; and the former gave the latter an urgent and fear-disarming invitation to seek refuge with them, since they were more sympathetic with them than with the two Russells and their co-warriors. This invitation was accepted; and the former protected the latter by such teachings as they had at hand applicable to the case (v. 18). Athirst for some Truth that both Siseras lacked, and that both Jaels had, the former asked for such mild truths to drink. The latter opened to their understanding stronger truths than were requested; both Siseras drank them and again were given protection (v. 19). 

But fearful of the pursuers, each of the Siseras asked the respective Jael to assure any of the two sets of pursuers that the two Siseras did not occupy their doctrinal views (v. 20). But remembering that both Siseras rejected their respective foolish-virgin large and small pre-millennial views, the two Jaels laid hold on their pertinent views,

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


quietly advanced against them, and controversially and oppositionally drove these completely through the two Siseras' anti-millennial understandings, while they unsuspiciously and wearily rested, and thus utterly and completely refuted them (v. 21). This was done in the large Parousia, e.g., by such works as that by the pre-millennialist standard-bearer Dr. J. Seiss, in his three-volumed work on Revelation, and by the twelve-volumed work entitled, The Fundamentals, written by various able foolish-virgin pre-millennialists, among which writers were P. Mamo, C.G. Trumbull, H.A. Kelly, R.E. Spear, R.A. Torrey, James Orr and A.T. Pearson, and in the little Parousia by Carl Olson, Menta Sturgeon, A.I. Ritchie, R.H. Hirsh, etc. As the two Russells pursued after the two Siseras, these two sets of foolish-virgin pre-millennialists in their writings or sayings presented themselves before them, and by their acts told them to make a mental journey with them, and they would show the two Russells the mental condition of those whom they pursued; and, following the suggestion of these, the large and small Russells saw in the writings and sayings of these the two Siseras refuted with Biblical passages and teachings thoroughly overthrowing their understandings (v. 22). It was God who during these two Parousias utterly overthrew under His peoples' blows the two sectarianisms respectively in the large and small Parousias (v. 23);for the power of God's people advanced progressively and strongly against these two; sectarianisms, until they had cut them both off by the strength that God gave them, the truths of the two Parousias (v. 24). 

In Judg. 5 we have one of Israel's earlier poems. This one was preceded by a poem of Jacob (Gen. 49:1-27) and four poems of Moses (Ex. 15:1-19; Deut. 32; 33; Ps. 90). It gives in poetic form a summary of the teachings of the two Deborahs in their respective Parousias; and as such we submit the following brief double explanation. It will be noted that the poem gives quite a few particulars omitted in

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


Chapter 4. This poem is the pertinent messages delivered by the two Deborahs and Russells during the two Parousias (Judg. 5:1). In both Parousias they called for a declaration of Jehovah's glorious attributes for freeing God's people and for the latter's carrying out their consecration (v. 2). Great ones and leaders were exhorted to hear the message that reflected credit upon God for His glorious attributes ascribed in their witnessing to the Jehovah of real Israel by His two Deborahs and Baraks (v. 3). When God left the two Babylons and Christendoms, society in both of them was greatly agitated; the Christ beyond the vail and tribulatory experiences issued forth pertinent truths (v. 4). The Kingdom in its three peaks (the Little Flock, the Great Company and the Ancient and Youthful Worthies [these two here considered as one]) flowed down with Truth (v. 5). In the days when the two sets of reformers as mouthpieces began their work and when the two sets of pre-millennialist foolish virgins set out, the ways of truth and righteousness had been obliterated; and pilgrims to heavenly Canaan found only crooked paths for their feet (v. 6). 

Members of the two sets of small gatherings ceased among God's people: They ceased in each set until each Deborah arose as a covenant nourisher among God's people (v. 7). In apostacy they chose new creed idols and leaders in both Babylons; in both Babylons controversies were publicly waged against God's people. No defensive arguments or controversial writings were found among God's two peoples, who should have been warriors in those two periods before the two Parousias (v. 8). But the two Deborahs wished for the two messengers of God's Word, who offered themselves willingly in sacrifice. Then the two Deborahs exhorted the brethren to reflect credit upon God by proclaiming His Word (v. 9). Both sets of Truth teachers, leaders and travelers of the narrow way were exhorted to speak forth the message (v. 10). The proclaimers of the Word, taking their stand beside the Old and New Testaments, and from their declaring God's 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


acts as harmonious with His character, even in the ecclesias of God's people, during the two Parousias, ministered publicly with the Word as God's people (v. 11). These encouraged the two Deborahs to sing the song of Moses and the song of the Lamb and the two Russells to capture what had captured them (v. 12). These two Russells, as the main ones whom the enemies could not win over from the Church's leaders, God gave a charge as to His two Parousias' peoples and to the two Deborahs (v. 13). 

It will be noted that, apart from Zebulun and Naphtali, who, as we saw above, represent the Little Flock and the Great Company in the large Parousia and the Epiphany-enlightened saints and the good Levites in the small Parousia, there are eight tribes mentioned in vs. 14-18, understanding Machir, a son of Manasseh, to stand for Manasseh and Gilead, the country of the tribe of Gad, to stand for Gad, on the principle of the container standing for the thing contained. These eight stand in the large Parousia for the large Parousia crown-losers in the Truth as the anticipatory eight main subdivisions of the Epiphany Levites; and in the small Parousia they stand for those crown-losers in these eight groups who in the small Parousia came into the Epiphany Truth and fought with the priests and good Levites already in the Epiphany Truth against little Babylon. The Zebulunites, mentioned twice (vs. 14 and 18), are so, mentioned for the sake of emphasis, since they are the priests of both Parousias; the Naphtalites are, of course, implied in the other eight, but mentioned only once as such, since their antitypes are lower in class than the antitypes of the Zebulunites. Seemingly the Ephraimites correspond to the Amramites and the Benjamites to the Izharites, both of them fighters against sin, and the Manassehites to the Hebronites as teachers, while the priests (Zebulun) used especially the writings of the Parousia and Epiphany Messengers (v. 14). The leaders of the antitypical Issacharites, as doctrinal, ethical and apologetic Bible students, especially 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


stood by the two Deborahs and Baraks and were sent out by the latter into the position of chief place in the battle. The groups of antitypical Elisha (Societyites, antitypical Reubenites), Mahlites, in both Parousias had great plans of aggrandizement (v. 15) that raised the question as to why they were amid constant divisions in their aiming to draw disciples after them; and that led to great self-examinations ere they were freed from both Babylons (v. 16). The antitypical Gaddites (inhabitants of Gilead), as antitypical Mushites, in both Parousias occupied themselves with the Lord's people as away from the peoples of great and little Christendom, while the antitypical Shimites (Dan) busied themselves with organizations and the antitypical Libnites (Asher) were nearest the rebellious world and its peoples (v. 17). It was the two Parousias' Little Flock and good Levites who exposed their lives in the two Parousias' battles as against the large and small denominations in the two Christendoms (v. 18). 

Now comes the description of the two battles: The leaders of both Christendoms advanced on the two Russells and their supporters, and fought them in their doctrinal fortresses, especially on the teachings as to death as the penalty of real or imagined sin, but they got no gain of Truth (v. 19). Christ and the Church beyond the vail and the Truth teachers of both Parousias fought against the two sets of anti-millennialist clericalists (v. 20). The two Truths, the Parousia and the Epiphany Truths, even the old theology of the Scriptures, swept the two Siseras' armies into symbolic destruction, yea, the very being of both Deborahs crushed victoriously the strength of the armies of the two Siseras (v. 21). Then, indeed, their self-contradictory teachings crushed one another in their activities, set into operation by their strong leaders (v. 22). The two Deborahs and Parousia Messengers charged their supporters to denounce with severe reproofs those who as cowards hid themselves far safety, and came not forth to the help of God's cause, to the help of the Lord's cause against the leaders of great and little 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


Babylon (v. 23). To be praised above the large and small nominal churches are the two sets of foolish-virgin pre-millennialists, above the associates of all other foolish virgins, yea, above unorganized sects of both Babylons (v. 24). The anti-millennialist clericalists in their thirst for some truth asked it of them, and these gave them stronger truths than they requested; they set forth still heavier truths in a doctrinal vessel of the two nominal churches (v. 25). They powerfully laid hold on Scripture passages and doctrines on the two sets of pre-millennial doctrines, and strongly laid hold on them controversially. With these controversially they struck both sets of anti-millennialist clericalists; they struck the anti-millennial theories of both of them; again they did this; and their Scripture passages and doctrines completely overthrew their theories (v. 26). Down emphatically they lay between the progressive steps of their arguments, falling and lying down in defeat under their blows. In the position that was overthrown they lay defeated (v. 27). 

The two nominal churches, as the mothers of the two Siseras in expectation of their sons' victory, looked forward through their views of the positions to the coming back of their sons in victory and triumph; but as time went on they even cried out in apprehension, as they looked through the openings of their views long and wearily, exclaiming, Why do not their victorious organizations come into sight after so long a delay? Why have the advances of their organizations lingered so long? (v. 28). The leading, most learned nominal churches of the two Parousias replied, yea, the two entire nominal churches gave the same reason to themselves for the long delay (v. 29): Are they not discovering more booty, which takes them a long time to divide, an ecclesia, yea, two for each warrior? Booty of fine characters won for the two Siseras! Yea, booty of characters with especially fine graces, carefully developed, yea, doubly finely developed characters, as ornaments for those who win such captives (v. 30)! Then the real people of God, the two Deborahs, 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


tell the story, the tale which speaks of the defeat of God's enemies, and declare that thus—by refutation—all opponents of Divine Truth must be overthrown, completely refuted, while God's faithful people—those who love Him supremely—are, like the beautiful, full sunset that gilds the clouds with glory and beauty, unforgettable! So far the poem; and the story ends with the antitypical statement that on the subjects at controversy God's people rest undisturbed, freed from the oppression of the large and small sectarianisms and clericalisms. And let all God's faithful people say, "Praise God from whom this blessing flows!" 

We now come to the study of Judg. 6–8, which treats of Gideon. As EE 183-262, treats of Gideon as he in the large picture represents our Lord in Judg. 6–8:12, and as in P '40, 121, brief comments were added on vs. 13-21, thus covering the large picture up to the place where Gideon ceases to represent our Lord, in this study the small picture only of Judg. 6–8:21 will be given; thereafter both the large and small pictures will be given to the end of Chapter 8. In Chapter I it was shown that the Gospel Age was enacted in the small Miniature on the scale of a day for a year. From that standpoint the date corresponding with our Lord's birth, Oct., 2 B.C., is May 9, 1915. For the clarifying of the small antitype of the Gideon picture it should here he remarked that the Miniature goes back into the Old Testament a day for a year. And from this standpoint the small Times of the Gentiles, corresponding to the seven years' oppression of the Midianites (Judg. 6:1), began Sept. 11, 1913. In this small picture J.F.R. corresponded to the heads of the four universal empires and to the heads of papal Rome until the end of the Age, while from the little 962 A.D. to the little 1459, when the reign of the double little papacy was in operation, F.H. McGee acted with J.F.R. as one of the two concurrent little popes. In this small picture H.C. Rockwell acted as the head of the successive main kingdoms in opposition to the small Babylonian, Persian, Grecian and Roman 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


empires during the small Jewish Age and during part of the small Gospel Age, until I.F. Hoskins superseded him in the little Holy Roman Empire. In this small picture E.W. Brenneisen corresponded to Judah's kings, and J.F.R. to Israel's kings, onward from Rehoboam and Jeroboam, 1,000 B.C., corresponding to Aug. 15, 1912 in the little Jewish Age. The above are the viewpoints of these leaders on matters of practice. On matters of teaching E.W. Brenneisen stands for the priests and Levites as teachers during the period of Judah's kings and after the exile, J.F.R. for the false priesthood and idolatrous priests in Israel, afterward in Babylon, etc., as well as the more strict school of scribes after the exile in Israel, and H.C.R. for the Egyptian priests and for the less strict school of scribes in Israel. During these Old Testament times J. stood for those through whom God spoke, the prophets. During this part of the little Jewish Age Bro. Russell acted as the little Logos. 

Understanding the matter in this way, the beginning of the times that the Little Israelites sinned according to v. 1 was concurrent with the beginning of the reigns of the little Rehoboam and Jeroboam, Aug. 15, 1912; and they continued not only until little Israel went into the little Assyrian captivity, April 26, 1913 (corresponding to 739 B.C.), but also until little Judah went into Babylonian captivity, Sept. 11, 1913 (corresponding to 607 B.C.). During this year and 28 days not a few evil qualities manifested themselves executively and doctrinally in the three little leaders above mentioned; and these contaminated their partisan supporters. Among these were envy, power-grasping, rivalry, efforts to checkmate one another, unholy ambition, strife, etc., which acted through the bad part of their double minds; and their many sympathizers more or less showed the same qualities. At Bethel especially these three leaders had their partisan supporters; and naturally this partisanship reached beyond Bethel, not only at New York, but also elsewhere, especially in Photo-Drama matters. The result was that God gave His 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


little Israel over to afflictions; and, as many did not respond fully, He gave them over to the spoliations of the little Times of the Gentiles at the hands of errorists, especially on lines of theories of practice, as distinct from doctrinal theories (Judg. 6:1). These policy errorists, at the hand of J.F.R. and his supporters, overcame little Israel; and the latter sought shelter in various secret subterfuges (v. 2). Error, sin, selfishness and worldliness greatly interfered with the spiritual results of their spreading the Word as seed (v. 3), and actually restrained and largely destroyed its fruitage everywhere, even to the bounds of the nominal church, so that they failed to win many to justification, sanctification and the Truth (v. 4). These four great forms of evil increased over little Israel with their possessions and spheres of thought and activity, as devouring and multitudinous errors as to practice came individually and as organized evil and wrought great havoc to the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit (v. 5). Of course, this impoverished spiritually the Lord's people, whose poverty made them cry unto the Lord. 

This was the condition until about June 8, 1915 (corresponding to 29 A.D.), when J. as the small John the Baptist began to preach on reformation of conduct, reminding the brethren of God's delivering them out of the dominion of Satan, out of the hands of all having his spirit, from their spiritual enemies, the works of the flesh, giving them the Truth and its Spirit, telling them that the Lord had charged them not to fear the creed idols of the errorists, whose spheres of teaching and spirit they had occupied, and ending his pertinent preaching with the charge that the brethren had failed to obey the Lord in their consecration (vs. 8-10). While he was performing this preaching aspect of his ministry the Lord's Word in immediate connection with this activity attracted his (Gideon's [mighty warrior]) attention in the student aspect of his work as the little Jesus of God's people in God's little embryo kingdom; for as vs. 11-24 in the large Gospel Age describe our Lord's preparation for, 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


and execution of His ministry in the flesh, so in the small Miniature do they refer to J.'s preparation for and execution of a small corresponding ministry, as he was, unknown to himself, preparing amid trying experiences the Faithful for the Epiphany conditions, while shielding them from the influence of errorists (v. 11). 

This Word assured him that as a Truth warrior God was with him (v. 12). But God's permitting so many evils among God's people puzzled him as to how the Lord could be the special helper of His evil-oppressed people, as He had been when first bringing them into the Truth (v. 13). The Word then encouraged him to go in his strength to help as a Truth messenger the brethren out of the grasp of errorists in practice (v. 14). J.'s humility suggested that he could not do much to deliver the brethren from their oppressions (v. 15). Thereupon the Lord assured him of His help, and that He would enable him to refute completely the errorists (v. 16). Then J. studied the Truth for a gracious indication that it was really commissioning him to help, the brethren as never before (v. 17). J. then asked that the pertinent Truth remain until he dedicated himself to more zealous efforts on behalf of the brethren, which it assured him it would do (v. 18). Thereupon in his heart silently J. rededicated himself to the Lord for the pertinent work of giving the harder and easier truths through his human powers, and that in connection with his ministry of preaching reformation among the brethren (v. 19). The Word instructed him to make the offering upon the basis of Jesus' sacrificed humanity, in the merit of which his humanity was to be used in serving with hard and easy truths. This he did (v. 20). Then the Word applied its energizing parts to the offering, which quickened J.'s humanity in the service of the pertinent truths. Thereupon the Truth ceased giving this line of instruction to J. (v. 21). 

Then J, perceived that this Truth was a sure messenger of God to him; and he greatly feared the severe straits into which it put him, especially on June 12, as a sharp, unfairly reproving, yea, crucifying letter came to him from 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


C. B. Shull, from Columbus, O. (v. 22). But the Lord comforted him, assuring him that he need not fear, for his New Creature would not die (v. 23). He in that spirit in the little helpful embryo kingdom erected his humanity in the peace of God for sacrificial purposes, for which, praise God, it yet abides (v. 24). The Lord exhorted him to enlist in the reformatory and character-building sacrificial work responsive and mature brethren from among the Lord's people, and to tear down every self-exalting and combinationistic characteristic among the Lord's people, and in its place present the brethren as pure sacrificers to the Lord (v. 25). To fulfill the Lord's pertinent work there charged (v. 26), the fulness of the humanity of brethren needed to do this work was given J. for overcoming these two evil qualities and for their making a pure offering of themselves to the Lord for such reformatory and character-building work, even as the Lord's Word teaches; but he did it quietly, because of enemies (v. 27). When power-grasping, lording and combinationistic characters among the Lord's people saw clearly what was done (v. 28), they inquired of one another as to who had done it; and they learned that J. as supported by God had done it (v. 29). These desired of the brethren to cut off J. from such activities (v. 30). The brethren demanded of these power-graspers and lords and combinationists who were seeking to combine good and evil ways of doing the Lord's work whether they would defend and deliver these two evil qualities. If so, they should be cut off at once from their places as leaders among God's people. They also demanded that these qualities, if strong, should justify themselves, if they were not refuted qualities (v. 31). This characteristic of struggling against power-grasping and combinationism marked J. from that time on, because he had not only in himself overcome these two evil characteristics, but had fought against them on behalf of the brethren (v. 32). This brings us up to the end of the little Jewish Harvest, June 8-July 18, 1915. This little Jewish Harvest 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


had thus two main features: J.'s dedicating himself to the Lord for a new campaign (1) of overcoming as to himself in true character-building and (2) of helping the brethren to do the same, especially against power-grasping, lording and mixing of good and evil. 

With v. 33 the small Miniature following the little Jewish Harvest sets in. First of all, the little great apostacy is very briefly described: All the errorists, sinners, selfish and worldly ones among God's professed people gathered and entrenched themselves in the condition summed up in the little union of state and church, i.e., combining worldly trickery with Truth ways (v. 33). J., moved by the Spirit, gathered together responsive brethren to combat the four above-mentioned sets of evil-doers among God's people as they expressed themselves in power-grasping, lording and combinationism in the little union of state and church during the Pergamos period of the small Miniature, as well as against these evil qualities themselves (March 22, 1916-July 17, 1917, corresponding to the years 317-799). This is typed in v. 34. J. aroused four further movements against these evil-doers and evil qualities. By the first call, with the aid of the four ousted directors and F.H. McGee, J. aroused many brethren against Rutherfordism from July 17 to Oct. 16, 1917, when J. completed his supplement to Harvest Siftings Reviewed, corresponding to the years 799 to 890. By the second call, with the aid of R.H. Hirsh and R.G. Jolly, Mar. 24-Aug. 22, 1918, corresponding to the years 1049-1200, J. aroused a movement against Rutherfordism in the Fort Pitt Committee, to which others joined themselves. Here, again, the same forms of evil were attacked. By the third call, issued through the first five numbers of The Present Truth, J., with the aid of R.H. Hirsh and R.G. Jolly, aroused a third movement against the same forms of evil exercised by the P.B.I., Dec. 9, 1918-Mar. 22, 1919, corresponding to the years 1309-1412. 

By a fourth call, issued in The Present Truth, Nos. 8 and 9, J., with the aid of R.H. Hirsh and R.G. Jolly, started to 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


arouse a fourth movement, and that against the Society, May 28-June 16, 1919, corresponding to the years 1479-1498. These four movements correspond to the four sets of men responding to Gideon's call in v. 35. But J. desired further evidence from the Lord that He would use him to overthrow the main evils of the power-graspers, lords over God's heritage and combinationists, and his acts, not words, asked that the Lord might grant this, first by His giving Truth in the various little sect-like movements of the little Reformation period (July 5, 1919-Mar. 27, 1920, corresponding to 1517-1844, from Luther's beginning the Reformation to Miller's ending it in the Advent movement of 1829 to 1844). These little Reformation truths were given in Truths, Nos. 6, 9-13, and were circulated broadcast among the little sect-like movements. These, but no others, absorbed considerable of these truths, while the water wrung out represents the gathering of these truths into a summary in the small cleansed sanctuary in Truth, No. 18 (vs. 36-38). J.'s course longing for the little Parousia's truths (June 26-Aug. 5, 1920, corresponding to 1874-1914), as set forth in Truths, Nos. 19, 20, was a factual, not a verbal request that the Lord indicate to him by the non-absorption of these truths by the little sect-like movements, but by their acceptance in Truth circles outside of these sect-like movements, that He desired him to overwhelm the power-graspers and the combinationists and their theories. This was granted. 

In Judg. 7:1-8 for the small Miniature the Lord's separation of the Epiphany-enlightened brethren from the good organized and from the good unorganized Levites is typed, as in the large Gospel Age He separated the Little lock from the justified and the crown-losers. Just as throughout the Gospel Age there was in general such a separation, yet in particular it occurred in the period from 1846 to 1914, so in the small Miniature there had been progressively, first with the Gershonites, then with the Merarites, such a separation, and after prior Kohathite separations it came to 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


a head in the separation from Mar. 29 to Aug. 5, 1920, of the Amramite Kohathites from the Epiphany movement as the priestly movement. J. and his supporters took their position on the Truth which makes for trembling, reverence, for God, while the errorists took their position in the little Babylonian kingdom, where sharp sayings were shot forth by figurative archers (Judg. 7:1). The number of good organized and unorganized crown-losers who at first sympathized with J. were so many that they would take the glory of victory over the errorists themselves, and not give it to God (v. 2). Hence the Lord allowed fear-inspiring experiences, the shaking experiences in the British Church during J.'s ministry there in 1917, in the Society after J.'s return to America in 1917, in the P.B.I. and in the Standfasts in 1918; and these experiences frightened the bulk of J.'s sympathizers away from him; but there were left with him as sympathizers some, but not many, Sturgeonites, Ritchieites and Olsonites and all Hirshites, as well as real Epiphany-enlightened friends. These together constituted the little 10,000 (v. 3). But by various untoward experiences the Lord gave J. to understand that even these were too many, and that they should be tested by their attitude toward the unfolding Truth by which God would indicate to him who would and who would not go with him to the battle with the errorists (v. 4). J. led them all to the unfolding Truth; and the Lord indicated to J. that those who would show the proper spirit in the study, spread and practice of the Epiphany Truth should be set aside by themselves, and those who would bow down in human servility while partaking of the Truth, not making it their own by a proper study, spread and practice of it, should be set aside by themselves (v. 5). Only the true Epiphanyites stood this test; and the Sturgeonites, Ritchieites, Olsonites and Hirshites fell under it (v. 6). 

It was in the Amramite sifting, which set in, in June and July (corresponding to the Parousia's five siftings), that the Lord indicated to J. who were the little 300 that would 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


overcome the errorists and who were the little 9,700; for that shaking thoroughly shook away from sympathy with the Epiphany movement not only all the Hirshites, but also all the Sturgeonites, Ritchieites and Olsonites (v. 7). Thus all the Epiphanyites took powerful hold on the Truth as their symbolic food, also as their means of proclamation, while the others by the sifting were sent each one fixedly to his place: some as Sturgeonites, some as Ritchieites, some as Olsonites and the rest as Hirshites. J. by the power of the Truth kept with him the little 300, while the theoretical position of the errorists was below him, in the condition of error (v. 8). The Lord by His providences charged J. in secrecy to go mentally on a scouting expedition among the errorists, assuring him that He had delivered their position into his power (v. 9), but assured him that if he feared to do this alone he should take with him R.G. Jolly, his special helper (v. 10). The Lord charged him to study the viewpoint of the errorists and assured him that this would strengthen his power against them. Accordingly, J. and R.G.J. went mentally among the Amramites, who were now a part of the errorists, but the part nearest the Epiphanyites (v. 11). The errorists, the sinners and the selfish and worldly were spread out in a low condition of heart and mind, everywhere contaminated with innumerable errors and multitudinous combinations of organized evils of heart and mind, and seemed numberless, like the fallen race (v. 12). As J, studied the position of the errorists, particularly that of their Amramite section, he heard the Kittingerite section of these explaining and discussing their fears of the opposition that the errorists were meeting in Truths, Nos. 18-20, and that seemed fraught with threats to the errorist position. The Hirshite section of the Amramites answered that the Truth in those three issues was nothing less than the controversial arguments of J., a servant of God, who had delivered into his power the errorists (vs. 13, 14). 

On hearing this discussion and the interpretation placed

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


upon it, J. thanked and praised God and returning to his position and co-laborers, encouraged them to arise to the fray, asserting that the Lord had surely delivered the errorists into their hand (v. 15). The time was the afternoon of Aug. 5, 1920, which corresponds to Oct., 1914, for early that afternoon Truth, No. 21, which contains the Evil Servant article and the second and more trenchant part of the Shearno-Crawfordism article, was delivered by the printer to the Bible House; and J. immediately gave copies of it to the Bible House staff and some Truth visitors, and then the work of wrapping and mailing the first copies of it occurred already that afternoon, including mailing that afternoon a copy of it to each member of the Society's Board of judgment that Bro. Russell had appointed to try evil teaching and doing editors, i.e., excluding J.F.R., he mailed copies of it to the other six directors, the other four Tower editors and the Sisters' committee which held Bro. Russell's voting shares. This started the little antitypical Gideon's First Battle. Note the date and the hour! They correspond to Oct., 1914, when antitypical Gideon's First Battle began. J. then arranged the participants of this little battle into three companies: speakers, Truth distributors and conversationalists, equipped all of them with the pertinent message, which was one of Truth in their earthen vessels, emptied of controlling sin, error, selfishness and worldliness (v. 16). He exhorted them to watch how he presented the matters and imitate him, and as he would do, when they would reach the enemy's position, so should they do (v. 17). 

Finally, and when he and all with him in his company would sound forth the message then all the rest of the other two companies everywhere among the errorists should sound forth the message, and should act out the battle's motto: For God and J., the latter since the peculiar circumstances of little antitypical Gideon's First Battle required a vindication of J. to be made (v. 18). When J. and the pilgrims and lecturing elders, as the first set of warriors, reached the position 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


of the errorists, it was just at the end of the little Parousia and the beginning of the little Epiphany, when a change of watchers was due the errorists; and they began to proclaim the message, even by their power sacrificing their humanity, which caused the fight of Truth to shine out amid the darkness against the little Divine right of executives, of teachers and of the assistants of these, i.e., they exposed the evils of the Merarite and Gershonite executives, pilgrims and elders and the assistants of both of these; for they were claiming that their powers were of Divine right; and by pointing out their many evils, as, e.g., the two above-mentioned articles do, the Epiphanyites disproved their Divine-right claims (v. 19). Yea, all three sets of warriors sounded out the same message, sacrificed their humanity and with their lesser powers held up the pertinent Truth, their greater powers sounding forth the factual exposures of wrong-doing, all of them announcing the pertinent controversial arguments of the Bible and the facts that J. adduced (v. 20). 

Each of these warriors under J.'s direction kept himself active in his form of fighting all about the errorists, with the result that, as errorists and evil-doers or as supporters of such, the Merarites and Gershonites ran about in confusion, cried out in dread and terror and fled in complete rout, unable to answer the charges brought against them (v. 21). But the little three hundred kept emphasizing the disproofs of the little Divine right ("the channel" was one of these!) and the Lord set the controversial arguments of the two sets of Divine-rightist executives, teachers and their assistants against one another, the Merarite spokesmen refuting the Gershonite spokesmen and vice versa; and then dividing into radicals and conservatives throughout the whole host, the entire host fled in these two divisions of radicals and conservatives from the field of controversy (v. 22). Then the Kohathites, especially in the Olsonites, Kittingerites and Hirshites, joined in the pursuit of the retreating errorists, Merarites and Gershonites (v. 23). J. sent messengers to

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


all the recently-won Youthful Worthies to join in the pursuit and to take the ways of escape that the errorists would seek to reach in order to evacuate the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit. These brave Youthful Worthies responded, and cut off the two ways of retreat that the errorists were taking (v. 24). And thereby they overthrew the sectarianism and clericalism of little Babylon by argument, as well as overcame the spirit of these two evils in their own hearts. They refuted little Babylon's sectarianism by its own arguments and refuted little Babylon's clericalism amid its trying experiences by Biblical arguments and continued perseveringly the fight against the errorists. The refuted theories of little Babylon's sectarianism and clericalism they brought to J. as they described to him the ways in which they accomplished the refutation, and that, when he was getting ready to pass the peoples of little Christendom in his pursuit of the king errors of little Babylon: the dread threats of the Second Death and the thereunder conscience torments of these which the little Babylonians were constantly holding over their opponents, especially over the Epiphany-enlightened brethren (v. 25). Thus we have finished the study of the small Miniature of Judg. 7. 

Now we will take up the same viewpoint of Judg. 8, i.e., its application to the small Miniature. Remembering that in this Miniature the Youthful Worthies spoken of in Judg. 7:24, 25, were those who had but recently been called as such into the Epiphany movement, we are prepared to see how, shortly after seeing the Epiphany teaching that it was too late to become of the little 300, and thus take part in the little antitypical Gideon's First Battle, they came to blame J. very severely for not having called them in time therefore (v. 1). But he praised their belated work above his timely work, and showed them that he had not yet overthrown so great systems of error as they had, which calmed them (vs. 2, 3). Thereupon J. and the Epiphanyites, Aug. 11, 1920, started in pursuit of little Zebah and Zalmunna, going beyond the 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


peoples of little Christendom (v. 4). J.'s attack on J.F.R. and his supporters and upon H. J. S. and W. C. and their supporters, reaching in Truth, No. 21, Aug. 11, the Hirshites and Kittingerites, was a request for them to help in the little antitypical Gideon's Second Battle; but both groups refused the request made by this act (vs. 5, 6 and 8). Thereupon J. declared that after he would finish with the Merarites and Gershonites in their leaders and ledlings he would chastise the Hirshite and Kittingerite leaders and refute their entire position (vs. 7, 9). Some Merarites and Gershonites, particularly the former, the bulk of their followers having been refuted by the thoughts of Truth, No. 21, used their expressed sentence of the Second Death upon the Epiphanyite leaders and some of their supporters and the conscience torment of such against them while under the supposed Second Death sentence as their two main doctrines as fortresses to keep by fear their supporters in subjection to them, pivoting both of them on error as to the New Creature (v. 10). 

J. and the little 300 passed by without the support of the disapproving friends of the Epiphany movement and attacked in little antitypical Gideon's Second Battle the two named doctrines, that seemed safe, and that were just mentioned as the means of subjecting by fear the adherents of these (v. 11). Their believers were scattered abroad; and these two false doctrines were captured in their flight from the controversy. Early after this controversy J. returned, and in the article on Amramism Revealed by Scriptural principles and facts gave a thorough chastisement to the two branches of Amramism, especially in their leaders, and leveled the position of the Kittingerites, as well as refuted their leaders, several of the Jersey City brethren describing to J. R.H. Hirsh's sifting activities there and his leading supporters therein (vs. 13-17). The character-murdering effects on new creatures of little Zebah and Zalmunna having been learned by J., and after J.'s supporters showed insufficient development to destroy them, J, did it himself, taking away 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


all of the misapplied passages with which they had decked their organizations (vs. 18-21). Thus the Truth errorists were subdued and peace prevailed for the Epiphanyites, among whom J. remained (vs. 28, 29). 

From Judg. 8:22-27, 30–9:57 a wholly different type sets in, which has had a large and a small antitype. We will very briefly sketch the large antitype, whose details can be seen from our more detailed explanation of the small antitype, to be given after that antitype is given. The large Gideon of this section represents the twelve Apostles, whom the Jewish Harvest brethren desired to rule over them as a composite king, and after them the subsequent leaders as such, which the former refused to do, pointing out to them that the Lord through the principles of His Word was their Ruler (vs. 22, 23); but they asked that the Jewish Harvest brethren put at their disposal certain booty of their campaigns, which included especially their converts. Of these the Apostles constructed the order of the Church, general and local, insofar as the leaders were concerned. But soon the Lord's people, while yet some of the Apostles lived, perverted these leaders into lords over God's heritage (2 Thes. 2:7; 3 John 9, 10), which became a sore hindrance to the Apostles and a trap to the Church (vs. 24-27). By the Apostles' teachings arose the 70 general teachers of the Gospel Age, the 35 star-members and their 35 special helpers (v. 30). But the Apostolic contacts with some leaders became through the latters' abuses the occasion of their misdeveloping themselves into the falling away (2 Thes. 2:7), until out of this falling away the popes as a succession of false teachers and practicers developed (v. 31), after the Apostles fell asleep in the best repute in the Church (v. 32). Then developed the falling away rapidly marked by power-grasping and lording ones becoming the bond of the Church's unity (v. 33), when the Truth that reminds of God became lost, and the true God and His Apostles and their delivering works were forgotten (vs. 33-35). The popes by intrigue and the support of 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


erroneous partisans got control of matters by false teachings gotten from the power-grasping apostacy, whereby they cut off the star-members and their special helpers from influence in the Church, except only one of these, John the Apostle (Judg. 9:1-5). This falling away in time enabled the apostates to make the pope supreme in the Church, which reached its full in 539; then they gave him full power in the state by 799 (v. 6). 

John's teachings speaking through the Thyatira star-members on this subject characterized the process as a degeneracy from (1) star-members to (2) the episcopate, (3) the patriarchate and (4) the papacy (vs. 7-14), the papacy as a devourer of all opponents (v. 15), and the whole trend, especially the popedom, as opposed to Apostolic teaching and practice (vs. 16-18). If this was right, they declared, good would come to all concerned thereby (v. 19), but if not, evil would proceed from the popes to church and state and from state and church leaders to the popes (v. 20). This said, the star-members, speaking by John, retreated to the Lord's Word for fear of the popes (v. 21). The popes thus reigned from the sixth into the eighth century more or less unmolested (v. 22). In the late eighth century strife arose between certain state leaders and the popes, which God manipulated to punish the popes and such leaders. The latter sought to take from the former their powers; and the king of Lombardy joined them in this purpose while they worked to make it succeed (vs. 23-27). The Lombard king repudiated the pope's and his state supporters', especially Charlemagne's, claims and advocated the cause of their opponents, hoping himself to rule all Italy, and by his conduct challenged the pope to battle (vs. 28, 29). Charlemagne learned of this, became angry and betrayed the matter to the pope, telling him to work secretly and attack his opponents by surprise (vs. 30-33), which the pope did, by the four sets of forces sent him by Charlemagne (v. 34). The Lombard king arose to battle and, seeing these companies, was by Charlemagne deceived as to their intention until they had 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


surrounded him, when Charlemagne turned openly against him as a reviler of the pope, and in the ensuing battle the Lombard king was defeated, while the pope seemed detached from the matter (vs. 35-41). 

Informed by his supporters, the pope assaulted the Italian civil powers, by means of ecclesiastical, civil and military parties, and by the aid of Charlemagne got possession of a large part of Italy as a gift from Charlemagne after the latter had defeated the Lombard king (vs. 42-45). But the civil rulers of the pertinent parts of Italy took refuge in their ancient prerogatives as firm state arrangements. This was told the pope (vs. 46, 47), who armed himself and his followers with false legal points, and told them to use them as he did, by which he overthrew his opponents and their prerogatives in 799 and 800, through Charlemagne's help (vs. 48, 49). Then the pope waged war to bring into subjection to him the opposing parts of the Holy Roman Empire that Charlemagne had organized and in a more-than-century fight subdued the bulk of it to his influence (v. 50). But the papal degradation of the pornocracy period, 904-963, was fatal to the popes, for the strong position of some of the papal opponents in Germany gave them a vantage point upon whose pinnacle they stood (v. 51), which the pope sought to destroy (v. 52); but the German Church, standing back of the Emperor, Otto I (936-973), broke up this phase of the papacy, which for a long time afterward subjected the pope to the empire; and thus ended a very evil phase of the papacy, which, under the wounds that the German Church, in cooperation with the emperor, gave it, had its own theologians invent a doctrine that implied the subjection of the pope to the emperor. This brought peace to all for a while (vs. 53-55). In this way the Lord punished the favorers of the popes and the popes also, for their evils against the star-members and their helpers (vs. 56, 57). 

The above very concise interpretation of the large picture of Judg. 8:22-27, 29–9:57 will serve as a foundation of making clear the small Miniature application; for the 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


events just briefly given will be found in both applications to be those given in the parallels of the Gospel Age and its small Miniature in Chapter I. As the basis for the small Miniature we would remark that Bro. Russell is the antitype of Gideon in Judg. 8:22-27, 29–9:57. By his and his associates' Parousia victories over the errors of the Divine right and over eternal torment and the consciousness of the dead, he and they got much spoil from the errorists, which, among other things, was the embryo organization of the Church in the Parousia and its lapping into the Epiphany, and this includes the pilgrims and elders as a teaching staff. His victories moved the brethren to desire to make him, and after him the pilgrims, symbolic kings over the Church (v. 22). This he positively declined for himself and them, assuring them that only the Lord should be their Ruler (v. 23). But this Bro. Russell by his acts and teachings did ask that the pilgrims and elders, who were won by them from the errorists, should be made the teaching staff of the Church, this, among other things, being done by his appointing the pilgrims to their service in the Church and by his arranging for the classes to elect elders in their midst (v. 24), to which request the brethren heartily acceded (v. 25). Bro. Russell, therefore, arranged for these to be the teachers, some in the general Church and some for the local churches. 

But these, the teaching staff in the general Church and local churches, became a sore trial to Bro. Russell and the pilgrims, e.g., the experiences that led Bro. Russell to write the article on The Hour of Temptation, in Z '16, 327-331, and the experiences that the pilgrims had with one another, and that the elders had with one another and the ecclesias; and by the brethren the resultant conditions became a great trial, even as all trialsome experiences present snares to God's people (v. 27). The seventy pilgrims were in a special sense Bro. Russell's symbolic sons, developed by his many Truth teachings (v. 30). But his corporational work involved secular law, by which he developed a legalistically-minded 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


pilgrim, J.F.R., one who later claimed the powers of a symbolic king, allegedly derived from his supposed possession of all of Bro. Russell's powers in the work (Abimelech [my father is a king], v. 31). But as soon as Bro. Russell went beyond the vail, in the full respect of the Church, the brethren went after the strange gods of power-grasping, lording and combinationism and made lording by agreement, or covenant, their real god (vs. 32, 33). The bulk of the brethren forgot the Lord's past deliverances, nor did they remember our Pastor's sacrifices on their behalf, to the degree of following his teachings (vs. 34, 35). 

J.F.R. suggested to various legalistically-minded brethren in the Society, e.g., A.H.M. and W. E. V. and some other voting shareholders (Judg. 9:1), that they agitate the question with the Board members as to which would be better: to have all the pilgrims direct the general work or one of them to do it, reminding them that they should have him as very close to them therefore, and that they induce the Board to favor his directing the general work of the Society (v. 2). His supporters, especially in the voting shareholders' meeting on Jan. 7, 1917, by passing as by-laws the self-exalting and power-grasping resolutions that J.F.R. had begun to prepare, Dec. 28, 1916, to lodge executive and managerial powers in the Society in the new president, which he knew he would be, induced the directors to stand for him, because they considered him a genuine brother of theirs (v. 3). Surrendering their charter-powers, they put these coveted powers into his hands; and by these powers he won over certain vain supporters as thorough partisans of his, e.g., A.H.M., W. E. V., W. F. Hudgings, R. J. Martin, C.J. Woodworth, etc. (v. 4). Then, armed with these powers, he subjected to his authority his 70 pilgrim equals, and thus voided their equal powers as such, upon the basis of the powers conferred by the Board, except the most guileless one of them, J., who by virtue of his Board-given powers was as the Board's special representative outside of his 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


jurisdiction, and who by refusing to accept J.F.R.'s recall of him protected himself against being symbolically killed (v. 5). Thus the directors of the Society and the directors of the Peoples Pulpit Association made J.F.R. the executive and manager, the former by adopting his by-laws and the latter by electing him president with the assumption that this gave him controlling powers for life, whereas the Peoples Pulpit Association's charter gave such to that president alone who was elected at its first meeting; and they did this as setting him up as quasi-equal of Bro. Russell (v. 6). When J. learned of this action, in the exercise of his office as the Epiphany messenger he reviewed the connected matters in the hearing of the Board, desiring that God might hearken to them (v. 7). 

J. pointed out that a movement had been launched to elect him president of the Society (v. 8), but that he had refused to leave the service that God had given him to become president of the Society (v. 9). Next a movement had been afoot to have the Board act, not only as controller, but also as executive and manager in the Society (v. 10), and it refused after trying it for about a week (v. 11). Then its executive committee was asked to take the executive and managerial authority as a fixed matter (v. 12), and at the end of the two months it likewise refused (v. 13). Then the offer was made from Jan. 7 to Jan. 19 to J.F.R. (v. 14). Then he by act told the brethren that they must not only accept, but be subject to him as, controller, executive and manager, else destruction would go out from him against all who were leaders (v. 15). Recounting what the two Boards had done as to J.F.R., and what they had thereby done as to the arrangements of Bro. Russell, who deserved much of them because of his great sacrifices for their deliverance from error (vs. 16, 17), and what they had done to Bro. Russell's pilgrims on the basis of that power-granting by-law (v. 18), J. said that if these things were faithful and sincere dealings with Bro. Russell and his pilgrims, then they, the two 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


Boards, and J.F.R. would have reason to rejoice in their mutual benefits (v. 19); but if not, then destructive trouble would come out from J.F.R. to the injury of the two Boards, and destructive trouble would go out from them to his injury (v. 20). Thereupon J. betook himself to the Lord's Word pertaining to these conditions, as a refuge from J.F.R. (v. 21). 

For about three months of J.F.R.'s reign, i.e., Jan. 19-April 10, there was comparative peace between J.F.R.'s control of matters and the attitude of the two Boards thereon (v. 22). On the afternoon of April 10, 1917, J.'s so-called first hearing before the Board was held; and one of the results of that so-called hearing was that several members of the Board became sympathetic with J.'s viewpoint of the British situation. This started the difference between J.F.R. and the Board (it was really the Lord who, through that afternoon's happenings, started that difference); for J.D. Wright, I.F. Hoskins and R.H. Hirsh, Society Board members, and Menta Sturgeon, a member of the Association's Board, began to see the real light on the British situation; and from that time onward, unconsciously at first, they began to react against J.F.R. (v. 23), the Divine purpose thereby being to render retribution for the wrong done Bro. Russell's pilgrims by both J.F.R. and the Board members, the first named as the actual wrong-doer and the others for aiding and abetting the wrong by voting him the powers wrongly desired and used by him (v. 24). 

The Board members and certain of their sympathizers watched him in all his official acts to detect usurpations; and they took advantage of those whom they found aiding him therein, and this was made known to J.F.R. (v. 25). J. and certain sympathizers of his, Menta Sturgeon, Srs. Hamilton, Ritchie, (Edith) Hoskins, etc., took up Society conditions and the Board's majority trusted him (v. 26). These Board brothers went about their work, gathering in the fruitage of their labors, and made it available for teaching matters joyously; and, entering into their plans for 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


obtaining for the Board controllership against J.F.R.'s usurpations, they appropriated whatever came to hand for their purpose, and copiously spoke against J.F.R. among themselves (v. 27). J. joined with individual Board members, never in any of the four directors' meetings, in this denunciation of J.F.R.'s usurpations, calling in question his right to control, and advocating the right of the Society through its Board by unanimity or majority to control in the Society's affairs. Of J.F.R. he said that he had no more claims on Society control as by right than any other pilgrim. Likewise he claimed of A.H.M. that he had no more right to authority than as a representative of J.F.R. He advocated that the Society's representative should be subject to the charter as the state source of the Society, declaring that there was no reason for the Board and the brethren to be subject to J.F.R.; the abrogation of his executive and managerial powers he advocated, because J.F.R. used them to usurp control (v. 28). Knowing from Ezra and Esther that the Lord had given him the executive and teaching office in the Society's affairs, J. desired this, and said that when he would get it he would remove J.F.R. from his executive powers; and by his course he challenged him to battle on the points at issue (v. 29). 

Some one, before J. had, early in June, 1917, requested to be sent back to England to finish his work there, brought to A.H.M., as J.F.R.'s manager and right-hand man, a report of J.'s views and attitude, which angered the former (v. 30). Accordingly, he sent word to J.F.R. to the effect that J. and his supporters were giving their attention to Society matters, and were stirring up the Society in its directors against J.F.R. (v. 31), advising him to take measures secretly to set a trap to catch J. (v. 32), and suggesting that it be done quickly, as soon as J. and his supporters would take an oppositional stand toward him, and that he do what seemed the best way to meet it (v. 33). Accordingly, J.F.R. took secret measures and laid a trap to catch the Society as 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


represented in the Board, by appointing the four Board directors instead of the full Board to examine J.'s British work, and by opposing to J. (1) three members of the Board, (2) "the present management," (3) certain workers at the Tabernacle and (4) certain workers at Bethel (v. 34). It was while the four directors were investigating the British matter that the fourfold combination under J.F.R.'s lead arose to oppose J. (v. 35). 

J. noted the start of the Board's pertinent movement, and called thereto the attention of A.H.M., who told J. that he misunderstood as its movement an unclear course of it on another subject (v. 36). Then J. perceived the activities of "the present management" in trying to send him away on a pilgrim trip, to land him at his home, where he would then be safely shelved away from Bethel, and to send I.F. Hoskins on a lengthy pilgrim trip, so as to break up the majority of the Board at the proposed July 20 meeting, where the vote was to be taken on canceling J.F.R.'s bylaws granting him executive and managing authority. At this A.H.M. made no reply. Later J. perceived the Tabernacle and Bethel workers massing against him (v. 37). Then A.H.M. rebuked J. for his attitude and words against J.F.R. and told him that all the brethren at headquarters had been set at naught by him and told him defiantly now to go out and contend with them (v. 38). J. met this challenge that noon, June 22, by asking J.F.R. that they have a brotherly discussion of their differences, reminding him of their former good relations. It was agreed to have this conference at 3 P.M., but at that time J.F.R. sent his secretary to J., telling him that it could not be held then, because he was then to see some men on repairs at Bethel. The next A.M. they had a brief conversation, which resulted in J.'s leaving him as holder of the field and in J.'s supporters being scattered (vs. 39, 40; for details please see EF 76, 77). 

J.F.R. took a high position as his; and A.H.M. saw to it that no more newly arranged work was given J, in the Society after his pilgrim appointment on the afternoon and 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


evening of June 24 was filled and the report thereon given, June 26, which also was done a little later with his supporters (v. 41). Thereafter J.F.R.'s supporters went about their work at Bethel, and informed him of everything that they could against those who were now being called "the Opposition" (v. 42). He divided his followers into three groups: (1) "the present management," (2) Tabernacle workers and (3) Bethel workers, all of whom watched for opportunities to pounce upon "the Opposition"; and when the four directors' and J.'s supporters went to their various activities J.F.R. and his supporters arose against them and gave them verbal beatings (v. 43). J.F.R., with the rest of "the present management," took control of the public part of the battleground; and the Tabernacle and Bethel workers pounced in a more private way upon "the Opposition," and cut them off from brotherly privileges and service (v. 44). All that period, June 26-July 6, J.F.R. was assaulting the Society: he left in J.'s room the night of June 26 the Board's resolution that cast a shadow upon J.'s British work; he stirred up his headquarters' partisans against J. and his supporters, and manipulated them against what actually was the Society, since the four as the Board's majority really were the Society representatively. Thus J.F.R. fought against the Society, took control of it, cut off from their places in it "the Opposition," in fact dissolved and gave over the Society to desolation as represented in its charter and its Board acting as a majority (v. 45). When the four directors, who as the majority were the Board actually and stood for its charter, learned of what J.F.R. was doing, they entered into and took their stand in the sphere of power, the charter (v. 46). This stand was told J.F.R. (v. 47). Then he and his supporters resorted to the realm of ambiguous law (Zalmon [unclear, shady]); and, taking as a refutative instrument a law which expressly stated that it was not retroactive, and therefore did not apply to the previously-granted Society's charter, by his legal arm and

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


that of his hireling lawyer, who later in effect acknowledged that he knew his points were not legal, but who said he formulated them as J.F.R., his client, desired, J.F.R. cut down an opinion from the tree of this law that, if valid, undid his directorship and consequently nullified his election as president, and laboriously carried it to the sphere of the Society, urging his supporters to do likewise (v. 48), which they did, following him in applying this to the charter, and destroyed it in its directorship-appointment and officer-election features, and thus ousted the Board's majority and annulled the rights of their supporters, (v. 49). 

Then he betook himself to overcome the exposures (Thebez [brightness]) of his power-grasping of control in the Society, by issuing his grossly untrue letter of July 18 (later made the inset of his Harvest Siftings) to the ecclesias, by his two grossly mendacious papers, Harvest Siftings (Part I and Part II), his illegally using proxies not intended for such a purpose to oust I.F. Hoskins and R.H. Hirsh from the Peoples Pulpit Association, his country-wide convention campaign of misrepresentation of "the Opposition," his straw-vote campaign, his demanding that the shareholders' proxies be sent to the Society before election, Jan. 6, 1918, and his encouraging C.J. Woodworth to preach his silly interpretation of the penny parable with J.F.R. as its steward—all of which reeked to the heavens with wickedness, and which, however, externally triumphed (v. 50). But "the Opposition" resorted to the strength of truth in various publications, like the two brief legal and factual statements of the Board's majority: one late in July and the other early in August, at the Boston Convention, Light After Darkness, Harvest Siftings Reviewed and Facts For Shareholders, on which they took their stand (v. 51). But J.F.R. fought these, seeking to effect an entrance so as to destroy this tower of truth (v. 52). While he was so engaged, a paper which consisted of an open letter and a petition to J.F.R. and the four ousted directors, signed by many members of 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


the New York Temple, Brooklyn Tabernacle and a few other brethren, in all 156 in number, which made it practically a Church action, was widely circulated. The petition asked that a committee be appointed as follows: three to be chosen by J.F.R., three by the ousted directors, which six were to elect a seventh and the seven elect eight others, these constituting a committee of 15 who should give a searching and impartial investigation of all of the involved matters of the Society since the death of Bro. Russell and report their findings to the voting shareholders' meeting of Jan. 4, 1918, so that these might have the report for their guidance in the election of Jan. 6. This letter and petition, lighting upon J.F.R.'s theory of things from the height of the applicable true principles, cracked irretrievably his view of the situation, i.e., that his arbitrary decision should stand (v. 53). It began to have this effect Dec. 1, 1917, and completed this effect by Dec. 28. 

An investigation was the last thing J.F.R. desired, since he knew that he would under it have been proved the gross wrong-doer, though the Board would have had to be censured for voting his suggested by-laws into effect and thus giving him unjustly coveted and plotted-for powers, which can, from the parallels of the Gospel Age and its small Miniature, proving his acts to be the parallels of the popes up to 963, be seen to have been evilly gotten and used. Sensing that his view of settling the matter was utterly broken by the proposal of the petition, he appealed to A.H.M. to invent an argument that would refute his view, in order that he might be saved the disgrace of being refuted by what was in effect and later actually became a Church; and A.H.M. did this by claiming that the [deceived] shareholders had gotten sufficient information to decide, which, of course, was untrue, since a very large majority of them had not gotten to read "the Opposition's" replies to J.F.R.'s misrepresentations, their addresses being unavailable to "the Opposition," who had only 17,000 of the more than 55,000 Tower addresses to which Harvest Siftings had been mailed. 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


However, in God's view the blow of this open letter and the theory thrust of A.H.M. ended the primary little popedom's career of J.F.R. for over a year (v. 54). And from God's and facts' standpoints the change in the small Miniature, occurring gradually from Dec. 1 to Dec. 28, from J.F.R. as the primary little pope to F.H. McGee as such made J.F.R.'s partisan supporters recede into his own obscurity, he only occasionally appearing as a little anti-pope until the picture reverted to him as primary one (v. 55). 

Thus God recompensed upon J.F.R. his wickedness in power-grasping and lording, despite the arrangements that God gave through Bro. Russell, against his fellow-pilgrims, Bro. Russell's symbolic sons, in making them subordinate to himself, i.e., in exalting himself above them as their controller (v. 56); and thus God recompensed upon the seven directors the evil that they committed in making J.F.R. the ruler in the Society. It will be noted that no condemnation is passed on J. for his part in this matter; rather in teaching respects, as typed by Jotham, he is represented as being the Divine mouthpiece in announcing punishment upon the wrongs of both sets of wrong-doers; and, so far as his executive functions are concerned, he, like his large parallel, Desiderius, king of the Lombards, in his unsuccessful fight against the involved popes' power-grasping against the star-members, whose small parallel J. was, led an unsuccessful fight against the power-grasping little pope, J.F.R. In this type also J.F.R. is represented as committing the evils with which J. in EF, Chapter I, charged him. This type further proves that J.'s statement of the situation in that chapter is thoroughly true in those parts of it that treat of the evils of J.F.R. The other parts of that chapter are proven to be true by other types, some of which, those of Nehemiah, Ezra, Mordecai and Judah's and Israel's kings, have already been given and others of which will be given in types yet to be presented. The Board in this type is blamed for its weakly having yielded to J.F.R.'s unholy ambition the powers enumerated in 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


his own invented and by the Board's passed by-laws. Thus God has given us in Judg. 8:22-25, 27–9:57 an inspired and, therefore, true forecast of the troubles at the Brooklyn Tabernacle and Bethel from the death of our Pastor, Oct. 31, 1916, to the end of the first phase of J.F.R.'s primary little papacy, Dec. 28, 1917. 

Judg. 10 immediately connects in time with the events of Judg. 9, a fact evident in the type and in the large and small antitypes; for as in the large antitype the powers of the pornocratic popes began to end with the accession of Otto I as the Emperor of the Holy German Roman Empire, in 936, through the reformatory efforts of the German clergy, and completely ended in 963, so J.F.R.'s primary little papacy gradually came to an end from Dec. 1 to Dec. 28, 1917. We must look for the large and small antitypes of Tola (purple, royal) the son of Puah (mouthpiece), the son of Dodo (love), as arising sometime within these periods, which would make their rise occur after the symbolic stone struck the symbolic pate of the large and small symbolic Abimelechs. The facts prove that the large Tola was the star-member, Dunstan, of England, who in 949 began a great work of reformation in the British Church by preaching and acting against great papal abuses there. He was a thorn (Shamir) in the flesh of wrong-doers, and acted as a true mouthpiece full of Divine love; and the special reformatory part of his ministry was from 949 to 972, when he humbled the wicked Eadgar, king of England. His memory was honored, because he was a thorn to the wicked (vs. 1, 2). After him arose, 972, Hugh Capet, who had since 956 been Duke of France, who in 987 became the first king of France, and who in 994 established institutions helpful for the empire. 

It was in the period, 972-994, that his work of ordering a reformation, in France went on both in state and church and also toward the Holy Roman Empire, of which France was then no longer a part. His policy was one of special righteousness and truth (Jair [he shines, gives light]). He had 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


under him thirty feudal lords, all insisting on exercising the ordinances of feudal lords, and maintaining, thirty separate principalities, which owned him as their sovereign, and which for centuries remained feudal principalities (vs. 3, 4). The facts of the small antitype prove that J. became the little Tola, Dec. 14, 1917, which was after the gradual loss of J.F.R.'s absolutism set in, Dec. 1, and continued as such until 10 A.M., Jan. 6, 1918. During this period, beginning with J.'s going to Philadelphia, Dec. 14, to strengthen "the Opposition's" supporters there, J. preached at Philadelphia, Pa., Hampton, Va., Norfolk, Va., Brooklyn, N.Y., and Pittsburgh, Pa., on The Last Related Acts of Elijah and Elisha, Calls-Siftings-Slaughter Weapons, etc., and thereby greatly strengthened the opposition to J.F.R. and confirmed faith in the cause of "the Opposition." This he did as a member of the royal priesthood (Tola), the Lord's Epiphany messenger (Puah), in much love (Dodo), proving a thorn in the flesh of the partisan Societyites (Shamir), and was thereafter respected as such (vs. 1, 2). In his set debate before the Fort Pitt Convention the morning of Jan. 6, 1918, with M. Sturgeon, on the separation of Elijah and Elisha, he as small parallel of Hugh Capet so seriously worsted the latter in causing the Truth to shine forth (Jair [he gives light]) as to raise him in the estimation of the conventioners to the degree of displacing M. Sturgeon as the teaching leader of "the Opposition." That afternoon thirty brethren, a list of whose names and addresses F.H. McGee gave J., and which is yet in his possession, appointed the Fort Pitt Committee. These thirty exercised their prerogatives as such appointers, and through the Committee formed thirty separate groups, which for a while remained loyal to J., who ceased acting in this capacity on Jan. 28, when he gave the Fort Pitt Committee his draft of the letter to the Bible Students worldwide that it had commissioned him to draw up, and that, after A.I. Ritchie and M. Sturgeon had, because of J.'s greater influence in the Committee, resigned therefrom (vs. 3-5). 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


The rest of the chapter in the large picture types the evils in church, state and society that set in with the closing years of the tenth century and continued until and into the long-drawn-out repentance from the 13th to the 16th centuries. The power-graspings of the pope and his hierarchy and of the emperor and his court, the intrigues and chicanery that marked these, the unholy alliance of state and church, the hatreds and envies of the leaders, resulting in many terrible wars, including the crusades, the autocracies of the leaders, the clericalisms of the higher and lower clergy and the party spirit of all of these, involving, of course, their followings, marked these centuries (v. 6). This resulted in the Lord in displeasure giving up His people into the power of the church and state partisans and of the clericalists (v. 7). This resulted in much grief and weight coming upon the Lord's people, especially upon those who were reformatorily inclined, led by Berengar of Tours, Peter Abelard, Arnold of Brescia, Peter DeBrys, Henry of Lausanne and Peter Waldo (v. 8); and it even reached those who were not so inclined (v. 9). The reform movements started repentance and confession of sins among the Lord's people in various branches of Christendom (v. 10). 

But God refused them speedy deliverance, reminding them of His past deliverances from the worldings, errorists, clericalists, sectarians, avaricious, sinners and disfellowshipped (vs. 11, 12), despite which they had forsaken Him (v. 13), and ironically suggested by their experiences that they seek deliverance at the hand of their evil qualities (v. 14). But they persisted in their confession of sins and expression of submission to His chastisements, pleading for deliverance (v. 15). Beginning early in the 14th century, and continuing to the late 15th century, through the ministries of Marsiglio, Tauler, Wyclif, Hus, Wessel and Savonarola, the Lord's people set aside from themselves the evil qualities mentioned above and served truth and righteousness which, appealed to God's compassion on their sufferings (v. 16). 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


Then the clericalists, beginning 1459, entered a new feature of oppression, led by the wicked popes of the second half of the 15th and the early part of the 16th centuries; for they made an invasion into the sphere of the reforming brethren; and these, under the lead of Wessel and Savonarola, rallied about watchful teachings (v. 17). The reforming brethren discussed the question as to who should battle for them against the papal clericalists as a suitable one at their head (v. 18). 

The small picture of vs. 6-18 had its fulfillment in the period from Jan. 21, 1918, when M. Sturgeon attacked J. before the Brooklyn "Opposition" Ecclesia, to June 30, 1919. Here envy marked M. Sturgeon's and A.I. Ritchie's course toward J., prompting them to resign from the Fort Pitt Committee. Soon power-grasping, strife, power-bartering, autocracy, clericalism and partisanship began to set in among four members of the Committee, who constantly accused J. of what they themselves were guilty. As a result, divisionism set in, in the Committee and power-grasping on the part of the four; and they introduced the same spirit among the majority of their followers, agitating against J. verbally and by mail (v. 6). For details please see EG 89-131, 225-268. This moved the Lord to displeasure; and He allowed His people to fall into oppression, captivity to these evil doings and evil leaders, from the standpoint of this picture from Jan. 21, 1918, to June 30, 1919 (v. 7), which oppression affected the reforming brothers, R.H. Hirsh, R.G. Jolly and J., who had very stormy experiences with the others during most of this period (v. 8). The clericalistically minded group in the Committee went beyond the reforming brethren and oppressed the pilgrims, elders and ecclesias, and thus distressed all the brethren (v. 9). This led the faithful to confession of their recognized sins, especially their share in power-grasping and lording (v. 10). Thereupon the Lord by the circumstances reminded them of His having delivered them at their repeated prayers from the present evil world, from the errorists, from the clericalists, from the

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


partisans, from the bargain-compromisers, from the sinners and from the disfellowshipped (vs. 11, 12). He further reminded them of the fact that; despite all these mercies and goodnesses, they nevertheless, not only ceased living in harmony with His principles, but also became guilty of the evils of power-grasping, lording, combinationism, envy, strife, selfish compromises, absolutism, clericalism and partisanship; hence He was no more delivering them, which answer He gave them by His acts, not by His words (v. 13). 

Then by leaving them a long time without relieving them of their oppressions, He ironically told them, by act, not by word, to get relief through the evil qualities that they had developed and exercised (v. 14). Of course, they knew that this was impossible, which led them to a renewal of their acknowledging their sins; and they pleaded with Him to mete out to them any punishment for their wrong-doing that He thought necessary for their correction, only they pleaded for immediate deliverance from the tyranny of their evil qualities and the oppressions and oppressors that these brought upon them (v. 15). A reformation set in, beginning in its first phase at the Asbury Park Convention, July 28, 1918, and lasting until late November, and then in its second phase running on through the following months until early in May, 1919, i.e., until the fifth number of The Present Truth appeared and had its effect. This moved the Lord to mercy; for He felt deeply with His people. This oppression in its first two phases lasted through most of the period of the ascendancy of the Fort Pitt Committee and that of the P.B.I., i.e., from Jan. 21, 1918, until May 8, 1919 (v. 16); and its third phase began May 8, 1919, when the small Miniature changed from the papal primacy of F.H. McGee back to that of J.F.R., who began to assemble his forces against the reforming brethren, and oppressed them until the period of June 30-July 6, when the Lord's people prepared to and actually did assemble at the Philadelphia Convention in watchful waiting to counter-attack J.F.R. (v. 17). 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


From May 28 to June 30 search was made on the part of the Epiphany and certain non-Epiphany leaders and friends for a leader against the Society, whom they would make their warrior and teaching leader (v. 18). 

We now will take up the study of Judg. 11 and will very briefly give its large antitype and thereafter will give its small antitype in a little more detail. The reformers who were cast out by their Romanist brethren were, in their capacity of being cast out, especially Marsiglio, Tauler, Wyclif and Hus, all Sardis star-members, as expounders (Jephthah [he opens, expounds]), and their special helpers, who were mothered by certain truths that were foreign to the Romanists. It should be here remarked that the word zonah, translated harlot in v. 1, may mean an harlot or an inn-keeper, an hostess, a store-keeper; and here it evidently does not mean an harlot, for it was the Truth that mothered the Sardis star-members and their special helpers. Inn-keeper here, as in Judg. 16:1, is evidently the right translation. These reformers were able controversialists, developed by certain anti-papal truths through God's people (v. 1). God's people also developed others, like the hierarachy, civil rulers, clergy, monks, professors, etc., who as they matured cast out the reformers, the Sardis star-members and special helpers, declaring that they were not to enjoy the blessings of the Lord's people, for they were developed by foreign teachings (v. 2). Therefore the anti-papal reformers fled from their Romanist brethren and dwelt in a good sphere of the Truth and its Spirit; and certain unprofitable ones, like the humanists and doubleminded theologians, associated with these; especially later representatives of these, like John of Goch (1401-1475) and John Wesel (1402-1481), joined themselves with them and contended for their principles (v. 3). 

Beginning with 1459, under Pius II, the Romanist Church in their popes started a war on the reforming brethren, using their theologians, politicians and inquisitors as their chief warriors, e.g., when John Wesel had attacked indulgences and the corruption of the hierarchy 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


the inquisition laid hold on him, Feb., 1479, and compelled him to recant. The same inquisition sought a few weeks later to seize John Wessel, who later became the principal man of the Philadelphia Church; but from Germany he fled to Holland, where in safety and fruitfulness he spent the rest of his life, dying Oct. 4, 1489. In 1490 Savonarola began his reformation in Florence and in 1498 he was strangled and burnt by order of Alexander VI, perhaps the most evil of all popes (v. 4). And this war continued. The reforming brethren, seeking for a leader, hit in turn upon the Philadelphia star-members, Luther, Zwingli, Hubmaier, Servetus, Cranmer, Browne and (George) Fox (v. 5), asking them in turn to lead them in the fight against the clericalists (v. 6). After discussion between these and the reforming party leaders as to each one's rejection or acceptance as leader, each agreed to lead the fight, under solemn assurance of loyalty to him (vs. 7-10), was accepted by all the reforming party, and spoke as in the Lord's service (v. 11). 

Thereupon each one of these star-members in turn preached and published to the hierarchy expostulations against their invasion of the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit (v. 12). The hierarchy replied that the reform party had invaded, captured and possessed itself of its sphere of teaching and spirit and had perverted these, and, therefore, demanded a restoration of these (v. 13). The star-members in their publications, preaching, etc., denied this, by proving that their doctrines and practices were taught in the Bible and were distinctly different from those of Christendom and the papacy (vs. 14-18), as they were antagonistic to Satan and sin in victorious battles against them (vs. 19-22); hence they declared that they would maintain what the Lord had given them (v. 23), and told the hierarchy to keep within their own sphere, and that they should keep what their God had given them (v. 24). Furthermore, they disparagingly contrasted the hierarchy's pertinent course with Satan's autocratic course in leaving the Truth and its Spirit with the Lord's people in 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


the Jewish Harvest, when the falling away did not take it from the Lord's people (vs. 25, 26). Hence the star-members reasoned that they had not wronged the hierarchy, but that it had wronged them in warring upon them, and that the Lord would decide the issue, to which expostulation it gave no heed (vs. 27, 28). 

Thereupon God's Spirit moved the star-members to enlist the reform party in church and state with watchfulness to fight the hierarchy and its supporters (v. 29). These star-members vowed to give anything of their dearest possession to the Lord in acceptable sacrifice after victory (vs. 30, 31). Then the fight set in on the Bible as the sole source of faith and main rule of practice, justification by faith alone, the sole headship of Jesus to the Church, the sole priesthood of the consecrated, the Lord's Supper as a symbolic feast, baptism for adult believers only, the unity of God, the Church subject in earthly matters to the state, the ecclesia under Christ the sole mistress in her midst and true religion as consisting mainly of supreme love to God and equal love to man. While these were the ten main doctrines in dispute, there were ten others involved with these also in dispute, and the star-members and their supporters prevailed (vs. 32, 33). 

As the seven star-members returned from their part in the conflict, which lasted from 1512 to 1692 (Judg. 12:7, where the six years stand for six prophetic months, or 180 years, i.e., from the year that Luther at Rome saw justification by faith as distinct from works righteousness, his first assault on Rome, until the year following the death of George Fox, the last of the above-mentioned seven star-members, whose works progressed until his posthumous writings appeared, 1692), the victory acquired an undue influence for them over the brethren; and, distressed over its loss, yet seeing the danger of its abuse, from the example of power-grasping crown-lost leaders, they yielded this up in sacrifice to the Lord, after a wise delay, amid the sorrow of the brethren (vs. 34-40). But various crown-lost leaders, in envy at the 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


star-members' victory and resultant prominence, withstood them for not giving them a commanding share in the battle, and by their sectarian activities threatened to destroy their work (Judg. 12:1). The star-members expostulated with these that they were in great strife, and these had refused to help them (v. 2); and noting this, they had risked the encounter without them; and, therefore, they demanded as to why they fought against them (v. 3). They then gathered their supporters against these, because these accused them as having been Romanist fugitives in Rome and in the Protestant sects (v. 4). The reforming party took possession of the truths that were fords for the people over Christendom, and required as a sign that one had the right to pass over it his holding the Truth, which the errorists were unable to present, and they, a huge multitude, were refuted by the reforming party (vs. 5, 6). All of these star-members remained to the end in the sect into which their movements were perverted (v. 7). 

The next star-member to arise was John Wesley, who had in the fulness of his supporters strong and weak ones; the former he increased from among outsiders and the latter he dismissed to outsiders, both of these things occurring during the many siftings of the Wesleyan movement, which he ruled unto a Divine completion, ending his ministry in Biblical teachings and good influence (vs. 8-10), while crown-lost leaders perverted this movement into the Methodist Church. The next star-member to arise was Thomas Campbell, who aroused a movement which Alexander Campbell perverted into the Disciple Church. His ministry was fruitful, but he yielded chief place in it to the sectarian leader, Alexander Campbell, and his memory as a teacher was eclipsed by the high regard in which Campbellites held their leader (vs. 11, 12). The final one of the Philadelphia star-members to arise was William Miller (v. 13). He had trialsome strong supporters and a fulness of humans who were not so strong supporters, all of these being accustomed to foster views of their own (v. 14). He ended his 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


ministry fruitfully, despised by sectarians (v. 15). 

Now for the small antitype of Judges 11, 12. J. was one of the reforming party and a warrior of the Truth, but the Epiphany Truth that developed him was not the same as the teachings that the reforming party as a whole used to develop most of its other leaders, who after developing as P.B.I. leaders cast J. out as one who should have no part nor lot with them, because thoughts strange to those that developed them had developed him (Judg. 11:1, 2). J. fled from these and occupied the goodly sphere of the developing Truth and its Spirit; and certain pilgrims, like R.H. Hirsh and R.G. Jolly; and certain elders, like B.M. Kittinger and E.D. Mellow, gathered to and supported him (v. 3). Shortly after the Society leaders were released from prison, the Society by them, beginning May 8, 1919, started to press its claim that it was the channel of the Lord's Truth and work, and demanded of the reforming party that it surrender what was actually the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit to the Society, claiming these as their own. It was at this date that the little primary papacy changed from F.H. McGee to J.F.R. (v. 4). The leaders of the reform party concluded that J. was the one best qualified to lead it against the Society's clericalistic course and demands; and they sought to bring him back to them in the sense that many had left the P.B.I. who while there opposed and rejected J., but now desired his association and leadership in the controversy (v. 5). This effort began shortly after Present Truth, No. 7, appeared, announcing the Epiphany Convention for Philadelphia, July 4-6, 1919. This issue, delivered May 28, began to be mailed the evening of May 29 (30, God's time), and by the middle of June J. was receiving many requests by mail and orally from leading brethren to resist the Society clericalists' attacks. These requests increased when it became generally known that Bro. G.H. Fisher, at New Haven, Conn., the evening of June 15, 1919, charged the seven 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


"Opposition" leaders with betraying the Society leaders to the U. S. authorities (v. 6). 

J.'s reaction by act, not by word, questioned these requesters as to whether they did not remember that they had in dislike rejected and cast him out, and as to why in their need they turned to him (v. 7). Their reply was that they desired to reverse their rejection of him by making him their leader as warrior and executive (v. 8). Remembering his former experiences at their hands, J. required more assurance that they would make him the executive of the reform party, if as warrior he would lead them to victory over the Societyites (v. 9). Thereupon these leaders of the reform party solemnly pledged their support and loyal cooperation (v. 10). These matters were finished before June 30, when J. agreed to undertake as leader a defense of the reform party against the Society attacks; and the appointment of him as such by the brethren, generally, occurred just before he began to conduct the Convention Question meeting, Saturday afternoon, July 5, as follows: R.G. Jolly asked for the floor and addressed the Convention, briefly telling of the Society claims and proposed a vote of confidence in J. as a defender of the Truth and a promise of support of him as long as he remained humble and loyal to the Truth. Thereupon the Convention of several hundred brethren, assembled from at least a dozen states, gave J. a unanimous standing vote of confidence and support in his defense of the Truth. J. made a short speech of acceptance of the vote, and did this as a service of the Lord, in a time of watchfulness. This date corresponds to 1517, the year that Luther published his 95 theses (v. 11). The first copies of Present Truth, No. 6, were mailed on July 10. Its main article, The Last Related Acts of Elijah and Elisha, by its proving that the Little Flock had officially been separated from the Great Company, was a demand on J.F.R., in view of the separation of these classes as such (the words, "What hast thou to do with me," should read, "What is there [in common] between me 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


and thee), as to what right J.F.R. had to invade the sphere of the Little Flock's Truth and Spirit (v. 12). J.F.R.'s reply was his doctrine that to his party as the channel belonged the sphere of the Little Flock's Truth and Spirit, which he claimed had been usurpatorily taken by the reform party from his party (v. 13). 

This claim J. had answered in the same article (v. 14), denying that the reform party had taken any of the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit from the Society autocrats or Society clericalists (v. 15), and explaining that when the Lord's people in the Parousia came out of the world and lived separate from it and beyond the Second Death siftings in the consecrated condition (v. 16), they desired a free unmolested passage through Christendom and the religious autocrats and were refused this while in the consecrated condition (v. 17). Hence they skirted their sphere of teaching and spirit, and pitched in spheres of teachings and spirit other than theirs (v. 18). They also sought a peaceable passage through the realms of error (v. 19), which Satan refused to give, but fought with them and was refuted, so that his possession of that sphere was ended, so far as crowding out of it the Truth and its Spirit was concerned (vs. 20-22): God having given the sphere of the Truth and its Spirit to the Little Flock, should J.F.R., as the Great Company leader, be allowed to take it (v. 23)? The article suggested that J.F.R. possess the sphere of teaching and spirit that Azazel had given him, and that the Little Flock keep what the Lord through their battles had given them (v. 24). Speaking of J.F.R. in terms that implied that he was the little pope of little Babylon, the article asked whether he was to be superior to the autocratic great pope of Great Babylon, who did not seek to possess himself of the Little Flock's sphere of the Truth and its Spirit in the Parousia (v. 25). The article also asked, Why during the Parousia did not the (new) channel argument assert itself to get control of the Little Flock's sphere of Truth and its Spirit (v. 26)? It clearly proved that the Little Flock had 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


done the Society no wrong, but that J.F.R. was wronging it in its leader. And, finally, the article appealed to the Lord as the Judge of the issues between the Little Flock and the Great Company (v. 27). Of course, J.F.R. paid no heed to J.'s arguments in that article, which resulted in the controversy breaking out between the two and lasting from the writing of the Sixth Sifting and Slaughter Weapon sections of the main article in Present Truth, No. 9, until the mailing of Present Truth, No. 14, whose articles on Confessing The Sins Over Azazel's Goat and Some Channel Claims ended the reformation phase of that controversy. 

While this controversy lasted 180 days, the Jephthah type stresses mainly, but not exclusively, its earlier part, even as the large Reformation historians stress its earlier part mainly, but not exclusively. Energized by the Lord, J. encompassed matters relating to the Little Flock and the Great Company in a watchful attitude, and thus came into touch with the clericalists (v. 29). He promised the Lord, if He would make him victorious, to sacrifice to Him whatever new privilege or advantage that would accrue to him from his office work (vs. 30, 31). The chief feature of his controversy against the clericalists was the article in Present Truth, No. 9, whose part on the Sixth Sifting and Slaughter Weapon was written the evening of June 29 (God's time, June 30), corresponding to Luther's attaining light on faith justification, at Rome, in 1512, and using it for several years in his heart against Rome's doctrine of works righteousness. In this article 20 positions of the Society as set forth in its Vol. VII on Ezek. 9, and on Matt. 20:1-19 as set forth by C.J. Woodworth's tract on the penny parable, were attacked; and these 20 positions are refuted in the three sets of general remarks, i.e., those on Matt. 20:1-16;1 Cor. 10:1-14 and Ezek. 9, in the five calls, in the six siftings and in the six slaughter weapons: 3 +5+6+6=20. The article also refuted 20 special details of C.J. Woodworth's penny parable tract. Thus the clericalists were thoroughly defeated. Various details on 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


these 20 points were from other standpoints stressed during the controversy, in the articles, The Church Completely Organized, The Society As A Channel and A Protest Against Misrepresentation, in No. 10; in the article, J.F.R.'s Third New View, in No. 11; in the article, The Time of Reaping, in No. 12; in the articles, The Epiphany, Tentative And Vitalized Justification, The Golden Age and Elijah And Elisha—Priests And Levites, in No. 13, and in the articles, Confessing The Sins Over Azazel's Goat, and Some Channel Claims, in No. 14. With the mailing of No. 14 J.'s part in the controversy against J.F.R. and his supporters came to a victorious close, the Societyites having been thoroughly vanquished (v. 33). 

The facts of the episode as to Jephthah's daughter (vs. 34-40) in their small antitype are given in P '20, 147, under the subhead, A Subtle Trial. Here we will set them forth as the small antitype of vs. 34-40. As this controversy was drawing to a close J. in the spirit of watchfulness in his office work found that his successful overthrow of the Society's 20 positions was so greatly approved by the Epiphany-enlightened brethren as to cause them to invest him with power to make pilgrim appointments for Parousia conditions among them, the only personal power to accrue to him in his pertinent office work from the above-described controversy (v. 34). In his watchfulness over his disposition, thoughts, motives, words, acts, surroundings and influences operating upon him connected with R.H. Hirsh's pertinent acts toward his exercise of such power, J., who had made some use of this power, and who did it with joy as a privilege of service, had an internal conflict as to its further possession, which caused him some grief and doubts, because he gradually came to see that a further use of it would not be right, and, therefore, saw that his promise to the Lord to sacrifice to Him any personal advantage that would come to him from his pertinent office work, if the Lord would give him victory in his prospective controversy with J.F.R. and his supporters, required him to refrain from 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


further use thereof (v. 35). He first confronted this situation in thought through R.H. Hirsh's snubbing him in the matter of his exercise of it as to a pilgrim trip that they had mutually agreed that J. should arrange for him. And the latter's ignoring J. in the matter and arranging for his trip himself brought J. face to face with the question as to whether he had the right to use such a power, which during two weeks' grief and doubts J. came to see he had no right to do, and was by his promise obligated to sacrifice to the Lord, inasmuch as God had given him the desired victory in the controversy (v. 36). This struggle lasted two weeks—the time R.H. Hirsh was serving on this pilgrim trip, Dec. 20, 1919-Jan. 3, 1920; and the next day, Jan. 4, 1920, the day R.H. Hirsh returned from it, J. fulfilled his promise by refusing to make henceforth pilgrim appointments for Parousia conditions and by refusing to take exclusive charge of making pilgrim appointments for any ecclesia. J. had not hitherto misused this power, but during the two weeks he suffered grief, and for his other powers he also suffered grief during these two weeks (vs. 37-39). The churches suffered grief over the fact that whereas J. had previously arranged for them monthly pilgrim visits whereby they received pilgrim ministries, he no more did this (v. 40). 

The episode of Judg. 12:1-6, in both the large and the small antitypes, was fulfilled while yet the antitypical controversy with the large and the small Romanist Churches was going on. Above this was shown as to the large antitype; here it will be shown as to the small one. While J. was supported by the ever-growing numbers of Epiphany-enlightened brethren in this controversy, Levites, like the remnants of the Sturgeonites and of the Ritchieites and all of the Olsonites and the bulk of the P.B.I., faulted him for not carrying on the controversy in a way in which cooperation with them could have been had, i.e., along such doctrinal lines as they approved; and, therefore, they threatened to overthrow his office work (Judg. 12:1). J. 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


replied that he had asked for their cooperation by sending them the pertinent literature, which call they heeded not, and the urgency of the Society's attacks gave him no time to wait on them; hence at his personal risk he undertook the controversy without their aid, which was not forthcoming, God Himself giving him the victory. Hence J. demanded why they had come out against him in controversy (vs. 2, 3). With the cooperation of the Epiphany-enlightened brethren J. prepared and issued the article on The Epiphany, in No. 13, which, among other things, thoroughly refuted J.'s non-Society attackers, whom he counter-attacked, because they accused him and his supporters as being renegade crown-losers from among the Society and the P.B.I. (v. 4). The Epiphanyites took the teachings that opened a passage for them over the peoples of little Christendom as to whether the attempters to pass over them were Little Flock members or Great Company members, and allowed none to make those teachings a passage-way between these two classes who was unable to state clearly the pertinent truths, which in the controversy revealed whether one was a Great Company member or not, but refuted their erroneous views, which resulted in the refutation of all of these many crown-losers (vs. 5, 6). The little Jephthah served as such from June 30, 1919, to Dec. 27, 1919, when the first copies of Present Truth, No. 14, were distributed, and his memory was cherished, particularly in connection with the doctrine of the separation of antitypical Elijah and Elisha, as one of the reforming party (v. 7). 

J.'s next activity as a little star-member of the little Philadelphia period was as the little parallel of John Wesley (v. 8). He was supported by genuine Epiphany brethren; but at this time—that of the Amram sifting—he was opposed by ungenuine Epiphany brethren, from whom he withdrew priestly fellowship, sending them away to become associates of Levites; and through Truth articles he was blessed with winning others to take their places; and these became the

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


associates of the genuine Epiphany brethren. J. acted in this capacity from Feb. 10, 1920, to April 4, 1920, and was in it held in memory as giving the Word to the brethren (vs. 9, 10). Next J. acted as the small parallel of Thomas Campbell, stressing the Truth of the Bible's being the strength and center of unity for God's people, being active in this work from April 14, 1920, until May 10, 1920. It was during this time that J. wrote the article in Present Truth, No. 18, "Let Us Dwell In Peace" Reviewed, wherein he refuted the Society's position on, the strength and unity of God's people as being the "channel," and proved that the Truth was such. And he was in this aspect remembered as holding this doctrine (vs. 11, 12). Finally, as a star-member of little Philadelphia, J. worked as the little parallel of Wm. Miller (v. 13). As such he had genuine Epiphany supporters in the Epiphany movement and certain partial supporters in other movements; but all of these set forth their own personal views of the Bible to others. In this aspect J. labored more particularly from May 12 to May 27, 1920, and during this time he stressed chronology as proving that the little Parousia was near at hand, pointing to the royalty of the Kingdom class, and was remembered as such, but was by the Amramites, who increasingly became antagonistic at this time, regarded as a gross sinner (vs. 14, 15). This ends the consideration of Judg. 10–12, which, apart from Judg. 10:1-15, the facts of the large and small antitypes prove, type the large and small Philadelphia star-members, while Judg. 10:6-15 treats of features preparatory for the Philadelphia period. 

In studying Judg. 13-16 we will consider it as typing the large star-members and their special helpers, i.e., the rest of the Interim's 70, from about the middle of the Pergamos period to the end of the Laodicean period, and J. in the small Miniature's parallel periods, as Samson also types him in the medium and large Miniatures. We might here remark that it is not due now to expound these two Miniatures; hence we 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


have in the study of this book limited our view of it to the large antitype and the small Miniature. It should also be stated here that in the multiplied wisdom of God Samson is used to type also the entire Church from about the middle of the Pergamos period in all four Gospel Ages, because it has faithfully cooperated with the star-members and their special helpers, and thus has shared in their achievements. Not as a type, strictly speaking, but as an illustration, Samson also pictures forth in his last act Conservative Labor pulling down Christendom as now constituted. First the large antitype will be shown, and that very briefly. Toward the end of the fifth century, thus shortly before the middle of the Pergamos period, the warnings of members of the Elijah class against the revolutionisms of the hierarchy forecast to the Truth and its arrangements as these energized certain responsive brethren that they would produce brethren, the star-members and their special helpers, i.e., the rest of the Interim's 70, whom the Lord would use to begin to deliver His people from sectarians (Judg. 13:1-5). 

The Truth and its arrangements made this thought clear to the leading members of the Elijah class (vs. 6, 7). These entreated that the warnings become cleared as to their work therein (v. 8); and these warnings came again to the Truth and its arrangements, which then appealed to the leaders of the Elijah class to give heed to them (vs. 9, 10). These inquiringly studied these warnings, in order to cooperate (vs. 11, 12), and were told that the Truth and its arrangements must be kept pure, free from all alien admixtures (vs. 13:14). These desired to overserve the warnings in their bringers, which in them forbade it, telling them to serve the Lord (vs. 15-18). This they did, and the warnings in their bringers showed God's acceptance of their sacrifice, which filled them with adoration; (vs. 19, 20). This last part of the episode occurred about 550 A.D. And the Truth and its arrangements and the chief members of the Elijah class recognized the warnings as sent by God, which

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


made them fear that the Lord would cut them off (vs. 21, 22). But the Truth and its arrangements dissipated these fears (v. 23), and in due time the pertinent star-members and their special helpers began to appear, e.g., Adelbert Desiderius, in France and Germany, about 745, who was more or less occupied in matters of the Greek and Roman Churches' corruptions, and Clement, an Irishman, who was the former's special helper (vs. 24, 25). 

Claudius of Turin, a star-member of Thyatira and its principal man, ministering from 799 to 839, was very desirous of oneness with the anti-papal absolutism and idolism reform party in the empire, against which leading members of the Elijah class and certain truths and their arrangements counseled; but it was from the Lord that he should so do, to help against the sectarians (Judg. 14:1-4). He, accompanied by these, while engaged in anti-papal absolutism and idolism was attacked by the pope and his mouthpieces, and with the Truth thoroughly, in writing, refuted them, but told not the Elijah leaders nor the Truth and its arrangements thereof (vs. 5, 6), though he communed agreeably with the reform party (v. 7). Ratramnus, the next star-member, studying the papacy thus refuted, set forth (850) the doctrine of two classes as separate and distinct, the saintly and the mixed overcomers, as involved in predestination, and drew joy therefrom and imparted it to others, but told not of its origin (vs. 8, 9). The Elijah leaders cooperated with the reform party; and Dunstan, the next star-member, gave them a feast of Truth (951-972), a full group of the reform party joining therein (vs. 10, 11). 

The attitude of the star-member, Dunstan, and Hugh Capet, his special helper, in giving meat in due season was a riddle to the reform party, for whose solution their attitude promised full powers to that party, and asked for the same, if it were not solved (vs. 12, 13). Their attitude could not be solved within 21 years (972-993), when the leaders of the reform party threatened it with ruin, unless the conduct of

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


the star-members and their special helpers were solved, accusing it of working for their injury (v. 15). The reform party desired from the French king, Robert, Hugh's son and successor, a solution, which was not given until about 1014, when the anti-pope Gregory was severely denounced by supporters of Henry II, the emperor, and by pope Benedict VIII, when also Canute of England began to fight clericalism. Within seven years (by 1021), the leaders getting the solution, the reform party saw that the star-members' and their special helpers' attitude was one exercising the special teaching office in getting sweet truths from refuted papacy; and this party then set about to take such power away from the star-members and their special helpers, by binding them to silence unless the leaders of the reform party agreed to their speaking forth such new truths, to which the French king replied that they had intrigued therefore with the reform party (vs. 14, 16-18). Berengar of Tours, the next star-member, whose ministry was from 1049 to 1079, overthrew the full number of the papal party on transubstantiation and offered their papal authority to the leaders of the reform party; but he became estranged from them while the reform party was given into the control of the emperor (vs. 19, 20). 

Peter Abelard, the next star-member, whose ministry was from 1113 to 1141, by teaching a purer theology, made overtures to re-win the reform party, but was rejected and condemned by the emperor, the French Church and the pope, who desired to restrict him to traditional theology (Judg. 15:1, 2). This aroused him in refutation to write his book, Sic et Non (So And Not [So]), in which, apart from setting forth in his introduction and conclusion seven contradictions in the writings of the Fathers, he heaped up in antithesis one to the other 300 propositions, 150 of them directly contradictory to 150 others of them, as his proof that the traditional theology, as distinct from his Biblical theology, was untrustworthy. He circulated this book among theological students ripe for papal reaping, which 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


destroyed them as such (vs. 3-5). When the papal party learned of these they destroyed the reform party and their leaders in France (v. 6). 

The excesses of the papal party moved Arnold of Brescia, 1141-1155, the next star-member, to wage a destructive battle against the secularization of the hierarchy, clergy and church (vs. 7, 8). Waldo (1173-1220), the next star-member, with the cooperation of many French and Italian brethren, took his stand on preaching the Word as in the Apostolic times. The Romanist sectarians resented this, because the former lacked papal ordination. Some of the reform party, learning of this, desired to curtail Waldo in this and to bring him over into the Romanist position as a captive of the hierarchy, which he allowed on their pledge to do him no harm (vs. 9-13). When the Romanist sectarians thought they had him in their control, he overthrew the ideas of submission to the pope and to the councils by which the reform party sought to hold them, and utterly, by the Biblical teaching of evangelical freedom in contrast with Romanist sectarian authority, refuted the views of the two councils held against him, and gloried that by the newly found Truth on evangelical freedom he had refuted the totality of his foes, and then ceased using this argument, calling the position, Height of Truth (vs. 14-17). After this struggle Waldo thirsted much for Truth, and, fearing that without it he would fall a prey to papal hatred, he called upon the Lord for it, and got enough of it out of the doctrine of evangelical liberty to mould the Waldensians into a preaching people and perpetual reform movement (vs. 18, 19). The period of these star-members and their special helpers as antitypical Samson was not the whole Gospel Age, which is designated as lasting the antitype of 40 years, but it is the antitype of part of it, 20 years (v. 20). 

Marsiglio (1309-1343) is the next large star-member whose activities together with those of Occam, his special helper, are typed by Samson (Judg. 16:1-3), particularly his work from 1309 to 1328. They first associated themselves 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


with the French anti-papal reform party, 1309-1324 (v. 1), and then went to the German anti-papal reform party, in connection with both of which they were very closely watched by their papal enemies, who sought to refute them (v. 2); but in 1324 with certain colaborers they appeared at the Court of the German Emperor, Louis the Bavarian, with Marsiglio's epoch-making book, The Defender of The Peace, whereby they laid hold on the entire papal hierarchy by their grasp of Truth; and by their efforts and those of Tauler, Wyclif and Hus, the rest of the Sardis star-members, and their special helpers, they forced the entire papal hierarchy into terms of peace and friendship with the empire and France (v. 3). Vs. 4-21 treat of ten Philadelphia star-members as a whole and their special helpers, just as vs. 1-3 do with the Sardis star-members and their special helpers, without individualizing any one of them, inasmuch as all of them had similar experiences from the standpoint of the four sets of typical experiences there set forth. Delilah represents the ten Protestant sects, with a distinctly different one of which each of the pertinent ten star-members and special helpers had to do (v. 4). The crown-lost leaders as sectarians in each denomination sought to have its pertinent star-member and his special helper made captives and slaves of theirs, for which they by the promise of mouthpieceship and executive authority enlisted the help of the pertinent sect (v. 5). The attitude of each star-member and his special helper gave the thought to the pertinent sect that if new strong doctrines were urged against their Divinely-given doctrines, they would be made helpless; but when this was done, they easily by refutations destroyed their power to make them helpless, despite the opponents who waited to pounce upon them in that sect (vs. 6-9). Again, the attitude of each one of the star-members and his special helper gave the pertinent sect the thought that if new arrangements were urged against their Divinely-given arrangements, they would make them helpless; but when 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


this was done, they easily by refuting them destroyed their power to make them helpless, despite the opponents who waited in the sect to pounce on them (vs. 10-12). 

Again, the attitude of each set of them gave the thought to the pertinent sect that if they would interweave their doctrines and arrangements as their powers with their strong errors, they would thereby make them helpless; but when this was done they easily overthrew the errors and freed themselves from the intended trap, despite their opponents in each sect waiting to pounce upon them (vs. 13, 14). Still insistent on securing their capture in each sect, each sect pressed upon the pertinent star-member and his special helper to reveal wherein their great strength day. This insistence presently wearied each set into showing by their attitude that as the special mouth, hand and eye of the Lord they had from the outstart been faithful, and that if they could be induced to be unfaithful their strength would be lost (vs. 15-17). Thereupon each sect called its crown-lost leaders, apprising them of the fact revealed it by its star-member and special helper. Those came with their promised rewards. Then each sect lulled its star-member and his special helper into non-carefulness, and therein brought helpers to induce them into some relaxation of their faithfulness, which made them helpless, despite their efforts to exercise the strength which departed from them by the Lord's unsuspectedly leaving them weak and helpless, and which resulted in their becoming captives of the sectarians, who by their wrong practices deceived and made them as prisoners slave in teaching and practice ways for the sectarians in Protestantism (vs. 18-21). These four things occurred in each sect after the pertinent star-member's Little Flock movement was perverted into a sect, beginning with Luther and Melanchthon, his special helper, the first of the Philadelphia star-members and their special helpers to undergo these four sets of experiences, and ending with Miller and Wolff, the last of them so to do. 

The last scene (vs. 22-31) covers the experiences of the 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


two star-members of the Laodicean Church, the Parousia and Epiphany Messengers. In both of these faithfulness set in, in all their relations to the nominal church (v. 22). The crown-lost leaders, both in Romanism and Protestantism, sectarianly sought to honor the God-man theory above the Father, in elaborate services, especially to glory in their victory over the Philadelphia star-members, which they ascribed to their God-man theory (v. 23). In this their adherents joined (v. 24). This began in 1846, in Protestantism by the formation of the Evangelical Alliance, and in Romanism by the movement to raise Mary by an authoritative doctrine to the dignity of immaculate conception, and has lasted deep into the Epiphany. Amid these celebrations they offered much indignity, not only to the memory of the Philadelphia star-members, but also publicly by personal slanders, misrepresentations and ridicule against the Laodicean Messenger, first, upon the Parousia, and, later, upon the Epiphany messenger, whose pertinent indignities have not yet reached their full climax, both Protestantism and Romanism setting the Laodicean Messenger between them and thus offering him such indignities (v. 25). The Laodicean Messenger asked the most faithful of the crown-losers (the same antitypes as those of Jonathan under the David type), especially in their writings, to expose to him the real inwardness of contemporaneous Protestantism and Romanism, as an alleged resting place for him (v. 26), and that, while the millions of their adherents were in their festivities enjoying the indignities cast upon him. (v. 27). 

The Laodicean Messenger in both members, mindful of the blinding of the Philadelphia star-members by the sectarian Protestants, prayed God to vindicate (not avenge) him from such blindness by one prolonged refutation of the foundation doctrines of Protestantism and Romanism—The Divine right, the consciousness of the dead, eternal torment and the union and cooperation of state and church (v. 28). Seizing upon these two parts of the nominal church to break 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


them loose from these foundation doctrines, first the Parousia Messenger and then the Epiphany messenger applied all their strength to the pertinent refutation, the main pressure being applied to the Protestant section of the nominal church by the Parousia Messenger, and the main pressure being applied to the Romanist part of it by the Epiphany messenger (v. 29). By the act of setting themselves to do this work of refutation, through which they would bring to a close their ministry toward the nominal church, they by act, not word, asked that they might come to an end with the sectarians in their pertinent ministry; and then using all their strength they pulled down in doctrinal and practical ruin the whole nominal church as a system of error, utterly refuting its four foundation errors, to the refutation of all the crown-lost leaders, their assistants and their partisan supporters, and by this wrought more ruin on the nominal church than had all the preceding star-members from about the middle of the Pergamos period until the end of the Philadelphia period (v. 30). By their brethren the memory of the star-members will be honored as of God's servants, and their deeds will be held in honor as effecting the two parts of the nominal church (v. 31). 

We now turn to the small antitype of Judg. 13-16. The facts of the fulfillment show that the small antitypical events of this section began Sept. 17, 1916, when J.H. sent his first letter to Bro. Russell, revealing to him the conspiracy of H. J. S. and W. C. with the majority of the London Tabernacle elders to set aside Bro. Russell's control in its affairs and to substitute in its place that of the elders (presbyterianism), which brought to a climax the evils in Britain and America among the brethren, leading them into sectarian bondage (Judg. 13:1). This letter (the angel) in its appeal for help in effect told the Truth and its arrangements (Manoah's wife) as these were energetic in Bro. Russell's mind that the Truth and its arrangements would develop J., whom Bro. Russell had frequently used to reunite divided classes, into 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


qualification measurably to deliver the Lord's people from divisionism and to handle the British situation measurably to free the captivity of the Lord's people from the divisionists (vs. 2, 3). This letter also in effect suggested to the Truth and its arrangements as these were active in Bro. Russell's mind that for J.'s proper development they must remain free from error in teaching and arrangement (v. 4), that he must be faithful in doctrine, arrangement and life for the office to which God was appointing him, which proved to be that of the last star-member of the large antitype and the small parallel of all the star-members and their special helpers (the Parousia Messenger's not included and the Epiphany messenger not having any) from 539 to 1956, and that as such he would begin to deliver the Lord's people from the sectarians (v. 5). The Truth and its arrangements, by Bro. Russell's arranging for J. to go to Britain for pilgrim service and for handling the Tabernacle situation and by his publishing the announcement of the former work in the Nov. 1, 1916, Tower, in part informed the directors of J.'s mission, without giving a clear understanding of the import of the messenger to the directors (v. 6); but the Truth and its arrangements told the Board as it acted through its executive committee of the need of the Truth and its arrangements to be kept free from errors of doctrine and practice and of J.'s preserving in faithfulness the same, in order to be such a properly qualified servant of God; the Truth and the brethren (v. 7). The Board authorizing, Nov. 2, 1916, its committee to arrange for J.'s European trip, and appointing, Nov. 7, the executive committee, empowering it to arrange for J.'s trip, the Board in this committee desired more pertinent information (v. 8). 

God responded to these longings, and caused the correspondence of the J.H. group on the London Tabernacle condition, which came by the same mail as the pertinent correspondence of the H. J. S. group, to come to the Truth and its arrangements as these were active in J.'s mind while he studied that correspondence, Nov. 8 and 9, apart

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


from the Board's presence (v. 9). Digesting this correspondence, first in the afternoon of Nov. 9 to J.F.R. and in the evening to the full executive committee, i.e., A.I. Ritchie, W. E. V. and J.F.R., the Truth and its arrangements as these operated on J.'s mind informed the Board in its representatives, the executive committee, that another message had come bearing on their developing J. for the European trip (v. 10). The directors in their representatives, the executive committee, asked if this message was of the same trend as the former one on the nature and needs of the British situation, and the relation was affirmed by a comparison of the two messages (v. 11). Next the Board in its committee, longing for a proper solution, studied the message as J. gave it, to find out as to what arrangements should be made respecting J.'s powers as required in particular by the British situation, and in general by the situation throughout the world outside of America (v. 12; here is another Biblical proof that J.'s credentials, dictated Nov. 10 and signed and sealed Nov. 11, 1916, were bona fide, and that, therefore, they made the letter of appointment, dictated Nov. 2, retroactively bona fide). The Board in its committee was by the correspondence of the J.H. group made to understand that the Truth and its arrangements were to be maintained in purity, inviolate (vs. 13, 14). The Board in its committee was inclined to give the message more honor than was due, which it in its contents forbade; but it suggested that the Board and its committee offer sacrifice to God in that it authorize J. to be the Board's special representative with powers of attorney and devote to the financial support of J.'s trip enough money, as well as yield him in service for the trip. All this was done, even though the Board in its committee did not understand the full import of the message (vs. 15, 16). 

Its inquiry as to the exact character of the message was not at that time disclosed as one coming from the Lord (vs. 18, 19). The directors, in their committee, then made the implied sacrifices, described above in the explanation

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


of v. 16, offering them upon the Truth and its arrangements, the message working wonders in these matters, as the directors in their committee and the Truth and its arrangements in J. took note of these things (v. 19). While God was manifesting His acceptance of the Board's pertinent sacrifices, the message in J., by his showing the Board in its committee from Ezek. 9:2, 5-10 and Ps. 91:6 that the sixth sifting was coming, beginning in Europe, was demonstrated as one coming from the Lord, which made the Board in its committee and the Truth and its arrangements in J. yield honor to the Lord (v. 20). No more messages came from the J.H. group, for the reason that J., leaving for England Nov. 11, laid his commission before the three British managers Nov. 21; and henceforth both sides to the dispute laid their views before him; and the Board in its committee recognized that the two messages were Divinely provided (v. 21). This knowledge frightened the Board in its committee; and it in them feared that it and the Truth and its arrangements might be cut off, i.e., through the coming sifting (v. 22). But the Truth and its arrangements made it clear that such would not be the case, since the Lord by the messages and the revelation of the coming sifting in connection with its offering manifested His acceptance thereof (v. 23). The Truth and its arrangements developed J. in the Holy Spirit unto fitness for his office as the second member of the Laodicean Messenger, and as the small parallel of the star-members and their special helpers from about the middle of the Pergamos period to nearly the end of the Laodicean period (Samson means sunny, in allusion to the light that the star-members and their special helpers shine forth). Under the Lord's blessing J. developed increasingly in these two aspects of his office (v. 24). The Lord's Spirit worked upon him from time to time as the little Samson in his combat relations to the Merarite and Gershonite Levites (v. 25). 

This brings us to a study of Judg. 14. At the time of the separation in the Society in 1917 J. went to the sphere of 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


the division, and there became attracted to the reform party among the "Opposition" (v. 1), and desired from the four directors and the Truth and its arrangements to be united as leader with this reform party. These interposed obstacles, telling him to seek oneness with those of his own spirit, but J. persisted in his determination, since he believed that the reform party was desirable (vs. 2, 3). The directors and the Truth and its arrangements did not recognize that this matter proceeded from the Lord, who by it designed to interfere with the sectarians, since these then had control among the "Opposition" (v. 4). In cooperation with the directors and the Truth and its arrangements J. occupied himself with the separation matters; and while he was so doing the Society, as the little Romanist Church, through its mouthpiece, J.F.R., and his partisan supporters roared fiercely against him in Harvest Siftings. God's power coming upon J. enabled him to seize hold on J.F.R. and his partisan supporters as the mouth of little Babylon and easily rend them in J.F.R.'s Harvest Siftings unto complete refutation through Harvest Siftings Reviewed, alone, without any special outside assistance; for until it was about to be published, several months after it was written, he showed his MS. neither to the directors nor to the Truth nor its arrangements in any one of the brethren (v. 6). Thereafter he fellowshipped with the reform party to his delight (v. 7). But while about to bring it into closer relation with himself, his thoughts, busy in meditation on the refuted Society, saw connected with it the sweet doctrine of the separation of antitypical Elijah and Elisha (v. 8); and he accepted its sweetness, especially appropriating its heart-refreshing thought that the faithful among the "Opposition" were antitypical Elijah; thereafter he offered this teaching to the four directors, and to the Truth and its arrangements operating in other brethren in the sense of incorporating this doctrine among them, but did not tell them how and where he came to find it (v. 9). Toward the end of the shareholders' meeting the 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


four directors and the Truth and its arrangements, with certain brethren, including J., assembled in the Fort Pitt Convention, at which J. in a debate with M. Sturgeon feasted the conventioners with his explanation of the last related acts of Elijah and Elisha, giving his thought, as was customary, apart from debating, in such brethren to do at conventions (v. 10). 

That afternoon, Jan. 6, 1918, 30 brethren assembled, a list of whose names F.H. McGee furnished J. at the end of this convention (and it counts exactly 30 in number), as a convention of the "Opposition," and elected seven brothers to be the Fort Pitt Committee, to look out for the spiritual interests of the entire "Opposition," whom they were to sound as to whether a regular pilgrim and magazine service should be established for them (v. 11). J.'s attitude, as leader in offering as new Truth the comforting teachings of the Last Related Acts of Elijah and Elisha and of the Calls-Siftings-Slaughter Weapons, was in effect a propounding of a riddle to the "Opposition," which, if not mastered, would mean that the powers of the reform party would be acceded to him, and which, if mastered in full time, which proved to be within seven weeks, would make him accede to them the powers of the reform party. The attitude of the others asked for a putting forth of the symbolic riddle (vs. 12, 13), which was done by J.'s stressing the two subjects above mentioned; and in the third week the real underlying situation (J.'s having executive and teaching leadership, implied in his giving the Truth gotten in the Society's refuted condition) could not be mastered (v. 14). M. Sturgeon and A.I. Ritchie tried to solve it by charging that J. had too much influence in the Fort Pitt Committee; therefore, before the third week was over, i.e., the night of Jan. 22 (God's time, Jan. 23), they offered their resignations from the committee. As the sixth week was ending, the afternoon of Feb. 17, J. delivered at Philadelphia his lecture on J.F.R. as the evil servant of Matt. 24:48-51; and this was construed by the majority of the committee during 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


that week to mean that J.'s giving discourses on new truths implied that he claimed to control both the teaching and executive functions of the committee—a thing that was implied in J.'s powers as the Epiphany messenger, but a thing that J. never expressed in words. 

They were confirmed in this thought by the report given them by certain members of the reform party on J.'s attitude at Philadelphia in delivering the discourse on The Evil Servant, as implying to some of his hearers among the reform party that he claimed to control the committee as teacher and as executive. Thus the riddle that J.'s giving the advancing sweet Truth coming out of the condition presented in the refuted Society was answered by the committee's passing, the night of Feb. 23 (Feb. 24, God's time), the last day of the seventh week, the resolution forbidding committee members to give new thoughts in their preaching on types; prophecies and symbols without the thoughts first being approved by the committee unanimously. These facts showed that they had gotten the answer from the report of members of the reform party in Philadelphia. This fact, in reproof of their implied threats to these informers, J. brought to their attention. 

J.'s course told the informers that he had not explained the riddle even to the four directors or to the Truth and its arrangements acting in various other brethren, much less to them as members of the reform party (vs. 15-18). J. reluctantly yielded to the papal and unscriptural resolution of the committee, after a long discussion, ending nearly midnight, Feb. 23 (Feb. 24, God's time). In the meantime there appeared J.F.R.'s article on Elijah's and Elisha's Separation, in Z '18, 51-55, in which he sought to answer an incomplete report of J.'s lecture on The Last Related Acts of Elijah and Elisha, sent him by one of his Norfolk, Va., partisans, and in which he sought to bend the facts of the separation to make the Societyites antitypical Elijah and "the Opposition" antitypical Elisha—a view completely refuted in J.'s published lecture on the subject. J.F.R.'s article, widely read by 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


"the Opposition," was causing some of them to fall away to the Society, and was troubling the bulk of the others—those who had not heard J. on the subject. This situation mightily laid hold on J.'s spirit as an appeal to help the brethren out of their difficulty. 

Among others, those at Jersey City and Newark, N.J., were troubled about this matter; and when J. visited the Jersey City Ecclesia, and the friends there asked him questions on the subject, he decided that he would repudiate the papal resolution and preach the Word due at the time, which steadied the brethren in the two ecclesias. This act of J. was in effect a symbolic slaying of the 30 who constituted the Fort Pitt Convention and a giving to the committee of their powers and authority (v. 19). The upshot of the affair was that from then on J. ceased to be the chief influence in the committee and in what developed into the group, F.H. McGee, I.I. Margeson, J.D. Wright and I.F. Hoskins, giving the latter the chief executive place in the committee (v. 20). 

In the committee, especially after May 8, 1918, when the government arrested the Society leaders, there was, from fear of prosecution from the government, particularly by I.F. Hoskins, I.I. Margeson and J.D. Wright, effort after effort made to delay the publication of The Bible Standard and Herald of Christ's Kingdom, the name chosen for the paper that the committee had decided to publish. For some time J., being so often sat down upon by the committee's group, said and did practically nothing in the committee, but was chafing under the procrastination exercised in the committee and recognized by him as coming from the spirit of fear. J. determined that this procrastination must be ended; hence in the committee meeting of June 22 he offered a series of resolutions covering the details of the following points: (1) that The Bible Standard be published as soon as it could be gotten ready and put through the press, and that, before the convention that had been decided to be held July 26-29, 1918, at Asbury Park, N.J.; 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


(2) that stated salaries of certain amounts be given I.F. Hoskins and R.H. Hirsh, so that their entire time might be given to the work, the former as secretary and the latter as managing editor; and (3) that headquarters be established at Brooklyn, N.Y. 

These motions were passed, which implied that J., who offered them, desired a more intimate union between himself and the reform party—a thing that I.F. Hoskins, I.I. Margeson and H.C. Rockwell blocked, by their efforts as editors to prevent the appearance of The Bible Standard, until the Fort Pitt Committee could be dissolved and a new organization be formed (Judg. 15:1), the group, by its involved acts covering some months, alleging that it believed that J. had given up the reform party, and that it had, therefore, put I.F. Hoskins in charge of it; and by its acts it suggested that he become one with another party associated with the group and more appealing to J. (v. 2). These acts, gradually developing for several months, reached their culmination at the Asbury Park Convention; and the involved great wrongs in these gradually developing and culminating acts, committed especially at the instigation of H.C. Rockwell, I.F. Hoskins and I.I. Margeson, moved J. to counteractive steps, which he believed would be recognized as making him less blamable than the sectarian group, though displeasing them, (v. 3), and which had their culmination in his gradual preparation of the material that some time later appeared in Another Harvest Siftings Reviewed. In this publication, apart from an introduction and a conclusion, he set forth in the form of a deadly parallel under 12 headings 150 evils of Rutherfordism in the Society of which J.F.R. had been guilty, and 150 evils of Rutherfordism in the Fort Pitt Committee of which the individually varyingly responsible group of four mentioned above had been guilty (v. 4). Some time later J. published this paper so constituted, and circulated it among the friends whom the group had expected to reap as the harvest of their intrigues, both as classes and individuals, together with their doctrinal and 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


practical efforts (v. 5). On investigation the sectarian group and its partisans traced this matter to J., and in revenge destroyed every vestige of the reform party and the group as such as the representatives of it, alleging that J, had done what he did in retaliation of the group's depriving J, of the reform party (v. 6). 

Therefore J. by his acts declared that of what evils the sectarian P.B.I.'s had accused him he would vindicate clearly himself, by calling for an investigative and curative convention, at Philadelphia, Sept. 8-10, 1918, after the Philadelphia Ecclesia's petition of Aug. 4 to the P.B.I. to arrange for such a convention for that ecclesia, Sept. 8-10, had been curtly denied by that committee, and that thereafter he would let the P.B.I. go its way (v. 7). The committee, apprized by some of its partisans in the ecclesia of its attitude, on Aug. 6 refused the ecclesia's petition in a letter that threw the blame of the situation on R.H. Hirsh, R.G. Jolly and J., and demanded that its secretary be given the opportunity to clarify the situation before that ecclesia. The church, knowing that the three accused pilgrims had told it the next thing to nothing of the troubles in the committee, and recognizing the unfairness of letting the committee have the whole say through its secretary, arranged for I.F. Hoskins to have 50 minutes to present his side, J. to have 50 minutes to answer and then each to have 10 minutes for rebuttal. Despite the fairness of this proposal the P.B.I. objected, but, of course, the ecclesia, being mistress in her midst, saw to it that her decision on the program was carried out. This debate was held the afternoon of Aug. 25 and was the second occasion in which I.F. Hoskins and J. met in debate, the first being the night of July 28, at Asbury Park. Of these debates I.F. Hoskins expressed himself in the following language to a Norfolk, Va. brother who asked him why he and the rest of the committee refused to appear and debate the issues at the Philadelphia conventions of Sept. 8-10 and Dec. 20-22, 1918: "Every time I have a debate with Bro. Johnson he 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


makes me look like thirty cents." Well! Poor I.F. Hoskins looked and felt like thirty cents the afternoon of Aug. 25; for just the day before for the first time he saw and read Another Harvest Siftings Reviewed (EG 89-131); and when the time for debate came he had by no means recovered from the shock. Shifting his weight in rapid succession from one leg to the other, for 45 of his 50 minutes he did not touch the committee conditions, which were the subject of the debate; and in the remaining five minutes he said very little of consequence to the point. His difficulty was with his side, whose exposure in Another Harvest Siftings Reviewed had been read by practically everybody in the church, since it was mailed the night of Aug. 21. 

The impression of the debate on the church that afternoon was very unfavorable as to the merits of the group's side; it was also badly impressed by its mouthpiece's presentation. The church, therefore, requested that the debate be continued in the evening, with three speakers on each side having 20 minutes each, the afternoon debaters having the last speeches, I.F. Hoskins and J. in turn ending the debate with ten-minute rebuttals after their twenty-minute speeches. But the second debate went still worse for the group, which left the field of battle greatly worsted. Its and its adherents' interrupting J. with questions and his asking them questions resulted in their being thoroughly refuted; and they left the meeting hall looking like beaten dogs hiding their tails between their hind legs. Thereafter J. retired to the strength of his position (v. 8). But the P.B.I. was not satisfied. They sought to stem the tide that Another Harvest Siftings Renewed was raising against them. Their August, 1918, Committee Bulletin came out just after the debate, at the time that F.H. McGee received Another Harvest Siftings Reviewed, to which he published two replies: an undated one published about Sept. 1, entitled, A Brief Review Of Bro. Johnson's Charges, and one dated Sept. 10, entitled, A Timely Letter Of Importance To All The Brethren. It was 

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by the Aug. Committee Bulletin and the Brief Review, etc., that this committee made an invasion among the guileless brethren along the lines of the necessity of forming a corporation (v. 9). These two publications roused the guileless brethren to ask why the sectarian P.B.I. had made an invasion among them; and they received the answer, to restrain J. and retaliate on him (v. 10). 

These guileless brethren came to J. in his strong position and demanded whether he did not know that the P.B.I. was in charge of General Church matters, and what was the meaning of what he had done. J. replied that he had vindicated himself against their misdeeds on him (v. 11). They told him that they were intent on restraining and delivering him to the sectarian P.B.I. He asked them to give him the assurance that they themselves would not cut him off (v. 12), which they promised, and then proceeded to restrain him with H.C. Rockwell's article in the August Committee's Bulletin on The Necessity Of An Organization (Corporation) and F.H. McGee's Brief Reply To Bro. Johnson's Charges and brought him down from his position (v. 13). But when they came to the subject of forming a corporation the P.B.I. sectarians just before and during the Philadelphia Convention, Sept. 8-10, cried out loudly H.C. Rockwell's arguments against them. At that convention God's Spirit and Truth seized powerful hold on J., and he burst with ease the restraints with which the brethren sought to make him defenseless (v. 14). 

Then, laying hold on H.C. Rockwell's points at the last session of the Philadelphia Convention, the evening of Sept. 10, J. refuted their every argument so thoroughly that he carried the entire convention with him, except a few very partisan P.B.I.'s, and thus overthrew all the corporation advocates of the P.B.I. (v. 15), J. recognizing and stating that he did it with all their points (v. 16). Then J., ending his address, repudiated the position of the P.B.I. on corporations controlling priestly work, and called the position the height of the corporation claims (v. 17). But 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


after that convention J. was much athirst for some further, enlightenment from the Word, and earnestly requested it of the Lord in connection with the investigative committee that the convention appointed after hearing J.'s refutation of the P.B.I. corporationists' claims, fearing that otherwise he would fail and fall a prey to the evil-doers in the Church (v. 18). And God opened up the full Truth to him on corporations among God's people, while he occupied his position of repudiating them for priestly work; and this refreshed him; and he regarded the true position the source of Truth revealed in answer to his prayer. And this is the position maintained unto this day by the Epiphany brethren (v. 19). The incompleteness of J.'s work of deliverance in his little Samson phase is indicated here by the twenty years of its length, not forty years (v. 20). 

In the Fall of 1918 J. began to occupy himself with P.B.I. matters in the investigative committee, especially in view of F.H. McGee's two above-mentioned papers against him (Judg. 16:1; the Hebrew word zoneh, here translated harlot, should have been translated inn-keeper, or hostess). During this time the P.B.I. leaders, hearing of his occupying himself with their affairs, lay in wait for him, hoping to get him into their power, and through their main leaders refute him (v. 2). J. kept his counsel, and at a time unexpected (Nov. 15-Dec. 10, 1918) wrote Present Truth, Nos. 1, 2, the former of which was mailed the evening of Dec. 8 (9th, God's time) and the latter mailed Dec. 24. To these he added during February, March and April Nos. 3-5. By these five issues J. laid hold on the leaders of the P.B.I., the powers that held them up and the theories that kept them secure and by the support of his full powers carried them away into a sphere of friendship which lasted for over a full year, this corresponding to the Sardis period and J.'s work therein corresponding to that of Marsiglio, Tauler, Wyclif and Hus and their special helpers. The next pictures bring us up to the Little Reformation, in which Delilah corresponds to the 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


good Levites in the Epiphany movement, J. to the Philadelphia star-members and their special helpers and the Philistines to the various Levites in the manifested Levite groups, particularly in the Society and P.B.I., while the end of these pictures, when Samson is brought forth, even to his end corresponds to the little cleansed Sanctuary and the little Parousia and Epiphany movements. 

Now will come the particulars of the small Miniature. J., unaware that the bulk of the Epiphany brethren were crown-losers, considered the bulk of them Little Flock members and loved them accordingly in the Little Flock condition, in which they were until manifested as crown-losers (v. 4). Increasingly Levite sectarian leaders sought to bribe these crown-losers to find out the source of J.'s unusual powers with the Truth and its arrangements and to betray to them how they could restrain and oppress him, promising as a large but imperfect reward, if this were done, to recognize them as God's authorized mouthpiece (v. 5). This betraying in ever-increasing numbers these Epiphany brethren crown-losers sought to do (v. 6). And J. by his attitude seemed to them to indicate that if a complete number of new views on religion (errors, of course) were skillfully presented, they would restrain him into the weakness of the ordinary man (v. 7). These new views, complete in number, were presented, mainly by J.F.R. for the Society, and by R.E. Streeter for the P.B.I.; and the Epiphany crown-losers put them upon J. as a restraint (v. 8), all the while there were sectarian crown-losers of the various groups lying in wait in these Epiphany crown-losers' sphere of work; and they warned J. that by these new (erroneous) views the sectarian crown-losers were pouncing upon him; but J. refuted these new views very easily, as witness his articles in the Summer and Fall of 1919 and the Winter of 1919-1920 in The Present Truth, with the result that the source of J.'s strength was not discovered (v. 9). 

Thereupon an ever-increasing number of good crown-losers in the Epiphany Truth by their acts chided J. as not 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


having really shown the source of his unusual strength in Truth matters, and again pleaded by their acts for the pertinent information (v. 10). By his acts J. gave these the impression that if new (revolutionary) arrangements for doing the Lord's work were used as restraints upon him, he would be in strength as to these matters like the ordinary man (v. 11). Then these good crown-losers in the Epiphany Truth took the new methods of work introduced into the Society and P.B.I. and put them as restraints upon J.'s services, and said to him that the sectarian crown-losers, busy in this sphere of work, were pouncing upon him so restrained; but J. by his refutations easily destroyed these restraints of new (revolutionary) arrangements on doing the Lord's work (v. 12). In a third way these crown-losers in the Epiphany Truth sought to betray J. to the sectarian leaders among the crown-lost movements. By their attitude they expressed their longing (Delilah—longing) to know by what J. could be effectually restrained; and a third time J. by his attitude gave them a wrong impression, to the effect that if his powers of Truth and arrangement be interwoven with error and wrong arrangements, he would thus be restrained, and would in strength as to the Truth and its arrangements be like other men (v. 13). These betraying Epiphany crown-losers took the errors, etc., of Levite leaders and wove them about J.'s Truth and arrangement powers and fastened them, they thought, very securely. Thereupon they indicated that the sectarian false teachers were pouncing upon him. J. had been oblivious to the situation, but, aroused out of this obliviousness, he laid hold on these errors, and not only made away with them, but with all the arguments with which they were buttressed. These refutations, as well as those on arrangement, will be found in the Truths of the Summer and Fall of 1919 and those of the Winter of 1919-1920 (v. 14). Thus on the matter of teaching and practice they were unable to meet J. in the field of discussion, but were in every such case refuted fully.

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Now came the fourth test wherein J., like ten of the twelve Philadelphia star-members and their ten special helpers, failed; and this was from an overweening carefulness to spare the sectarians from feared stumbling of weak brethren; to such a degree as to have made him fail to be strictly faithful to the Word in dealing with these; for these ten star-members and their ten special helpers feared that these weak ones would stumble, if they were as strict with them as they should have been, e.g., Luther feared to stumble certain new creatures who turned out to be crown-losers, if he were as strict against Romanist practices as he should have been; and J. to prevent like weak ones from stumbling was not so strict against Great Company revolutionisms as he should have been, though all the while the revolutionists thought him too strict. With these few explanatory words we will now expound the rest of Judg. 16. Epiphany crown-losers, longing for the powers implied in the offered symbolic bribe, beset J, time and again in each of the ten Little Flock movements of the little Reformation, later perverted into little sect-like movements by the crown-losers who were the liers in wait in the sphere of activity held by the Epiphany crown-losers, until J. gave way and told them by acts and words that he was the little stars of the Epiphany, as well as the second and last star-member of large Laodicea, that as such he had been faithful; but if in any way he would prove unfaithful through false doctrine or wrong arrangement or the misapplication of a true doctrine or arrangement, he would have no more power than any other leader in that matter (vs. 15-17). The Epiphany crown-losers in this statement recognized that the real situation was brought into the light; and by their acts they summoned the crown-lost leaders of the various Levite groups, telling them that J. had revealed the real secret of his supernatural strength. 

Eagerly the crown-lost (Levite) leaders, including R.H. Hirsh, B.M. Kittinger, E.D. Mellow, as well as others in the Levite groups, set forth the pertinent activities prepared 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


to give the Epiphany crown-losers the promised powers on making the real betrayal. As each of the ten small Little Flock movements of the little Reformation was given a sectarian bent in that respect J. was made a captive of the little sectarians, even as in the large picture this was done to the large Philadelphia star-members and their special helpers, as each two's Little Flock movement was perverted into a large sect (v. 18). The Epiphany crown-losers by their course threw J. off guard, and called for the class who applied to him the teaching that we are not to stumble the weak, in such a way as called upon him to relax the strictness toward revolutionisms that he should have applied; and when he had complied, the Epiphany crown-losers began to oppose him; and he retained not the strength that had been his in opposing their attacks along pertinent lines, but not on teaching and arrangement lines (v. 19). These Epiphany crown-losers again told him that the sectarian crown-losers in the various movements were pouncing upon him; and he was aroused out of his inattention, and acted as though he would treat this attack as the former ones, unaware that the Lord was not supporting him therein (v. 20). But these Epiphany crown-losers deceived him on the situation, and made him a slave under restraint to prepare teachings, etc., for the sectarians, furthering them in sectarianism. 

This was in a mild manner reenacted ten times, once after each small Little Flock movement that he started was perverted into a sect-like movement. This began about July 10, 1919, and lasted until May 29, 1920, corresponding to 1846, the year of the cleansed Sanctuary (v. 21). But during the period of the little cleansed Sanctuary, May 29, 1920–June 26, 1920, J. recovered himself from this lapse into too great leniency with weak but to him unknown crown-losers, and thus recovered from his measurable unfaithfulness in not dealing strictly with these (v. 22). At this time the crown-lost leaders of the Levite groups set themselves to work in what was the actual interests of a 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


counterfeit view of Jesus, a blending of the Divine energy and human compromise, hence in a service of Azazel; and they gloated over what they thought was a fact, that their counterfeit of Jesus had delivered J. into their power (v. 23). Their followers joined them in such gloating over J.'s being delivered into their power, whom they considered their enemy, the enemy of their teaching and spirit and their refuter (v. 24). 

In their rejoicing they desired to bring J. forward, to gloat over and to make him appear ridiculous as between the organized Merarites and Gershonites (v. 25). J. asked R.G. Jolly, who was given J. as a helper by the sectarians, to help him recognize these two principal supports of Levitism, to obtain some easing of his standing position (v. 26). The temple of Levitism was full of sectarian Levites, strong and weak, as well as their main leaders; and in special prominence there were great multitudes of these that noted J.'s being ridiculed (v. 27). Beginning June 26, 1920, the beginning of the little Parousia, and continuing until Aug. 27, 1920, J. prayed that the Lord might strengthen him that one time, to vindicate him for the deceptions that he had undergone at the hands of the sectarian crown-losers (v. 28). All of those 61 days that he prayed he laid hold on the Merarites and Gershonites as the supports of Levitism, his chief power being exercised against the Merarites in the Society and Standfasts through the July, Aug., Sept. and Oct. Truths, and his subordinate power being exercised against the Gershonites in the P.B.I. and the B.S.C. in the July and Aug. Truths, with the Kohathites coming in for part of his activity in the Sept. Truth. J., praying that the Lord would end the pertinent phase of his work for the small Miniature with the refutation of little Babylon, exerted all his strength against the current Levitism and utterly refuted it and its leaders and all their followers. And this did more havoc among them through the pertinent articles of the July-Oct. Truths than he had wrought against them in all his previous work, 

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beginning with his British work (v. 30). His cooperating and sympathizing brethren and all who really held in truth with the abler brethren rallied to him and respected the memory of his work as wrought toward the Merarites and the Gershonites. His leadership was not one covering the entire small Miniature, Bro. Russell having had the leadership until Oct. 30, 1916, corresponding to 539 in the Gospel Age (v. 31). 

The preceding is the antitype, in the small Miniature, of Samson, which shows him as working the complete refutation of Levitism in the end of the small Miniature. And while the medium Miniature as a whole is not yet due to be explained, it would not be out of place here briefly to expound J.'s part as its Samson in its last feature. Here again R.G. Jolly is typed by the little Philistine boy and as such was given as a helper to J. in so far as his being deceived required one to help him find his way about. Here the Philistines represent the sectarian Levites; the temple, Levitism as a religious body; the Philistines mocking Samson, the Levites reviling and slandering J.; the two pillars, the increased Merarites and Gershonites; Samson's right hand exerted against one pillar, J.'s main strength applied against the Merarites and Samson's left hand applied against the other pillar, J.'s subordinate strength applied against the Gershonites; Samson's prayer, J.'s prayer for strength to vindicate his mission especially in view of his deception; Samson's bending himself with all his might, overthrowing the pillars, pulling down the temple, working havoc upon his enemies, and ending his career, J.'s bending all his strength of heart and mind in and to the writing of this book to overthrow the revolutionism of the Society and P.B.I., as the pillars of Levitism, completing refuting the sectarians of the medium Miniature and ending the first of the two phases of his Epiphany work, i.e., this side of the vail supervising the work of leading Azazel's Goat to the Gate, delivering it to the fit man and abandoning it in its last parts to Azazel. Thereafter the Lord's people of all groups will rally to J., 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


and will hold in honor his memory, and the work that he has done as the medium Miniature's Samson. 

Samson is the last judge described in the book of Judges. But apart from judges there is an account of two episodes appended to the book yet to be set forth. This chapter has already grown so large that we will give only their small antitypes, reserving their large antitypes for treatment, D. v., in some future issues of The Present Truth. The small antitype of both episodes centers in the Fort Pitt Committee. It is given in such detail, because the history of that committee is very closely related to, and connected with the rise of the Shimite Gershonites as the P.B.I. J. held a prominent place among the Truth leaders, and stood for the observance of the Lord's teachings and arrangements (Judg. 17:1). He declared in 1917 to his enlightened and supporting brethren of the Church (who had had in Bro. Russell a Divinely authorized teacher and executive, and who by his death had lost such a teacher and executive, as to which the brethren had vowed [not cursed] and spoken in J.'s hearing) that he had received (the Hebrew word here means receive, not take) the office of being such a teacher and executive. On hearing this the enlightened and supporting brethren of the Church prayed God's blessing upon him (v. 2). But under the pressure of opposition from "the Opposition" J. disclaimed such office powers during the Fall of 1917, in favor of his enlightened and supporting brethren in the Church. 

They declared that they had yielded J. powers for the Lord to advocate making a committee and pertinent officers, and declared that they would again yield it to him, (v. 3). Despite this, J. surrendered these office powers to his enlightened and supporting brethren in the Church, who devoted a part of these powers in the Fort Pitt Convention, Jan. 6, 1918, to the Convention to form the Fort Pitt Committee, and who through that committee organized its officers; and these were in the sphere of J.'s work (v. 4). Under the misimpression that Bro. Russell's having formed 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


the W.T.B.&T. Society proved that corporations could be used to manage the priestly general work, and not until two months later coming to see that by Divine intention corporations were intended to manage the general work of Gershonite and Merarite Levites, J. at the Fort Pitt Convention advocated the formation of a corporation having the Society's Charter as its basic law, and having the name, I.B.S.A. The Convention, not willing to take this step, appointed the Fort Pitt Committee, to which J. agreed. It was not until after the Asbury Park Convention, July 26-29, 1918, that a review of the history of the Fort Pitt Committee, in the light of Judg. 17:18, convinced J. that committees likewise were not Divinely sanctioned to manage the general work of the Priesthood, and were, like corporations, typed by wagons given the Levites. It was about March 1, 1918, that J. came to see that the wagons given to the Levites typed corporations controlling the work of the antitypical Levites. The Lord's not making clear to our Pastor the place of corporations in relation to His work, and he and the rest of the brethren assuming that after his death the Society as a corporation was to control the priestly work, allowed the mistaken thought to prevail among the brethren immediately after his death that corporations could by Divine sanction control the priestly work. Hence J.'s temporary error on this subject and on that of committees' controlling such work. 

Connected with J.'s work were the individual members of the Fort Pitt Committee and pilgrims, as mighty, ones among the brethren; and J. presented motions that the committee establish a magazine and a pilgrim service, on which subjects he had prepared a paper, revised by other members of the committee, calling on "the Opposition" to support the magazine and its editors, the magazine receiving the name, The Bible Standard And Herald Of Christ's Kingdom; and J. also presented a motion that R.H. Hirsh be elected managing editor, which motion passed (v. 5). This was at a time when among "the Opposition" there was 

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no one controller of the work, and each one did as he thought was good (v. 6). I.F. Hoskins had been occupying himself in certain Biblical matters in the Fall of 1917, as a sojourner therein (v. 7), which he gave up, seeking some other occupation among the Truth leaders, and as such came into closer touch with J.'s work, as he was seeking that other occupation (v. 8). On J.'s learning of his qualifications and purposes (v. 9), he suggested him as secretary of the Fort Pitt Committee, and that he be given full powers as such, which he accepted (v. 10), and was pleased with his office; and J. treated him as a beloved supporter (v. 11). Later on J. presented a motion to put him on a stated salary, which was given him, and he was thereby set aside to do religious work exclusively for the committee connected with J.'s work (v. 12). J. felt sure the Lord would be pleased with and bless the work through I.F. Hoskins, fully devoted to the work (v. 13). So matters stood in June, 1918. 

At that time there was no brother who controlled the Lord's work among "the Opposition." And at this time quite a few of the dissatisfied Societyites and ambitious Oppositionists desired stable conditions and settled work, both among themselves and toward the public, for as yet neither of these conditions had fallen to their lot, which they thought they could secure through forming a corporation for these purposes (Judg. 18:1). They, therefore, encouraged five able brothers: F.H. McGee, I.I. Margeson, J.D. Wright, H.C. Rockwell and R.E. Streeter, to explore the situation and report on the feasibility of forming a corporation to secure these two purposes. These were brothers formerly with the Society and now leaders of "the Opposition"; and as such they came to J.'s sphere of work among the leading brethren and remained there in thought (v. 2). Having been intimate with I.F. Hoskins before he took the position that required him to devote all his time to the committee's work, which from the Divine standpoint was J.'s special work, and being not in full sympathy with it, 

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they began to inquire as to who secured his appointment, as to what his work was, and as to what advantages came to him thereby (v. 3). His acts replied what J. was doing to him and how he served as to him (v. 4). Then they asked I.F. Hoskins to use his office to ask the Lord whether their twofold purposes would be prospered through the formation of a corporation (v. 5). He gave answer that they should go on with their designs, which, he said, were in God's service (v. 6). 

Thereupon they went about their design to explore those members of "the Opposition" who, strong in their opposition to the Society, yet as more or less timeservers, were careless and satisfied to let things run as they might, without requiring them to be made conformable to the principles of truth and righteousness among "the Opposition" leaders. There were none who had as leaders the courage to rebuke them for their remissness, though they kept themselves far away from the little nominal-church traffickers in the Society, and, in fact, did nothing in the Lord's work (v. 7). Observing these, the above-mentioned five brothers were ready to report on the conditions of these careless ones to those who, desiring more stable conditions and settled work, had sent them out from among dissatisfied Societyites and ambitious Oppositionists to spy out the conditions among "the Opposition." These then requested them to make their report (v. 8), which was one of encouraging their senders to take advantage of the careless ones, whose condition was favorable for their purposes. Not finding a ready response, they urged their senders to cease from their inactivity and slothfulness and possess themselves of these favorable conditions for more stable ways and steady work (v. 9). They dilated on the ease of overcoming the careless as to matters of corporational control in the Lord's work, and praised the favorable conditions, which they claimed God had provided for them, and in which everything needed for their purposes was at hand (v. 10). Thus encouraged, a goodly number of new creatures, the bulk of whom were crown-losers, consisting 

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of dissatisfied Societyites and of ambitious Oppositionists, armed with arguments supposed to overcome opposition to corporations' controlling priestly work, which later H.C. Rockwell elaborated in an article in the August, 1918, Committee Bulletin and which J. refuted in detail in EG 146-182 (v. 11), set out to realize proposals of the above-mentioned five brothers. They took and yet hold a stand against congregational church government which allows no central authority to control ecclesias (v. 12). 

Next they came in thought to J.'s sphere of work, in the hope of overcoming his objections to forming a corporation to control priestly work or the general work of the ecclesias (v. 13). The above-mentioned five brothers called the attention of their supporters to, the fact that the existence of the Fort Pitt Committee, its officers, its magazine and its pilgrims in J.'s sphere of work afforded them an opportunity to consider plans as to what they should do with these four things (v. 14). First they worked on I.F. Hoskins in his relation to J.'s sphere of work (v. 15), while their supporters stood prepared for controversy without, but near this sphere of work (v. 16). The five endeavored by argument, especially from about the beginning of June to about the middle of July, 1918, to divert (to take, not took) the Fort Pitt Committee, its officers, its magazine and its pilgrims from J.'s sphere of work into their own control; all this time I.F. Hoskins was engaged with their panoplied supporters just outside J.'s sphere of work (v. 17). As the five at first sought to divert from J.'s sphere of work the committee and its officers, magazine and pilgrims, I.F. Hoskins objected (v. 18). They told him to cease objecting and become an associate of theirs; and they would accept him as devoted to their service, alleging that it would be better for him to give his whole service to a large body of the Lord's people than to be devoted wholly to J's sphere of service (v. 19). This gave his self-seeking and ambitious heart joy; and he, therefore, led the movement of diverting the committee, the magazine and the pilgrims to 

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the new organization [the officers of the Fort Pitt Committee having been changed, no mention of their diversion (molten image) is made in the actual diversion at the Asbury Park Convention (v. 20)]. Thereafter they left J. and his sphere of work, taking care to protect their weak supporters and other effects from the efforts of J. and his supporters to recover the Fort Pitt Committee and its magazines and pilgrims from them (v. 21). 

These efforts were begun on July 28 and 29, at the Asbury Park Convention, by J.'s and his supporters' exposures of the committee's conditions, by J.'s debate with I.F. Hoskins on corporations' controlling the work of the priests and ecclesias and by the business meeting that voted down the committee's proposals. It was continued by the publication of Another Harvest Siftings Reviewed, and was completed by the Philadelphia conventions of Sept. 8-10 and Dec. 20-22, called to discuss the Fort Pitt Committee and the involved course of the five and I.F. Hoskins (v. 22). These efforts moved the six and their supporters to turn on J. and blame him that he had something wrong with him in setting such things into operation against them, some of them intimating that he was insane (v. 23). J., whose course in forming the committee, nominating its officers and furthering a publication and a pilgrim service for Little Flock work, was Divinely disapproved, as setting up false gods, by his acts setting them forth as such, though up to that time he did not recognize them to be a symbolic wagon and its belongings to be idols, blamed the five and their supporters for stealing them and I.F. Hoskins from him, complaining that he was bereft of all that he had, and that they questioned his sanity (v. 24). By their Committee Bulletin, F.H. McGee's "Reply to Bro. J.'s Claims" and, "Letter of Importance" and by their pilgrim and letter campaign, they charged him to cease his protests, lest embittered ones among them would cut him and his supporters off (v. 25). Thereafter they, ignoring J., went about their own affairs and J., seeing that 

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they were too strong to be overcome in their plundering, gave up his pursuit of them to recover the Fort Pitt Committee, its magazine and its pilgrims and returned to his sphere of work (v. 26). They took away the Fort Pitt Committee, its magazine and its pilgrims, together with I.F. Hoskins, and by surprise took the careless part of "the Opposition" in their idleness and slothfulness, and by their errors on a corporation controlling the priestly work and ecclesias refuted these, subjecting and undoing them as a party (v. 27). 

These found no deliverer, for they were far removed from the little nominal church and did not seek help from the Epiphany movement, because they desired an extreme independence; for they claimed that their condition was one that made them a sphere of such large liberality as made them in the Epiphany fellowship with anyone claiming justification and consecration, no matter how much of the Truth he might reject. In this spirit the six and their supporters developed a religious government having a corporation, the P.B.I., with its directors and officers, to control the so-called general Church and its work, establishing a semi-monthly magazine, The Herald Of Christ's Kingdom, appointing its editors, publishing tracts and books and instituting a pilgrim service, with old, and its own newly appointed pilgrims on its staff. And in this religious government they lived, moved and had their being (v. 28). They made this religious government a ruler on all matters pertaining to their adherents, even as they were fathered by the idea of clericalism, though their religious government was first that of the Fort Pitt Committee (v. 29). Yea, verily, they set up the P.B.I. corporation and made I.F. Hoskins their main religious leader, though originally he was a stranger to their theories and practices; but in his various character transformations he acted in this capacity, until the P.B.I. officially took the stand of so-called liberalism, i.e., letting errors on the covenants and sin-offerings prevail among them, and thus going into symbolic captivity. All the time that the true priests 

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continued in their isolated condition, these leaders preserved J.'s erroneous theory of a committee's managing the Church's general work, though they added the further evil of perverting the committee theory into the corporation theory (v. 31). 

The second episode appended to the book of Judges is recorded in Judg. 19; 20; 21, whose small antitype will now be presented. Like the preceding episode its antitype deals with J., the Fort Pitt Committee, its rage at the Asbury Park Convention and the consequent controversies, resulting in the complete refutation of the reorganized committee and the P.B.I.'s pertinent course, especially as to the course of their four former Fort Pitt Committee members, who, as in Another Harvest Siftings Reviewed, will for short be called the group. In the antitypical first episode, as the parallel of the Sardis star-members, who in ignorance of the real situation mistakenly furthered the church-state, its officials, its publications and its mouthpieces, J. in ignorance of its real situation mistakenly furthered the Fort Pitt Committee, its officers, its magazine, The Bible Standard And Herald Of Christ's Kingdom, and its pilgrims, the Lord using the involved experiences to show J., first, that corporations and, later, that committees are not to control the general work of the Church, though they are to be used in the general work of the Merarites and Gershonites. Thus, while the first episode impartially rebukes his pertinent mistaken course, though he was the Epiphany messenger, it more severely exposes the evils of the group as such and the P.B.I. editors as such. But, apart from J.'s giving way under pressure, exerted by the falsely informed vast majority of the Asbury Park conventioners' pertinent insistence, to the breaking up of the Fort Pitt Committee, J.'s course as typed in the second episode is not reflected against; but that of certain members of the group, its editorial and other supporters, in breaking up that committee, is censured by being typed in the vilest act recorded in the Old Testament, the rape of the Levite's concubine. In the 

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resultant controversy J.'s course received the Lord's approval and that of the P.B.I. God's severe disapproval and condign punishment. In this episode the Levite represents J., the concubine the Fort Pitt Committee as a whole, her father the group, Gibeah the group's main partisans, especially at the Asbury Park Convention, the Israelites those who stood for right in this affair, the Benjamites those who supported the group's main partisans, and the rape of the concubine representing the defiling and disrupting of the Fort Pitt Committee at the Asbury Park Convention. With these few generalities we will now take up the particulars as typed in these three chapters. 

The setting of this antitype is at a time when no one brother had full influence and power among the Lord's people. It was thus in the first half of 1918 that, from the Divine standpoint, J., as occupying an influential place among God's people, took the Fort Pitt Committee, gathered out from among Bible Students, as a symbolic half-wife (Judg. 19:1). But this committee became unfaithful to J. after a few weeks, and left him in mind, adhering to the group for several months (v. 2). J. sought in a kindly way to win it back to the carrying out of the mission of publishing a magazine, for which it was appointed at the Fort Pitt Convention, in which effort J. was assisted by R.H. Hirsh and R.G. Jolly, F.H. McGee giving more or less support therein, and the authorizations to establish a magazine and a pilgrim service. Responding to his effort, the committee for awhile reconciled the group and J., to the joy of the group (v. 3), which kept him in its sphere of delaying matters for months, they spending much time in discussing together on various problems and delaying the work of carrying out their instructions to start publishing the magazine (v. 4). J. sought to move the group to go ahead on this subject, but it procrastinated, alleging that the matter of fixing on headquarters must first be decided, over which discussions stretching over months were held, and during which the group asked J. to wait in 

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good cheer, until from uncertainty certainty as to action could be reached (vs. 5, 6); but when J. protested against this procrastination the group urged him to wait, to which he reluctantly consented (v. 7). New York finally being decided upon as headquarters for the work, as against Philadelphia, where J, was offered a fine house to be used as headquarters, J. again brought up the matter of proceeding to the work of publishing the magazine, but, on the arrest of the Society leaders, fear seized hold on the group; and they insisted that it was dangerous under the conditions to go ahead. Long discussions made more time-consuming delays set in, lasting from early in May until after the middle of June (v. 8). 

Finally, weary of such procrastinations, in the absence of the worst procrastinator, I.I. Margeson, J. proposed, June 22, 1918 a series of motions, including the election of R.H. Hirsh as managing editor, with a fixed salary, to devote all his time to his duties as such, and the decision to go ahead with preparing, printing and circulating the first issue of the magazine. Again, the procrastinators, especially I.I. Margeson, set into operation dilatory operations, including the latter's holding up unduly the MSS. of the first issue (v. 9). But J. strongly refused to consent to further procrastination, at which R.H. Hirsh went ahead, putting the first issue of the magazine through the press. The group later blamed J. for the procrastination; but this Scripture disproves their point and blames it therefore. By this time they were at the point where the question arose as to applying for second-class rates at the P. O. for the magazine. The committee and the views on the magazine and pilgrim service now ready for operation were in unison with J. (v. 10). As the time for publishing the magazine was approaching R.H. Hirsh and R.G. Jolly, particularly the former, suggested to J. that the authorization of second-class postal rates for the magazine be asked for as a continued privilege (v. 11). J., mindful that R.H. Hirsh was still under arrest with the

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Society leaders, advised delay on this point, until he could be released from arrest, on which J, advised him to appear before the authorities at Washington, and, presenting proof that he was no longer on the Watch Tower editorial committee when the offending article appeared, to seek to secure the quashing of his indictment. Thereafter he could apply for the pertinent authorization; hence J. counseled to take the paper without authorization of second-class rates to the Fort Pitt Committee or to the Asbury Park Convention for issuing (vs. 12, 13). The wrangling in the last Fort Pitt Committee meeting, July 18, on forming a corporation prevented any other matters coming up; hence the circulation of The Bible Standard was postponed until the convention (v. 14). The whispering campaign conducted by I.F. Hoskins, I.I. Margeson, H.C. Rockwell and R.E. Streeter had so permeated the bulk of the conventioners that, apart from F.H. McGee, the group and their partisans gave J., his two supporters and the Fort Pitt Committee as such the cold shoulder, despite their prominence there (v. 15). 

The only exception to this unkind treatment and aloofness among the group as a leader was F.H. McGee, who, in harmony with the committee's [unrescinded] decision of June 22, in a sympathetic and helpful way greeted and joined R.H. Hirsh, R.G. Jolly and J. in distributing The Bible Standard's first and only edition, after the conventioners' night session, July 26 (vs. 16, 17): on being informed by J. that the three were engaged in carrying out the Fort Pitt Convention's instructions to forward the magazine, but were not kindly regarded therefore (v. 18). J. assured him that their pertinent views were fully provided with sufficient power by that convention, as were also he and his helpers by the committee's involved resolution for the work on hand (v. 19). Thereupon F.H. McGee gave them a friendly response, agreed to vindicate their course, and urged them not to remain in unprotected publicity (v. 20). Thus he welcomed them and their purpose; and together they participated in the 

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work of distributing and commending The Bible Standard, which they did with clean conduct the night of July 26, at the Asbury Park Convention (v. 21). At this authorized deed, in which the four had joyous fellowship, I.F. Hoskins, I.I. Margeson and H.C. Rockwell were beside themselves with rage, severely denouncing the four brothers, especially J., that night, as though they had done an unauthorized and evil thing, while their pertinent course was contrary to the instructions of the Fort Pitt Convention and motion of its committee. They demanded of F.H. McGee that he deliver up J. to their defiling him with what were slanderous misrepresentations (v. 22). He remonstrated with them against so gross a wrong, even offering to yield to them his power as a committee member and the whole committee for their defiling these, but required of them that they abstain from slandering J. (vs. 23, 24). Especially did F.H. McGee so remonstrate after H.C. Rockwell attacked J. without mentioning his name, though his meaning was clearly understood by the conventioners, in his sermon at the July 27 morning session. After this denunciation F.H. McGee expressed sympathy with J. thereon. 

These efforts to defile J. with their false slanders were continued at an I.F. Hoskins' specially called meeting of elders and deacons, to which practically the whole convention came. So greatly aroused was this assembly, most of whose attendants had been made the objects of the group's whispering campaign against J. and the Fort Pitt Committee as made useless by J., that cries on all sides were raised to dissolve the committee as useless and effectless. Never before at a convention of Truth people was such misconduct manifested as was that manifested by I.F. Hoskins and his partisan supporters; for it was he who started at that meeting the denunciation of J. and the committee and by the worked-up partisanship of his supporters his denunciations were taken up, repeated and amplified. An incessant demand was made for the dissolution of the committee. It was objected that the Fort Pitt 

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Convention having appointed the committee, it alone could dissolve it. Thereupon the demand was made that the members of the Fort Pitt Committee present vote to dissolve it, and J. was the last one of them to consent thereto. Many a falsehood was told to justify the dissolution, e.g., Dr. Robbins, of Hampton, Va., who was not at the Fort Pitt Convention meeting that appointed the committee, told the meeting that all remembered that the convention appointed the committee until the next convention, when it was to be replaced by another committee, no such thing having been even hinted at, let alone decided upon there. The poor committee was abused, defiled, slandered, until it was worn out and shortly ceased to be. To this day J. regrets that, though unwilling, he yielded to the pressure to surrender that committee to the symbolic rapists; for that is exactly what I.F. Hoskins, I.I. Margeson, H.C. Rockwell and their partisans on that occasion were. And God's view of their conduct can be seen from His typing it by the vilest episode narrated in the entire Old Testament (vs. 25, 26)! 

When J., the next morning, at the service at which he was scheduled to speak, proceeded to fulfill his word uttered July 18, when after the committee's last meeting I.I. Margeson said that the committee trouble would be brought up at the convention, to the effect that if it would be brought up there, he would make a full exposure of the evils of the group, the poor committee lay dead, its last effort having been to make an entrance to a place of refuge (v. 27). By his exposures that morning he sought to arouse it to life and its prescribed service, but no response came; therefore J. took upon his theory of the situation the memory of the committee's history and with that departed to his sphere of service (v. 28). 

Awaking early Monday morning, July 29, the last day of the convention, J.'s thoughts turned, undoubtedly by the Lord's working, to Judg. 19, and he saw in general outline the rape of the Fort Pitt Committee pictured in the rape of the Levite's concubine. This aroused his opposition to the 

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group and its supporters to a still higher degree; and, accordingly, he led the opposition to the group's program offered at the convention's business meeting that morning; and every one of its recommendations was voted down, and that almost unanimously. Leaving the convention, he determined to write up the only thing left of the Fort Pitt Committee, the memory of what it had been and experienced, i.e., its history; and he did this in Another Harvest Siftings Reviewed, under twelve heads exposing the evils of the group, and sent this paper broadcast among the brethren (v. 29). Under each of these twelve heads many particulars of wrong-doings on the part of the group, 150 in all, placed in a deadly parallel over against 150 wrong-doings of Rutherfordism, were set forth; and wherever that paper went it produced a profound revulsion among wide-awake and non-partisan brethren who believed in standing for truth and righteousness against the gross wrongs of the group, particularly of I.F. Hoskins and I.I. Margeson. Such wide-awake and non-partisan brethren declared that the evil deeds, especially of these two, were the guiltiest ever heard of among the Lord's people since their coming out of the present evil world into the Truth and its Spirit. 

They called on all to study these things, to come to a decision thereon, and then to express their minds thereon as to what should be done about it (v. 30). All of the wide-awake and non-partisan brethren assembled in spirit in the condition of watching and prayer (Judg. 20:1). These were the bulk of God's people among "the Opposition," leaders and led, armed with Scripture, reason and facts, some of them gathering in the Mizpeh Convention at Philadelphia, Sept. 8-10 (v. 2), news of which and of the general assemblying in spirit reached the P.B.I. partisans, and all asking for details on this subject (v. 3). In the convention's investigative meetings, in private conferences and by mail J. answered these requests, giving the general outlines of the group's and their partisans' attempt to cut J. off, their raping the Fort Pitt Committee unto dissolution, his preparing and circulating 

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Another Harvest Siftings Reviewed, in which, divided into twelve parts, the evils done in, as to and to that committee were set forth, charged the group, especially the two above-mentioned members of it and their partisan supporters, with committing wickedness and folly among the Lord's people, and asked all the wide-awake and non-partisan people of the Lord as such to discuss and to give pertinent counsel (v s. 4-7). 

Such brethren everywhere determined not to let this matter go by default, but to follow it up unto a complete putting away of the evil done by the group and their partisans, especially at the Asbury Park Convention, arranging for some of the brethren out of the smaller and larger ecclesias and out of the general Church to give supplies of argument to the rest to use against the wrong-doers (vs. 8-10). And in this spirit they were united against the group and their partisans, particularly as to Asbury Park Convention matters (v. 11). These brethren sent out messages to all the P.B.I. supporters, asking for an accounting of the things done among them and to deliver up to discharge from office the group, the new P.B.I. Committee and its editorial committee and to set aside its partisan supporters. But these refused to comply (vs. 12, 13). On the contrary, they gathered themselves together to support their evil leaders, especially as to what was done at the Asbury Park Convention (v. 14). At the outstart of the conflict there were decidedly more among "the Opposition" against than for the P.B.I. leaders and partisans as to the Asbury Park doings, the ablest argument warriors among whom were, of course, their two new committees and their pilgrim and elder partisans (vs. 15-17). The wide-awake and non-partisan brethren sought counsel of the Lord, especially at the Mizpeh Convention, particularly as to who should lead in the attack; and the principles of the Word indicated the leaders as an investigative and curative committee, which should place itself at the disposal of any ecclesia that would invite them to investigate evil conditions in its midst and to suggest curative 

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counsel (v. 18). To secure representatives from each side and from neutrals, one from each of these three groups was selected, with alternates, in case any of the three could or would not serve. The election of this committee was the start of the campaign against the course of the group and their partisans, including their effort to form a corporation (vs. 19, 20). 

The P.B.I. responded, by its representative, F.H. McGee, declining to serve on the committee, by its influencing the neutrals, in both the first nominee and his alternate, to ignore the matter altogether, by a literary, pilgrim and correspondence campaign, grossly misrepresenting J.'s course, whitewashing the group's evils, terrorizing minorities in ecclesias who disapproved of the P.B.I., and grossly misrepresenting the purposes of the investigative and curative committee, as an inquisition, and by false teachings as to corporations in the Lord's work. This resulted in their winning away from the wide-awake and non-partisan group large numbers (v. 21). Noting the course of this struggle, though not yet having a magazine through which to wage the battle, J. renewed the matter of arousing the wide-awake and non-partisans to battle, and in this R.H. Hirsh and R.G. Jolly loyally joined, and thus aroused the pertinent brethren to encourage one another to renew the attack, and that along the same lines as before (v. 22), first in sorrowful prayer and then in asking counsel of the Lord's Word, which again encouraged them to renew the conflict (v. 23), which resulted, as in the former phase of the fight, in the P.B.I.'s winning over to their side some more, but not so many as in the former struggle. It was during this stage of the conflict that the P.B.I. held its Providence Convention, Nov. 8-10, 1918, and persuaded it to sanction its committee to organize the P.B.I. as a corporation, which was done (vs. 24, 25). The second repulse sent the wide-awake and non-partisan brethren to earnest self-examination, prayer, self-denial and sacrifice; and in this attitude they earnestly sought the Lord's will in connection with the Truth as due (v. 26), which our 

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Lord as the Giver of strong Truth utterances was giving; and the response was that victory would come, and that through a new publication, The Present Truth, in which the Biblical phases of the points at issue should be thoroughly set forth, and that a call should be issued for a convention at Philadelphia to seek a reconciliation on the matters of dispute, after both sides had presented their case. An inaccurate report coming from the Providence Convention, of whose inaccuracy J. did not learn until after the first issue of The Present Truth appeared, gave rise to the hope of a reconciliation and occasioned the decision to publish what proved to be the first issue of The Present Truth (vs. 27, 28). 

The doctrinal parts of the first issue of The Present Truth, Dec. 9, 1918, with their implication for both sides, proved to "set liers in wait round about Gibeah" (v. 29). Accordingly, the third phase of the battle developed (v. 30). While in discussing matters connected with the conventions there seemed to be a leaving of the former position of J. and his supporters, through which a few of the latter were "wounded" on the positive and negative features of the conflict (v. 31), and the P.B.I. supporters thought that they would again win the victory, the seeming withdrawal was to draw them away from their position (v. 32), so that the doctrinal parts of the paper might destroy their entire position. Hence on the surface the main strategy of the fight seemed to be on the question of the P.B.I. leaders as crown-lost leaders in relation to attending the Hebron (friendship) Convention, Dec. 20-22, on which feature the bulk of the wide-awake and non-partisan brethren were fighting; but in reality the main and deciding feature of the conflict was in the presentation of the doctrinal features of the first number of that magazine (v. 33). This phase of the fight worked very sorely against the P.B.I. position before, at and after the Asbury Park Convention in relation to it (v. 34). And in the twofold phase of the battle on its doctrinal lines, the first carried on in No. 1 and the second in No. 2 of The Present Truth, an utter overthrow of the P.B.I. position was effected (v. 35).

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The strategy unfolded in the first issue was, when too late, recognized by the P.B.I. as defeating them; for the side standing for truth and righteousness by seeming to flee from their position, in arranging for the kind of a convention that the Hebron Convention was announced to be, gave the doctrinal features the opportunity to effect their devastating work on antitypical Gibeah (vs. 36, 37). The understanding between the two parts of the antitypical attackers was that when the destructive effect of the doctrinal features of the battle would be noted (v. 38), the convention fighter section, which before had retreated and let the P.B.I. seem to be victorious in wounding some of their opponents (v. 39) would, when the P.B.I. saw the evidence of the destruction of their whole doctrinal standpoint (v. 40), turn in attack upon the P.B.I. The latter were nonplussed on the question of taking part as fighters; for they saw that whether they attended or not, they would be smitten (v. 41); hence they were nonplussed into inactivity. 

Therefore they gave up the entire fight in a most ignominious rout, by ignoring the convention altogether, and by promising to write a letter to the Philadelphia Ecclesia, a letter full of hypocrisy, which was published with the reply of the Church in Present Truth, No. 3, In all their ecclesias defeat met them on their stand (v. 42). The supporters of truth and righteousness surrounded them on every side, chasing them from one position after another, easily crushing them and driving them away from their entire position (v. 43). Thus the doctrinal and convention phase of the fight won away from the P.B.I. position quite a number (v. 44). The rest fled for refuge to their human corporation, which Christ's merit allows Gershonite as well as Merarite Levites to have. But No. 2 attacked them here on two phases, as to their corrupting the organization of the Church and as to a corporation controlling priestly work, and in both phases convinced many of their supporters of the error of their way (v. 45). Thus, apart from the P.B.I. board and editors and grossly partisan supporters, the faith 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


of all their former sympathizers was shaken in them as to the group's and their partisans' course before, during and after the Asbury Park Convention (v. 46). But the P.B.I. board, editors and rank partisans fled for refuge for a while to the P.B.I. as a corporation, which after this defeat they formed (v. 47). After this the lovers of truth and righteousness turned on the P.B.I. individuals and refuted with Biblical, reasonable and factual points their defiled New Creatures and humanity and thus also refuted their ecclesias (v. 48). The subsequent battles waged in Nos. 3, 4, 5 are the ones typed in v. 48, and the result was certainly an overwhelming defeat of the P.B.I. everywhere, i.e., in its board, editors, partisans, ecclesias and individuals. 

Now the antitype turns back from the events typed in v. 48 to events setting in immediately after the Hebron Convention, Dec. 20-22. At the time of the Mizpeh Convention, Sept. 8-10, the wide-awake and non-partisan brethren had there and elsewhere vowed to withdraw priestly fellowship and encouragement from anyone who supported the P.B.I. partisanly (Judg. 21:1); but when the overthrow of them through Nos. 1, 2 had occurred, pity and sorrow for them filled the brethren who now stood out separate from others as Epiphany-enlightened brethren, because of the resultant condition of the P.B.I. as destitute of real supporters apart from the antitypical 600 (the number 600, being a multiple of six, the number of evil and imperfection, and of ten, the number of natures lower than the Divine, characterizes the remnants of the P.B.I. as defiled Great Company members of especially bad qualities); and this distressed the Epiphany brethren, who poured out their distress thereover before the Lord (v. 3). Already in Dec., 1918, the Epiphany brethren were developed as one company of saints and sacrificed to the Lord in service (v. 4). In view of letting the P.B.I. attract needed supporters they asked as to who had not among them participated sympathetically in the anti-P.B.I. movement in the Mizpeh Convention, since 

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


their decision at the time of that Convention, requiring such to be cut off from priestly fellowship, precluded their encouraging any of their own from supporting the P.B.I. (v. 5). In view of the resultant great depletion of real sympathetic P.B.I. adherents the Epiphany brethren somewhat altered their pertinent course (v. 6), inquiring what they should do to relieve the desperate P.B.I. situation in harmony with their solemn decision not to encourage their own to support or join the P.B.I. (v. 7). 

Their inquiry as to who had not joined in the anti-P.B.I. movement at the time of the Mizpeh Convention received the answer that some in the Philadelphia and other Epiphany-minded ecclesias had not only not done so, but that under Levite-manifesting experiences had proved themselves to be partisans of the P.B.I., and as such had fought every effort of these ecclesias in their struggle with the P.B.I. (vs. 8, 9). Accordingly, the abler Epiphany brethren were by the rest encouraged to refute these and all their defiled supporters and cut them off from fellowship, which was done, especially in the Philadelphia, Jersey City and Newark ecclesias, besides in others (vs. 10, 11). Among these were some consecrated ones who had not defiled themselves; and these were in the accompanying controversies allowed to be led into joining the P.B.I. siftlings, without the Epiphany friends attempting to interfere; rather they announced that any of these who were disposed to go to the P.B.I. with the disfellowshipped ones, of whom were 8 or 10 in the Philadelphia Church, might follow their free will in the matter without hindrance from the Epiphany brethren, who peacefully announced this in The Present Truth, No. 2 to the P.B.I. This resulted, by P.B.I. partisanship, in several members of the Philadelphia Church, who while not before being partisanly for the P.B.I. took no part against them, so doing, the same occurring in a number of other churches, and all this because the Epiphany brethren out of pity for the diminished P.B.I. hoped that they would increase as a Levite group (vs. 12-15).

The Antitypical Judges, Large and Small. 


But these did not suffice to give the P.B.I. sufficient support; so the leading brethren wondered how further to relieve the situation (v. 16); for they recognized that the Lord desired this group of Levites to survive as a separate movement of the Truth people (v. 17), and yet they had to keep their solemn decision to cut these off from priestly fellowship (v. 18). They recalled that there was left the privilege to each of the Lord's people to choose their course in the Christian life according to their proper or improper understanding, and that this right was exercised regularly among the so-called independent brethren (v. 19). Therefore, again in No. 2, the Epiphany leaders encouraged the P.B.I. to seek among such increases to give them adequate support as various of such could be proselyted to the P.B.I. (v. 21), assuring the latter that they would pacify such independent brethren who should complain at such proselyting, on the ground that they had not given such to the P.B.I., and thus had not violated their solemn decision (v. 22). The P.B.I., accordingly, to recoup their depleted supporters, did this proselyting work and energetically set to work to repair the ruins of their former adhering ecclesias and occupied them (v. 23). This period was one in which each one gravitated toward his place, some in the Little Flock, some into various divisions of the Great Company and some Youthful Worthies to the Little Flock and others of them to their congenial groups among the Levites (v. 24). This was at a time when no one brother was recognized by all the brethren as leader; hence each did as he pleased (v. 25). 

Thus we have finished our study of Judges and we find that in the large antitype the star-members, despite little slips here and there, did the things acceptable to God, as His eye, hand and mouth, and that in the small antitype the same is true of J., while, on the other hand, the foes of the star-members in both pictures are shown to have served Satan, not God, and to have been disapproved of, and rejected by God. These facts ought to enable all Truth people how properly to appraise the actors in the antitypes.