Epiphany Truth Examiner


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IN AN ARTICLE that runs through six Towers (Sept. 15-Dec. 1, 1932) J.F.R. attempts to make the story of the book of Ruth type the movement that he has been (mis)leading ever since late in 1916. His effort is another example of his thinking, as the little pope of Little Babylon, to change times and laws. We have several times promised to give the brethren an exposition of the book of Ruth, type and antitype, and will here briefly so do. It will also serve as a positive refutation of the folly that J.F.R. offers on the book. We feel that the error appearing on the subject the Truth thereon is likely now due. To save space we will by the verse number, rather than by quotation, indicate on which verse we are commenting. Please, therefore, for clearness' sake refer to the pertinent parts of Ruth as you read the explanation. We understand that the time of the antitype of the events of this book is from 1844 to 1921. The famine (v. 1) types the scarcity of new Truth among God's people after the disappointment of 1844, until 1874. Bethlehem (house of bread) types the sphere of Bible Truth as due—very little of it was due in the 30 years mentioned, typed by there being little bread at Bethlehem during the famine. Elimelech (vs. 1, 2; powerful king, preferably to my God is king) types the crown-lost leaders who partook in the Miller movement, and who after 1844 went back to the Nominal Church (Moab, from a father, the Nominal Church, developed 

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by crown-lost leaders, antitypical Lot). Naomi (pleasantness) types crown-lost ledlings. Mahlon (sickly) and Chilion (pining, destruction) type respectively the more faithful and the less faithful of the tentatively justified leaders. While in the Miller movement they were more or less in their places fruitful (Ephrathites). Judah means praised, typing here the sphere of God's people praiseworthy for them to be in. Their going to Moab was unfaithfulness, typing the unfaithfulness of the involved antitypes in going back to the nominal church. The death of Elimelech (v. 3) represents the crown-lost leaders' being swallowed up as to spirituality by the worldly conditions in the nominal church—their new creatures went to sleep. Naomi's and her sons' being thus left types their antitypes' bereavement of the help and fellowship of such worldlified crown-lost leaders. Mahlon's and Chilion's (v. 4) taking Moabitish wives types the two kinds of tentatively justified leaders associating with themselves leadable tentatively justified ones, in character corresponding respectively to the two kinds of above-mentioned justified leaders: Orpah (stiff-necked, stubborn) typing those associated with the less faithful justified leaders and Ruth (friendship) typing those associated with the more faithful of the justified leaders. Their abiding in Moab ten years types the fullness of time for crown-losers and their justified associates to remain in the Nominal Church. 

(2) The death (v. 5) of Mahlon and Chilion in Moab types the swallowing up of the proper spirit of the justified leaders by the conditions in the Nominal Church—their justification lapsed. Naomi's being left by her husband and sons types how the led ones of the crown-losers are forsaken by the unfaithful ones to whom their hearts cleave. It types spiritual bereavement, even as her lamentation thereover (vs. 20, 21) shows that the antitypes recognize that spiritual bereavement has been their experience in the Nominal

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


Church for having left the association of the saints. God's giving Israel bread again (v. 6) types His giving the Parousia Truth (Elijah's eating the second cake and drinking the second vessel of water), whose beginnings date with our Lord's return, in 1874, the invisibility of the Lord's return, made clear that year, being the first of that "bread." Naomi's hearing of this types these crown-lost led ones, who went back to the Nominal Church between 1844 and 1874, learning through the message that went forth from 1874 to 1878 that the Truth was again advancing and becoming clear and abundant. Her arising that she might return, and her daughters-in-law with her, types their antitypes becoming interested in the Truth then due, this being from God's standpoint to the intent of the crown-lost ones coming into the Truth movement again ("to return"). Their going forth (v. 7) from their dwelling place toward the land of Israel represents their beginning to advance toward the Parousia Truth, away from Nominal Church errors and practices that they had hitherto held, this advance being made by all three classes. Naomi's first appeal to her daughters-in-law to return to their own, types, not words, but acts on the part of the crown-lost new creatures advancing toward the sphere of Truth and its Spirit, which is antitypical Canaan, having somewhat of a stumbling effect on the more or less faithful of the tentatively justified ones, just as Elijah's telling Elisha to turn back does not represent words, but acts of the faithful Little Flock that were repelling to the crown-losers, and that were with difficulty overcome by antitypical Elisha. Doubtless the difficulties in the way of advancing in the Truth against Nominal Church ways, faithfully met by antitypical Naomi, but harder for the others to meet, were among the things that in her had the effect of making her seem as forbidding them to follow her; while the easier way of settling down to a comfortable 

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life in the nominal church, contrasted with antitypical Naomi's forbidding attitude, made her conduct tell them that they would find ease and agreeable associates in antitypical Moab (vs. 8, 9). Naomi's kissing of Orpah and Ruth types the crown-lost ones' love for the justified at the prospective parting. Orpah's and Ruth's weeping types the grief of the two involved antitypical classes at the thought of parting. 

(3) The particular form that Naomi's faithfulness in opposition to the nominal church ways, teachings and practices assumed was her presentation of the Truth on the death state, eternal torment, the high calling, future probation and restitution in opposition to the views of "the shepherds and the principals of the flock." This aroused their outspoken opposition. Antitypical Ruth and Orpah, bereaved of antitypical Mahlon and Chilion, as their symbolic husbands, desired each one of them a group of other leaders (husband, v. 9), which they were looking desirously to "the shepherds and principals of the flock" to become; but antitypical Naomi's course of alienating these made them wonder awhile as to whether to follow her further, since it would deprive them of these as antitypical husbands. Thus it was antitypical Naomi's course and its results on the shepherds and principals of the flock that told them temporarily in the mental attitude in which they were toward such shepherds and principals of the flock to leave her in order to get them as their symbolic husbands. Thus these conditions were obstructive to them. These obstacles they overcame by putting their love for the Lord, the Truth and the antitypical Naomi above their desire to gain the shepherds and principals of the flock as symbolic husbands, leaders. So far both classes did well. Naomi's second effort (v. 11-13) to send away her daughters-in-law was grounded upon the thoughts of her being too old to have children, of her not having a husband and its being too long to wait on prospective children of hers 

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


for them as husbands, if she had a husband and could have children. The following were antitypical Naomi's acts and their results that told to antitypical Ruth and Orpah, who were desirous of winning antitypical husbands, leaders, the antitypes of those things which Naomi told Ruth and Orpah. Antitypical Naomi's witnessing the Truth in the nominal church won nobody who gave promise of becoming leaders, though she doubtless won additions to the Ruth and Orpah classes (no sons in my womb, v. 11). Nor did the antitypical Naomi class have any associates who could act as its leaders (husband, v. 12). Even if these two obstacles could be overcome, the very slow rate of progress in winning others on antitypical Naomi's part would delay matters too long for antitypical Ruth and Orpah to wait for leaders who could otherwise be won by their accepting nominal church leaders as theirs (husbands, v. 13). 

(4) Ruth was the only object of Naomi's third attempt (v. 15). Antitypical Orpah's people were the Nominal people of God and their gods were the creeds. This furnishes us the clue as to what the third attempt of antitypical Naomi was. Their full repudiation of the creeds (gods, v. 15) and their determination to leave the Nominal Church had a temporary repelling effect on antitypical Ruth, because these believed the nominal church creeds were to be solemnly adhered to as divine oracles, and that the nominal church as God's mouthpiece, channel, should not be left by God's people. Hence antitypical Naomi's pertinent course at first struck them as impious and naturally suggested to them that they had better leave such impious teachings and its fellowships and return to the teachings and fellowships of the nominal church; but as Ruth overcame the third obstacle to her following Naomi, so the Ruth class overcame the obstacles to consecration. Her telling Naomi to cease from dissuading her types the pertinent class bidding true defiance to the involved 

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obstacles. Her most touching language in vs. 16, 17, wherein is expressed her determination at all costs to cleave to Naomi, her land, her people and her God, until death, types the act of consecration of the Ruth class, which act is a determination to cleave to the Lord, the Truth, its Spirit and the brethren of both consecrated classes unto death. Ruth's decision made her a stranger member of Israel, and thus she types from that decision onward those faithful tentatively justified who consecrate but are not Spirit-begotten, the Youthful Worthies; even as Canaan types the domain of the Truth and its Spirit, and as those born in the land type those begotten in the Truth and its Spirit, so those who dwelt in the land, but were not born in it, type those who dwell in Truth and its Spirit, but are not begotten of the Spirit—Youthful Worthies. As Naomi ceased (v. 18) to dissuade Ruth from following her, so the new creatures' course ceases to become forbidding to those who make a full consecration and faithfully maintain its spirit. Their going on until they came to Bethlehem (v. 19) types how such loyal crown-losers and faithful Youthful Worthies persevered in advancing in the Truth and its Spirit until they came fully into the Bible Truth as due and among those who were in it as such. The coming back again among the Babylon-separated sanctuary class, once left by these very brethren, was bound to excite much interest among those who remained in the Babylon-separated sanctuary class, and who remembered those who left before and were now come back during the Harvest time. This is what is typed by all the city being moved about Naomi, asking, "Is this Naomi?" We may be sure they were heartily received in the antitype, as was also Ruth in type and antitype, as her coming to Bethlehem, type and antitype, conspired to stir up the Truth people. 

(5) Naomi's language (v. 20) shows that she was convinced that the Lord had striped her for going 

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


away from the fellowship of God's people, Israel, typing how antitypical Naomi's words and condition told of the disappointments and losses undergone in the years of error, apparent to the Spiritual Israelites, who, despite the famine years from 1844 to 1874, remained in the Truth and its Spirit, as scant as the advancing Truth was during those years. The agreeableness of this Naomi class, indicated in the meaning of Naomi (pleasantness), which made them comply too readily with the wrong directions of their leaders, had made her amenable to bitter (Mara) experiences of disappointment and loss. Beloved brethren, it is always thus when people leave the Truth and its Spirit for error and the world. This should put us on our guard against an easy-going compliance with the directions of leaders, especially at this time when almost all leaders among the Lord's people have become misleaders. Naomi's bewailing her impoverished condition as stripes from the Lord (v. 21) types the words and acts of the Naomi class when they came back among the sanctuary class into the Parousia Truth and its Spirit. V. 22 is a summary repetition of the statements of vs. 19-21, in the way of emphasizing them, typical of how the Lord has emphasized the fact that some of the brethren who fell away from the Babylon-separated sanctuary class from 1844 to 1874 came back to their first love and brought back with them a faithful class of unbegotten consecrated ones from 1878 on. 

(6) Noteworthy for the antitype in a chronological way is the statement that Naomi and Ruth returned early in the barley harvest. The barley harvest in Palestine preceded the wheat harvest. Wheat, we all know, is a more valuable grain than barley. The wheat harvest types that part of the Harvest that wins especially persevering Little Flock members, while the barley harvest types that part of the Harvest that wins especially those who become crown-losers. It will be recalled that the penny parable shows that the bulk of 

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those who were called from the first to the eleventh hour became crown-losers, while the bulk of those won from the eleventh hour onward to the close of the day maintained their crowns. These two times in the Harvest and their gatherings are respectively typed by the barley and wheat harvest times and their gatherings. Accordingly, Naomi's and Ruth's coming to Bethlehem in the beginning, though not in the very beginning, of the barley harvest types certain crown-losers once in the Miller movement Truth, and then forsaking it by a return to the Nominal Church, coming back into present Truth, and bringing unbegotten consecrated ones with them from 1878 to 1881. Thus they came into the Truth in the period of the first call—1874 to 1881, which was in the beginning of the antitypical barley harvest. For, as our Pastor shows, the fullness of the Gentiles came in, in 1878 (B 213; compared with 218, 1; 223, 3). Henceforth these were tested until 1881, when some crowns were forfeited, making special calls necessary from 1881 onward, which proves that in 1881 the general call had fully ceased. Hence no crowns were available for the Ruth class consecrating and coming into the Truth between 1878 and 1881. Thereafter she continues to type those assigned no crowns; for she continued antitypically as the type implies, to be an antitypical stranger in the antitypical land. Accordingly, the facts of the antitype prove that Ruth 1 types events from 1844 to 1881. 

(7) We now proceed to a short exposition of the second chapter of Ruth and will find that its time in the antitype is from 1881, when the gleaning began, to 1916, when the gleaning ceased. The crown-losers (v. 1) have our Lord as an antitypical kinsman, as an antitypical Boaz, who as such was a kinsman to antitypical Elimelech. Boaz' power and wealth type those of the Lamb found worthy to inherit, among other things, power and wealth (Rev. 5:12). Zealous Ruth (v. 2), as one of the strangers in the land, recognizing that 

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


she could have opportunities to glean, types the Youthful Worthies, zealous in the Truth, but not Spirit-begotten, from 1881 onward recognizing that they were given opportunities to serve in the Harvest. Ruth's pleading with Naomi to be encouraged to glean types the Youthful Worthies' seeking from their crown-lost associates encouragement to glean in the Harvest of new creatures. The field in which Ruth would be favored by its owner (vs. 2, 3) to glean, of course, types the sphere of service in which our Lord is Chief Reaper, He being the near kinsman to the Youthful Worthies' "father-in-law"—antitypical Elimelech. Her gleaning after the reapers among the sheaves (vs. 3, 7) types the subordinate part after the Little Flock reapers among the ecclesias that the Youthful Worthies had. Boaz (v. 4) coming from Bethlehem and blessing his reapers types our Lord's coming forth out of the storehouse of the advancing Truth to bless His own reapers and really blessing them. Their fervently wishing Boaz God's blessing types the Little Flock reapers' praying blessing on our Lord in His Harvest work. Boaz' (v. 5) asking his superintending reaper as to Ruth's identity types our Lord's raising in that Servant's mind the question as to the identity of the antitypical stranger—the Youthful Worthies. This occurred from 1881 onward, as various Tower articles suggest. The superintending reaper's answer (v. 6) types that Servant's explanation, given from 1881 onward in Towers, etc., that more were consecrating than could have crowns, because there were less crowns available, and that such surplus consecrators therefore constituted a class by themselves—the unbegotten consecrated, whom, basing the thought on the Youthfuls of Joel 2:28, we now call Youthful Worthies, in contrast with and in partial allusion to the Ancient Worthies. Likewise he also pointed out their fellowship with the crown-lost brethren, typed by the superintendent's allusion to Ruth's 

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fellowship with the crown-lost ones returned from the Nominal Church. The superintendent's praise (v. 7) of Ruth's desire to glean and her industry (the word not is in the best MSS. of v. 7's last clause; hence it should be translated, "she tarried not in the [resting] house [even] a little") types the gracious acknowledgment which that Servant made of the Youthful Worthies' zeal to serve and his praise of their industry. 

(8) Boaz' addressing Ruth (v. 8) types our Lord's sending the Youthful Worthies seasonable messages adapted to their condition. The question, "Hearest thou not, my daughter?", types both our Lord's tender regard ("daughter") and His encouraging them to listen to that Servant's message with reference to them. Boaz' directing her (v. 8) to abide in his field by his maidens to glean, and not to go to others, types our Lord's encouraging the Youthful Worthies to labor on in the Lord's Harvest field with His faithful consecrated ones, and not to abandon that gleaning work for some other work. Boaz' (v. 9) encouraging her to fix her eyes on the field where his maidens worked types our Lord's encouraging the Youthful Worthies to note carefully by study the true Harvest work, and to serve with the faithful consecrated ones (maidens). Boaz' assuring Ruth that he had cautioned the young men against injuring her, types our Lord's assuring the Youthful Worthies that He had exhorted the abler Truth servants not to stumble the Youthful Worthies in word, manner or deed. Boaz' (v. 9) giving her the privilege of quenching her thirst by the water drawn by the young men types our Lord assuring this class that they were privileged to receive the waters of life drawn from the well of Truth—the Bible—by the pilgrims and elders. The antitypes of Boaz' speech to Ruth were by our Lord given through pertinent Tower articles from 1881 onward. Ruth's humble and reverent acknowledgment of Boaz' graciousness and her wonder as to why she, a stranger, should be thus favored 

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


(v. 10) types the Youthful Worthies' humble and reverent acknowledgment of our Lord's graciousness to them and their wonder as to why, as unbegotten ones in the Truth (a stranger), they have been favored with the privileges of growth in the knowledge, spread and practice of the Truth. 

(9) Boaz' answer (v. 11) that her choosing the God of Israel, the land of Israel and the people of Israel, as her God, land and people, and that her having given up the gods, the land and the people of Moab, were the reason for his course toward her, types our Lord's assuring the Youthful Worthies (through pertinent Tower articles, later through Vols. 3 and 6 and later through other Tower articles and questions) that their having by consecration chosen Jehovah, His Truth, its Spirit and His people as their portion, and that their having given up sin, error, selfishness and worldliness and the practicers and abode of these, were the reason for His course toward them. His wishing her (v. 12) the Divine rewards for her works types our Lord's causing by His Word, Spirit and Providence, desiringly ministered to this class, the blessing that God ordains for the Youthful Worthies, who take refuge in the God of Spiritual Israel. This answer was also given in the above-mentioned literature. Ruth's answer (v. 13) types the prayer of the Youthful Worthies for Jesus' continued favor. Her telling the reason (v. 13) for her being emboldened to express such a wish types the Youthful Worthies' declaring that the Lord's past graciousness in pouring out words and acts of friendliness and comfort toward them encouraged them to ask for continued favor upon them who are the unbegotten consecrated ones. Boaz' inviting her (v. 14) to partake of the repast that he had provided for his workers, both of the milder and sharper (vinegar was then a condiment) forms of food, types our Lord's assuring this class of His desire for their feeding on the Truth in its milder and sharper forms, which also appears 

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from various Tower articles inviting them thereto. Ruth's accepting the invitation types the Youthful Worthies' accepting the antitypical invitation. Ruth's sitting (v. 14) beside the reapers types the Youthful Worthies' partaking of the Truth with the servants of the Truth as reapers. Boaz' passing her parched corn types our Lord's giving this class appetizingly-prepared food through the Tower, etc. (Luke 12:37). Her eating unto satiety types their satisfying their hunger for truth by the Truth. Her leaving (v. 14) the meal place for her work types that this class, instead of wasting time in idle speculations, use for service the strength derived from their necessary food for their consecrated hearts and minds. 

(10) Boaz' charging the young men to let her glean among the sheaves, not to shame (misrendered reproach) her, designedly to put in her way rich gleanings and not to rebuke her (vs. 15, 16), types our Lord's charges to the servants of the Truth, especially through Tower articles, to encourage the Youthful Worthies to seek to win others for the Truth, to refrain from such words or acts as would entice them to spiritual unchastity, designedly to put opportunities of service in their way and not to berate, belittle or scold them. Ruth's gleaning all day and beating out her gleanings (v. 17) types the Youthful Worthies' industry and efficiency in winning and developing new creatures. An ephah was about a bushel and to have gleaned an ephah full in one day was an unusually large amount to glean, which types the large success the Lord granted to the gleaning Youthful Worthies. Ruth's taking (v. 18) her gleanings to the city types the Youthful Worthies' bringing their gleanings into the Truth as due. Her bringing her gleanings to Naomi types the Youthful Worthies' introducing their gleanings to their crown-lost associates. Naomi's seeing (v. 18) the gleanings types the crown-losers' taking note of the ones won for the Truth by the Youthful Worthies. 

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


Naomi's bringing forth food that she had reserved for Ruth types the crown-losers' giving the Ruth class the kind of spiritual food that they thought best for them, after they had themselves partaken thereof. Naomi's questions (v. 19), indicating her wonder at Ruth's success, types the crown-losers' wonder at where so many could be won for the Truth. Naomi's recognizing that Ruth must have been especially favored to be so successful and her wishing it to be well with her favorer ("blessed is he that did take knowledge of thee") types that the crown-losers recognize that in success in service the Youthful Worthies have been highly favored and that they wish well to the Favorer. Ruth's declaring (v. 19) that the person in question was Boaz types the Youthful Worthies' ascribing their success to the Lord, in whose Harvest they had been working. 

(11) Naomi's bespeaking (v. 20) blessings upon Boaz for his kindness to the living and the dead types the crown-losers' wishing success to our Lord in His work for His favors to the crown-loser and tentatively justified leaders swallowed up in the Nominal Church and to the crown-losers and Youthful Worthies in the Truth. Her declaring that Boaz was one who had the right to redeem (see the margin) types the crown-losers' teaching the Youthful Worthies that our Lord was one who had the right to acknowledge the Youthful Worthies as a class by themselves, take them to Himself acceptably as such and use them as such. Ruth the Moabitess (v. 21) telling Naomi that Boaz had told her to glean in close association with his reapers to the end of the Harvest types the Youthful Worthies by word and act telling the crown-losers that Jesus invited them to glean until the end of the Harvest, which means to 1916, in its gleaning aspect. Naomi's (v. 22) telling Ruth that it would be good for her to continue with Boaz' maidens, and evil for her, if she would be found gleaning with others in another field types the crown-losers' by word and act encouraging 

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the Youthful Worthies to continue as for their good in the Lord's Harvest field with His faithful consecrated ones, and by no means to allow themselves to be deceived into other works than gleaning in the Lord's Harvest; for if found so doing it would mean loss of the Lord's favor. Ruth's following Naomi's suggestion (v. 23) types the Youthful Worthies' following the crown-losers' pertinent suggestion. Ruth's doing this until the end of the barley harvest types the Youthful Worthies' gleaning in the Lord's Harvest field from 1881 to Feb., 1908, when the antitypical Barley Harvest was over, that date marking the start of the eleventh hour, when the antitypical Wheat Harvest began. Her continuing to do so until the end of the wheat harvest types the Youthful Worthies' gleaning Little Flock members from Feb., 1908, until Passover, 1916, when the last Little Flock member was gleaned. Thus our study shows that the antitype of Ruth 2 was enacted during the gleaning period—1881 to 1916. Ruth's remaining with Naomi throughout the Harvest types the Youthful Worthies' remaining with the crown-losers to the Harvest's end. 

(12) Ruth 3 antitypically covers the period from Dec., 1918, to July, 1919. The facts of the antitype that we will now present will prove this. It will be recalled that Vol. VII and the Societyites claimed that the door to the high calling would be closed at Passover, 1918 (actually it closed Sept. 16, 1914, so far as new begettals are concerned, though the gleaning of the faithful begotten ones continued until Passover, 1916). This view of the Society friends made them properly conclude that, so far as new consecrators were concerned, these would form the class of "Modern" (the literal Biblical term is Youthful) Worthies. And to win such was one of the privileges of service before the Societyites. These thoughts were expressed in Z '18, 355-357. The expression of these thoughts was made by the good crown-losers in the Tower, in studies and in conversations (their bad leaders were then in

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


prison). All of us know that this was done, at that time very generally among the crown-losers. And it meant that the Youthful Worthies as a class were to be brought to the fore in blessing and service henceforth, as the pertinent discussions of those times brought them to the fore in the studies of that time. These are the antitypes of Naomi's (good crown-losers) telling Ruth (v. 1) of her ambitions for her prosperity. Her reminding Ruth (v. 2) of Boaz' being a near relative, one who might redeem, types the good crown-losers', who were now in control of the Society's work and also were in other groups, e.g., Standfasts, Olsonites, etc., telling the Youthful Worthies that our Lord Jesus could now acknowledge them as a separate class, take them to Himself and use them fruitfully as a class by themselves. Her telling Ruth (v. 2) that Boaz was that night winnowing barley types the crown-losers' publishing the statements of the above-mentioned Tower article and the oral teachings of the crown-lost Societyites, Standfasts, Olsonites, etc., that our Lord was at that time engaged in dealing with the Great Company amid trialsome experiences (winnowing the barley in the threshing floor). The persecutions of that time were among these winnowing experiences. Naomi's telling Ruth (v. 3) to wash, anoint and adorn herself so that she might attractively present herself to Boaz at the threshing floor types the crown-losers' exhorting the Youthful Worthies attractively (in cleansing from filthiness of the flesh and spirit and in holiness of mind and heart) to present themselves to the Lord as a special class during the testful conditions of Great Company winnowings (separations from worldliness). The truths that were at that time gladdening the Church (the completion of the Church; The Last Related Acts of Elijah and Elisha, etc.) at this time were also gladdening our Lord (Boaz, eating and drinking and being merry). These are patent facts. 

(13) Naomi's telling Ruth not to manifest herself for her purpose until after Boaz had finished eating 

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and drinking types the crown-losers' counseling the Youthful Worthies to wait until the Lord had indicated by His teachings and providences that He had appropriated the pertinent teachings joyfully and that the time had come to make special effort to present themselves as Youthful Worthies for His separate acknowledgment, union and use of them in service. As in the type the time for Ruth to approach Boaz (v. 4) was after he had ceased for the night from winnowing the barley, so in the antitype after Jesus was about to make a transition from Great Company work toward Youthful Worthy work was the time for antitypical Ruth to go to antitypical Boaz for the purpose intended. The instruction to uncover his feet and lie down (v. 4) types the exhortations that the crown-losers gave to the Youthful Worthies to be humble and quiescent in waiting upon the Lord, until the Lord would take up their case. Naomi's telling Ruth that Boaz would then tell her what to do types the crown-losers' assurance to the Youthful Worthies that the Lord would make known to them what to do. Ruth's promise to do all she was told by Naomi types the Youthful Worthies' factual and verbal assurances to do all that their crown-lost associates told them. All of the above thoughts are contained in the above-cited Tower article and in the incidental studies, conversations and pertinent acts late in 1918. Not only the known facts of that time were such, but in the nature of the case that article among Truth people would produce such discussions and acts. Ruth's doing the things charged her (v. 6) types the Youthful Worthies' fulfilling the antitypes above mentioned. Thus our application is decidedly factual, for most of us are witnesses that these events occurred in 1918 among Truth people. 

(14) On Dec. 9, 1918 and Dec. 24, 1918, the first and second issues of The Present Truth appeared. These treated the Epiphany, The Last Related Acts of Elijah and Elisha, The Withdrawal of Priestly Fellowship From Levites, Prophets And Prophets, Types

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


and Antitypes, Conventions of Priests and Levites, The Church Completely Organized (as a proof that while Merarite and Gershonite Levites have corporations controlling their work, Priests must not), Judging (as to manifested Levites) and Defense of Peace Among God's People (as related to the separation between the Priests and Levites). All these teachings applied to the relation between the Little Flock and the Great Company in connection with the division between them then in full operation. These teachings gave the Little Flock a great feast with corresponding joy, and in these our Lord shared (Rev. 3:20), whose participation therein is typed by Boaz' feast and joy (v. 7). His lying down for the night at the end of the heap of corn (barley) types our Lord's ceasing for awhile with giving additional feasting with reference to the Great Company and temporarily easing the separating trials; for nothing further was given out until the third number of The Present Truth, which appeared Feb. 17, 1919, for the reprint of The Last Related Acts of Elijah and Elisha which went through the press early in February was withheld from circulation among the Societyites until July. Ruth's coming softly, uncovering Boaz' feet and lying down (v. 7), types that the Youthful Worthies, in harmony with the teachings that they had received, as above set forth, quietly, without agitation or ostentation, in the secrecy of their hearts, humbly brought themselves and their cause to the Lord and in silence waited on His decision. Boaz' trembling (v. 8—not fearing), as a half-awakened sleeper always does, types our Lord's earliest movements toward the Ruth class after they had laid themselves at His disposal for the thing at hand. Boaz' turning and seeing Ruth types our Lord's first fixing His ministering attention on the Youthful Worthies as a separate class. This occurred through His arousing the writer to prepare the article on the Youthful Worthies which appeared in the third issue of The Present Truth, that of Feb. 17, 1919. Boaz' 

The Epiphany's Elect. 


asking Ruth (v. 9), "Who art thou?" types our Lord's raising before the Youthful Worthies the question on the identity and reality of the Youthful Worthies in the pertinent article. (P. '19, 34-36; '20, 51-53; '24, 34-37; '30, 131-133. In these and subsequent Truth references we make them to the reprinted articles for the convenience of those who may not have the earlier ones.) Ruth's answer (v. 9) types the response of the Youthful Worthies as they read the pertinent parts of that article, acknowledging that they were the pertinent class of the Lord's servants. Ruth's request that Boaz spread his skirts over her in acknowledgment of his being one who could redeem her as a near relative types the Youthful Worthies', under influence of that article, requesting the Lord Jesus to acknowledge them as that class of servants and to take them into such a union with Him as would make them fruitful in work for the Lord. 

(15) Boaz' answer (v. 10), commending her for her persevering and adhering to, and seeking him rather than seeking younger men, types our Lord's telling, through the pertinent parts of that article, of His appreciation of the spirit of the persevering Youthful Worthies, who, while sin and selfishness is in the ascendency in the world, would not follow their practicers, whether great or small, but faithfully served and cleaved to the Lord instead (P. '19, 36, 6; '20, 53, 7; '24, 37, 2; '30, 133, 7). Boaz' (v. 11) encouraging Ruth ("Fear not my daughter") types our Lord's encouraging throughout that whole article the Youthful Worthies. Boaz' promising Ruth to fulfill her requests, because of her publicly known virtue, types our Lord's describing through that article the present rewards and privileges of the Youthful Worthies, because of their publicly known loyalty in consecration. (P. '19, 36, 1, 2; '20, 53, 1, 2; '24, 36, 3, 4; '30, 133, 1, 2.) Boaz' acknowledging his being one who could redeem her, but mentioning that there was yet a nearer redeemer (v. 12) types our Lord's assuring the Youthful Worthies 

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


that He was a close relative to them to acknowledge them, but that there was yet a closer relative—certain Great Company leaders, the directors and editors as representatives of the Society, who by virtue of their being Levites and the Youthful Worthies being Levites, were a class nearer to the Youthful Worthies than the Head of the World's High Priest. (P. '19, 35, 8 [last sentence]; '20, 52, 5; '24, 36, 2; '30, 132, 7; and the preceding set of references.) Boaz' charging Ruth (v. 13) to wait until it would be determined whether the nearer kinsman would acknowledge her and enter into union with her to make her fruitful, types our Lord, by His providential delays in circulating the May, 1919, Truth, which, printed in February and first circulated in July, contained the articles giving the pertinent notice to the nearer kinsman (which delay was due to the leading Society directors' and editors' imprisonment and J.F. Rutherford's illness after their release), bidding this class to wait until the due time for the Society directors and editors to be given a chance to do the antitypical nearest kinsman's part. Boaz' pledging that in case the nearer kinsman failed Ruth, he would take his place toward her (v. 13) types our Lord's assuring the Youthful Worthies that He would stand by them, if the others failed. This pledge is implied in the fact that Jesus recognized the Youthful Worthies as a subordinate part of antitypical Elisha as the last two sets of citations prove by His providential pertinent act. Boaz' telling Ruth (v. 13) to lie down until morning types the Lord's requiring the Youthful Worthies to wait until the time for Him to act for them. 

(16) The compliance with this request in the type and antitype is shown in the first clause of v. 15. Ruth's acting in secrecy and Boaz' counseling secrecy (v. 15) types the secrecy of the pertinent acts of Jesus and the Youthful Worthies, as the same thing is implied in Ruth's leaving while the darkness prevented recognition (v. 14). Boaz' charging Ruth to put her apron 

The Epiphany's Elect. 


(see margin) into a position to receive the barley that he would give her types the Lord's charging the Youthful Worthies to prepare to be fruitful in gaining crown-losers as the fruits of their devotion. This is also implied in the last two references as well as in P. '19, 36, 4; '20, 53, 5; '24, 36, 7; '30, 133, 5. Her complying shows the compliance of this class. Boaz' measuring for her six measures of barley (v. 15) types our Lord's giving this class an incomplete number of crown-losers as a result of her service. Her bringing them into the city types the Youthful Worthies' bringing such crown-losers among the Truth people. This work was done from March to July, 1919. Ruth's coming (v. 16) to Naomi types this class presenting themselves to their crown-lost associates during the time just mentioned. Naomi's question, "Who art thou?", types the Youthful Worthies crown-lost associates' question as to whether they had found out that they were Youthful Worthies or not. Ruth's telling what Boaz had told her types the Youthful Worthies' declaring to their crown-lost associates what the Lord had told them through the truths on the Youthful Worthies, set forth in the Feb. 17, 1919 TRUTH. Ruth's showing the six measures of barley (v. 17) types the Youthful Worthies' introducing to the crown-losers long in the Truth those crown-losers that the Lord had given them as fruits of their work, as the antitype of Boaz' telling Ruth not to go empty handed to her mother-in-law. Naomi's (v. 18) advising Ruth quietly to wait on Boaz, whose character guaranteed that he would persevere in the matter in hand to a successful conclusion, types the crown-losers' advising the Youthful Worthies quietly and trustfully to wait on the Lord, whose character was a guarantee of His persevering in the matter to a successful conclusion. 

(17) Ruth 4 covers in antitype the period from July, 1919, to about July, 1921. In Ruth 4:1, Boaz' going to the gate and sitting down there represents our Lord's preparing to circulate widespread among Truth people 

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


the May (printed in February and circulated in July) and August, 1919 TRUTHS, which contained the pertinent articles, through which Jesus gave the messages antitypical of what Boaz said in Ruth 4:1, 2. The nearer kinsman's coming to the gate (v. 1) types the Society leaders, its directors and editors, whose chiefs had but recently been delivered from prison, coming by their activities again into prominence among the Truth people. Boaz' asking him to turn aside and sit down at the gate types our Lord's, through the pertinent articles in the May (printed in February and circulated in July) and August, 1919 TRUTHS, attracting their attention and asking them to step before the whole Church in attention to the subject matter of those articles. The nearer relative's complying types the Society directors' and editors' complying with the antitypical requests. The wide circulation of these articles (over 30,000 of the first set and over 20,000 of the second set among Society adherents) could not but have these two effects. The ten men of the city's elders (v. 2) type responsive leaders of the eight Levite groups, which were all formed before the antitype of the gate scene was finished, Little Flock leaders among these Levite groups and Little Flock leaders in the Epiphany movement—ten sets of leaders in all. Boaz' taking (v. 2) the ten elders and asking them to judge as witnesses in the matter of Naomi's parcel of ground left by Elimelech types our Lord's attracting, by the above-mentioned articles, the attention of the ten sympathetic leader classes in the ten groups just mentioned and enlisting them as judges—witnesses—of the matter of bringing the pertinent Great Company's affairs forward for proper adjustment. The elders' seating themselves (v. 2) represents their antitypes' setting themselves to act as requested. Boaz' telling the kinsman of Naomi's selling a parcel of ground belonging to Elimelech (v. 3) types our Lord's declaring through the article in the Sept. 1919 TRUTH on, The Society As Channel, that the privilege of acknowledging the Great

The Epiphany's Elect. 


Company as brethren, then to be gained, but formerly not discernible, and the privilege of managing their work, were obtainable (redeemable) by pertinent sacrificial work (P. '19, 161, 1; '25, 97, 1; '31, 30, 5). 

(18) Boaz' declaring to the next kinsman (v. 4) that he had decided to offer to him the chance of acquiring the land publicly types our Lord's similar declaration through the part of the above-mentioned article just cited that urged the Society directors and editors to make acknowledgment of the Great Company as now available for God's dealings, since the Little Flock was complete, and to make faithful use of the privilege of managing the Society's affairs in the interest of the Great Company, and diligently to do it publicly before all the Lord's people, particularly before the ten groups of leaders. Boaz' telling (v. 4) the nearer kinsman, who had the first right thereto, to decide whether he would exercise this right or not, represents our Lord's, through the same citations of that article, calling upon the Society directors and editors (who had the first right to obtain the above-mentioned privileges, since theirs was rightly the controlling position in the Society as to policy and teaching, though they were not controlling, such function having been usurped by one of its members), to decide whether or not they would by faithful performance of their duties control the Society's affairs for the benefit of the Great Company (same citation as above). Boaz' assuring (v. 4) the nearer kinsman that if the latter would not use his prior rights, he would assume them, types our Lord's through those two articles showing the Society directors and editors that if they would not use their position to function properly toward the Great Company as a class and toward their work, he would see to its being done by Himself. The nearer kinsman's telling Boaz that he would perform his part in this matter types the directors' and editors' assertion that they would do the antitypical part as shown above; they accepted it as their task to win little Benjamin, 

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


as Clayton Woodworth then put it. Boaz' telling (v. 5) the nearer relative that with Naomi's right he would have to redeem Ruth's right in that field types what our Lord declared in the above citations and in P. '19, 175, 1-4; '24, 82, 4-83, 1; '30, 74, 3-6 on Elisha's request for the firstborn's portion, as showing that Elisha typed the two classes (the Great Company and the Youthful Worthies as mouthpiece to the public) who had the right to the Society's field of service toward the public, including, of course, services to their own classes. Boaz' saying that the nearer relative must thus marry Ruth (there was no question here of marrying Naomi, whose husband had had children by her, and therefore levirate marriage did not apply to Naomi, as J.F.R. claimed) to raise up the name of the dead Mahlon, types that in case of Youthful Worthies the Society directors and editors would have to acknowledge such a class and to unite with it to produce faithful tentatively justified ones of the only kind then producible, the Youthful Worthies, to take the place of dead antitypical Mahlon—dead because his tentative justification had lapsed. The above citations prove it. 

(19) The kinsman's knowing well (v. 6) that the field would revert not as his, but to Ruth's offspring, as Mahlon's descendant, and that he would thus only be out of pocket for another's benefit, and his refusing to enter into such a transaction, types the Society directors' and editors' through their president and chief editor giving a refusal to the antitypical proposal of antitypical Boaz, through the article on the Worthies in the Jan. 15, 1920, Tower, wherein he denied the existence of Youthful Worthies, and any other kind of tentatively justified persons, and thus the Society, of course, would not sacrifice for such a class and for the production of the only kind of faithful tentatively justified ones then winnable (Youthful Worthies), their not wanting to divide their powers with such a class being the selfish reason back of it—marring their

The Epiphany's Elect. 


inheritance. The pertinent article, whose contents were previously discussed for several months at Bethel, was written prior to the shareholders' meeting at Pittsburgh, Jan. 3, 1920. The nearer relative's offering and letting Boaz have the opportunity to redeem it types the Society directors' and editors' giving up, through that article and connected acts, their pertinent privilege, which made it revert to the Lord. It was always an evil in Israel not to redeem a redeemable property, or let part of the fatherly patrimony (v. 7) fall to another. This was shown by the resultant limping when such an one had to give his shoe in token of this evil, typing the wrong conduct in an antitypical Israelite who refused to perform the antitype; and it was also an evil in Israel for the fit brother not to enter a levirate marriage with his childless brother's widow (Deut. 25:7-10), typing any proper candidate who would refuse to raise up antitypical seed to the fallen leaders of any class in Spiritual Israel, capable ones in line for it refusing to take the vacated place of leadership in the Great Company to win and develop the rest of that class, capable ones in line for it refusing to take the vacated place of leadership in the Youthful Worthies to win and develop the rest of that class, capable ones in line for it refusing to take such place among the justified to win and develop the rest of them, or capable ones in any higher class refusing to do this as to the vacated place in a lower class, like the tentatively justified. To enter an antitypical levirate marriage is impossible for the Little Flock, since her Leader, Jesus, never dies, hence the Little Flock never loses her Leader. Not only did they do wrong thereby, but for that act they were surrendered by the Lord to other wrongs, manifesting their spiritual limping. Hence the nearer kindred's taking off his shoe, giving it to Boaz and limping as a result (v. 8) types not only the pertinent wrong of the Society directors and editors in the above-mentioned article, but also the evils that they committed at the voting shareholders' meeting

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


at Pittsburgh, Jan. 3, in setting aside the annual election of the Society officers, making it triennial, and in setting aside the election for life of the Society directors, making it triennial, which was a gross act of hypocrisy in view of the claims that these made in 1917 and 1918 on an annual election of directors, as well as officers, as being absolutely required by law. This was not only hypocrisy but power-grasping and covetousness. The antitypical limping was also manifested in later wrong of practice and teaching. Thereby the matter of exercising the proper pertinent conduct was left to antitypical Boaz (leaving the shoe with Boaz). 

(20) In the case of Ruth there is no record of her loosing the shoe and spitting in the face of the kinsman who refused to marry her to raise up seed to Mahlon, as the type shows (Deut. 25:9) such should be done. And this was because the circumstances were quite different, the entire transaction being conducted by Boaz instead of Ruth, and that in her absence, whereas in the type the widow was to act with the elders in the transaction. But in the case of Ruth's nearest kinsman, type and antitype, the shoe was taken off, and the antitypical spitting did set in. The secretions of the mouth of God's people are a good thing, and are used to represent the Truth, since their mouth represents mouthpieceship for God (Rev. 3:16; John 9:6, see comment). To spit in one's face represents to use language to the disparagement and disgrace of him into whose face one spits. If it is God's people who do the symbolic spitting, it represents to use the Truth to the disparagement and disgrace of the pertinent person. And not only antitypical Boaz has, as the facts prove, done this, but as the Youthful Worthies have come to see the Truth on the subject they have done it to the Society directors and editors, especially to their chief, as others of God's people, as not expressly required by this particular type, but as implied by the elders', etc., part, have done and will continue to do—using 

The Epiphany's Elect. 


the Truth on the pertinent subject to the disparagement and disgrace of the antitypical nearest kinsman. Boaz' calling (v. 9) upon the elders and people to bear witness to his becoming the purchaser of the involved property types that through the entire articles of the March, 1920, TRUTH on, "Worthies, Ancient and Modern," Reviewed; The Youthful Worthies (which are republished as Chapter V of this volume) and, Some Hindrances to Fruitful Service, our Lord called the ten group leader classes and all the brethren to witness that He had taken over all the involved rights of the Great Company and the Youthful Worthies away from the directors and editors and exposed their iniquity, their subsequent errors as successively coming out in the Tower evidencing their reprobate state, as well as their subsequent wrong practices; and Boaz' calling (v. 10) upon the ten to witness that he had redeemed Ruth to raise up seed to Mahlon, and thus to preserve his family inheritance in Israel types how our Lord in the whole of the first, second and third of the last-mentioned articles, especially the first, acknowledged His relationship to the Youthful Worthies and that He had acquired this class as His Own, to raise up faithful tentatively justified ones of the only kind then possible—Youthful Worthies, all others of that class forfeiting their tentative justification. The elders and all the others present in the gate saying (v. 11), "We are witnesses," types their antitypes—the Lord's people in general and the good leaders—acknowledging the truths that our Lord set forth in those three articles and His consequent acknowledgment of the Youthful Worthies and accepting of them into union with Him for developing more Youthful Worthies. The good wishes of the elders and people (v. 11) for Ruth and Boaz type the good wishes of the Lord's people in general and the good leaders of the ten groups, that the Youthful Worthies might be fruitful in winning many of their own kind and that our Lord acquire riches and glory thereby in His fruitful sphere of Divine 

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


Truth as due. The wish (v. 12) that Boaz' house developed by Ruth be as the house of Pharez types the antitypes' wish that the Youthful Worthies be a princely class, as the typical one was. 

(21) Boaz' taking Ruth (v. 13) to wife and by her becoming the father of Obed (servile) types our Lord's uniting the Youthful Worthies to Himself and by them developing a great multitude of new Youthful Worthies. We are not to conclude that our Lord's uniting Himself with antitypical Ruth proves her to be the Church, because, as the Solomon of Canticles which covers Gospel-Age times, He had 60 queens and 80 concubines, as symbolic wives (Cant. 6:8, 9), yet His only real wife is the true Church (v. 9). The women congratulating Naomi and praising the Lord for the child's birth and for providing a worthy kinsman, type all the worthy groups of the Lord's people wishing the involved crown-losers good and praising God for His involved benefits, and our Lord as being a worthy antitypical kinsman who would therefore receive honor in spiritual Israel for His part in the transaction. Their proclaiming the child (v. 15) to become Naomi's help and stay, even to old age, for Ruth's relation to her, as better for her than any children that Naomi could have developed, types the Lord's people proclaiming the later found Youthful Worthies as the helper and stay of the good crown-losers, even unto the end, because of the Youthful Worthies' relation to these crown-losers—the Ruth class being better to these crown-losers than all the classes that they could develop. Naomi's laying the child in her bosom and nursing it (v. 16) types the love and ministry of these crown-losers to these new Youthful Worthies. The women announcing the child as a descendant of the good crown-losers and calling it Obed (servile) type all the groups of the Lord's people setting forth the thought that the new Youthful Worthies are descendants of the good crown-losers and that that class would be a servant one—antitypical Levites, not priests. The

The Epiphany's Elect. 


facts of this paragraph were all fulfilled in 1920 and 1921. The genealogy following (vs. 17-22) is no part of this history, though related to it, hence we pass it by without further comment. Our very brief exposition above is a truthful, harmonious and reasonable and natural application of the history in the book of Ruth to undoubted pertinent facts, and thus, as the Truth on the subject, is in marked contrast with the unfactual, inharmonious, unreasonable, and forced application of this history to his movement made by J.F.R. in 1932. We might here remark that the exposition given above was not understood by us until years after the antitype was entirely fulfilled; and at that time of our writing the articles through which antitypical Boaz spoke the antitypes of Boaz' speeches in Chapters 3 and 4 we did not realize the uses the Lord was making of us and of The Present Truth, even as our Pastor was unconscious of the antitypical acts he was used to perform. 

(22) We have been in receipt of several letters asking us to harmonize our understanding of Ruth as a type of the Youthful Worthies with the comment in the Berean Manual on Ruth 4:1. In answer we would say that said comment is one of C. J. Woodworth's own additions, against which we have cautioned the brethren in The Present Truth. Turning to E 153 we find no reference there to our Lord as "the Son-in-law of Naomi, type (?) of Eve, that He might redeem Ruth, type of the Church, and her field, type of the world," as the comment puts it. We have been unable to find anywhere in our Pastor's writings that thought expressed, which strikes the thoughtful mind as very unlike one of our Pastor's sober views. Our Lord could not have been a symbolic son-in-law to Naomi suggested by the comment, even if Ruth had represented the Church, for the reason that Ruth was not the daughter but the daughter-in-law of Naomi; nor was Naomi a type of Eve as Christ's alleged typical

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


mother-in-law; because Eve was not a typical mother-in-law of Jesus; she was actually Jesus' mother, in the sense corresponding to Adam's being His father, indicated in the expression, The Son of the Man, whence as respects Eve Jesus might have called Himself the Son of the Woman (Gen. 3:15). Accordingly, Naomi was not a type of Eve. The comment in question, a product of C. J. W. and not of our Pastor, in so far as we have criticized it, is a fair example of the vagariousness of C. J. W. unguided by our Pastor's thought. Ruth 4:1-10 in E 153 is used to prove Jesus' Millennial restitution work, which use is not contradictory of our understanding that Ruth types the Youthful Worthies, since they will be a part of the purchased possession delivered in the Millennium, though we doubt that our Pastor had the Youthful Worthies in mind when he cited the passage; for he seems here to cite the passage to prove Jesus' deliverance of the world by a symbolic marriage to the Restitution class, i.e., making Himself one with the faithful Restitutionists (Is. 62:4, 5). Is. 62:4, 5 proves that the Church also is part of the husband of this symbolic marriage. 

(23) There is very good reason for denying that Ruth types the Church. Ruth does not fit as a type of the Church for the following seven cogent reasons: In the first place, the Church is not a stranger in symbolic Canaan. The Church is typed by one born in the land—begotten of the Spirit. Moreover, the Church did not glean, which is exclusively a Great Company (the poor) and a Youthful Worthy (the stranger) work. The Church was purchased in completion before the last (1914-1916) stage of the gleaning commenced. The Church was a virgin never before married. The Church cannot be married to Jesus levirately, for her Espoused, Jesus, cannot die. No one ever had a right to marry the Church prior to that of Jesus. 


(1) What appears in The Towers of Sept. 15-Dec. 1, 1932? Of what are its thoughts an example? What has 

The Epiphany's Elect. 


the editor of The Present Truth promised? How will it be performed here? As what will it serve? What is the time setting of the antitype of the events given in the book of Ruth? What is typed by the famine of Ruth 1:1, 2? What does Bethlehem mean and type? What does Elimelech mean and type? What does Moab mean and type here? Naomi? Mahlon? Chilion? What is typed by their being in Ephratah? Judah? Why, in each case? What is involved in their leaving Canaan and going to Moab, type and antitype? What is typed by Elimelech's death? By Naomi's and her sons' being left? By Mahlon's and Chilion's taking Moabitish wives? What does Orpah mean and type? Ruth? Their abiding in Moab ten years? 

(2) What is typed by Mahlon's and Chilion's death? By Naomi's being left by her husband and sons? By God's again giving Israel bread? What was its first part? What is typed by Naomi's hearing of this? By her, Orpah's and Ruth's rising to return? What is typed by their going forth to return to Canaan? What is typed by Naomi's first appeal to her daughters to return to their homes? What other antitype illustrates this? What were the things in antitypical Naomi that acted repellingly on antitypical Orpah and Ruth? What contrast strengthened this repellant effect? What is typed by Orpah's and Ruth's weeping? By Naomi's kissing them? 

(3) What is typed by their insistence to follow Naomi? By Naomi's second attempt to send them away? Why did the antitypes have such an effect? What is typed by Naomi's stating that she was beyond motherhood? And by her saying that if she could become a mother for husbands of them, the time of waiting would be too long for them? What is typed by Naomi's grief for them? What added to it in type and antitype? What is typed by Orpah's and Ruth's second outburst of grief? By Orpah's succumbing and kissing Naomi? By Ruth's surmounting these difficulties? 

(4) What is typed by Naomi's third appeal to Ruth to return? By Ruth's overcoming it? By her telling Naomi to cease dissuading her from following? What does the language of vs. 16, 17, type in its various details? What did Ruth's decision make her? What does this type? What does Canaan type? Being born in it? Dwelling as a stranger in it? What is typed by Naomi's ceasing from

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


dissuading Ruth to follow her? By their going on unto Bethlehem? What was the effect, type and antitype, on the Bethlehemites? Why? How were Naomi and Ruth, type and antitype, received at Bethlehem? 

(5) What does Naomi's plaint show, type and antitype? What are the contrasted thoughts, type and antitype, implied in the names, Naomi and Mara? What lesson should we learn from this? What is typed by Naomi's bewailing her impoverished condition? What is typed by the repetition of the thought of vs. 19-21? 

(6) What is noteworthy in the time of Naomi's and Ruth's coming to Bethlehem? How are the barley and wheat harvests and products related, type and antitype? What parable makes this antitypical distinction? How? What is typed by Naomi's and Ruth's coming to Bethlehem at the start of the barley harvest? At the time of what call did their antitypes come into the Truth? What teaching corroborates this thought? Why? How did this effect antitypical Ruth? Before and after which date? What does the antitype prove as to the chronology of the antitypes of the first chapter of Ruth? 

(7) What period is covered by the antitype of Ruth 2? What is typed by Boaz' relation through Elimelech to Naomi and Ruth? By Boaz' power and wealth? What is typed by Ruth's seeking opportunities to glean? Her pleading with Naomi to let her glean? What is typed by the field in which Ruth gleaned? Her gleaning after the reapers among the sheaves? By Boaz' coming to Bethlehem to bless, and by his blessing the reapers? By their fervent wishes? By Boaz' question put to the superintendent of the reapers? What shows this? By the superintendent's answer? Wherein given? By his allusion to Ruth's relation to Naomi? By his praise of Ruth's zeal and industry? 

(8) What is typed by Boaz' addressing Ruth? By the expression, "Hearest thou not, my daughter?" By his suggesting that she work in his fields? Beside his maidens? By her not going to other fields? By Boaz' encouraging her to fix her eyes on the field where his maidens worked? By his assurances of his measures for her safety against injury? By his inviting her to quench her thirst with the waters drawn by the young men? Wherein were these thoughts of Boaz antityped? By Ruth's acknowledgements and wonder at Boaz' course toward her, a stranger?

The Epiphany's Elect. 


(9) What is antitypically implied in Boaz' multiformed answer, type and antitype? Wherein were these antitypes expressed? By his wishing her Divine rewards for her good works? Wherein were these antitypes expressed? By Ruth's answer? By her telling the reasons that emboldened her to request his favor? By Boaz' inviting her to partake of the repast? By its two kinds of food? By Ruth's accepting the invitation? By her sitting at the meal beside the reapers? By Boaz' handing her parched corn? By her eating to satiety? By her leaving for the work? 

(10) What is typed by Boaz' fourfold charge to the young men? By Ruth's gleaning all day? Beating out the barley? Gleaning an ephah full? Taking the gleanings to the city? Bringing them to Naomi? Naomi's seeing the gleanings? Naomi's bringing forth food from her surplus? Naomi's questions, indicating wonder over Ruth's success? Naomi's conclusions, based on Ruth's large success? Ruth's revealing Boaz as the one giving success? 

(11) What is typed by Naomi's wishing Boaz well for his kindness to the living and the dead? Her declaring Boaz to have the right to redeem? Ruth the Moabitess telling Naomi that Boaz invited her to glean in close association with his maidens until the harvest's end? Naomi's telling Ruth that it would be well to do this and not to be found gleaning elsewhere? Ruth's following this suggestion? Throughout the barley harvest? Wheat harvest? What does our study show of the antitypical chronology of Ruth 2? What is typed by Ruth's remaining with Naomi? 

(12) What is the antitypical chronological setting of Ruth 3? What will prove this? What was the view of Vol. VII and the Societyites in 1917 and 1918 on the close of the door? When did it and the gleaning actually close? What did their view make them conclude? Where were these thoughts expressed? What is the antitype of Naomi's telling her ambitions for Ruth? Of her reminding Ruth that Boaz was a near kinsman (redeemer)? What is typed by her telling Ruth that Boaz was winnowing barley on the threshing floor? What were some of the winnowing experiences of that time? What is typed by her telling Ruth to wash, anoint and adorn herself? What truths were at that time gladdening the Church? Our Lord? How was this latter thought typed?

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


(13) What is typed by Naomi's telling Ruth not to present herself to Boaz for the pertinent purpose until after he had dined? What is typed by the time after Boaz had retired being the proper time for Ruth to present herself? By the instruction to uncover Boaz' feet and lie down there? By Naomi's telling Ruth that then Boaz would tell her what to do? Ruth's promise to do as Naomi had directed? How were the antitypes of Naomi's wishes and instructions for Ruth enacted? How do we know this to be a fact? What is typed by Ruth's doing as Naomi instructed? What is the character of the above applications? 

(14) When did the first and second issues of this magazine appear? What are the subjects of their articles? What did these articles give the Little Flock? Who shared in this? By what is this typed? What is typed by Boaz' lying down at the end of the heap of barley? By Ruth's coming softly to Boaz, uncovering his feet and lying down? By Boaz' trembling? His turning and seeing Ruth? Through what was this antitypically done? What is typed by Boaz' question? By Ruth's answer? Her request that Boaz spread his skirt over her? By her statement of his being a near relative? 

(15) What is typed by Boaz' commendatory answer? By his encouraging Ruth? His promising Ruth's requests? His acknowledging his near kinship? His mentioning of another, yet nearer? His counseling Ruth to await the outcome of the affair? His pledge to Ruth? Where is it found? What is typed by his telling Ruth to lie down until morning? 

(16) How is Ruth's compliance shown in the type and antitype? What is typed by the secrecy and the counseling of secrecy in the involved acts and in Ruth's leaving while the darkness prevented recognition? By Boaz' telling Ruth to put her apron into a position to receive barley? Wherein was this counsel antitypically given? What is typed by her compliance? His giving her six measures of barley? Ruth's coming to Naomi? Naomi's question? Ruth's telling of Boaz' instructions? Whereby was this antitype performed? What is typed by Ruth's showing Naomi the six measures of barley? By Naomi's advice? 

(17) How long was the period of antityping the events of Ruth 4? What is typed by Boaz' going to the gate and sitting down there? What is typed by the nearer relative's 

The Epiphany's Elect. 


coming to the gate? By Boaz' calling and having him sit down at the gate? By his complying? By the ten elders? By Boaz' asking them to judge as witnesses? The elders' complying? Boaz' telling the nearer relative of Naomi's selling a parcel of Elimelech's land? 

(18) What is typed by Boaz' telling him that he had decided to give him the first chance to redeem it publicly? By Boaz' telling him to decide whether or not he would buy it? By Boaz' assurance that he would acquire it, if the other would not? Wherein were the pertinent offers made? What is typed by the nearer kinsman's promising to redeem it? By Boaz' telling him he must with the field redeem Ruth, to raise up seed for the dead? Whose marriage was not herein involved? Why not? 

(19) Why did the kinsman balk at this? What is the antitype? Why this in the antitype? Wherein, through whom and how did the directors and editors decline the antitypical offer? Before what date was that article prepared? What was done for several months with its contents at Bethel? What is typed by the nearer relative's offering and letting Boaz have the opportunity? Explain what is typed by the custom of taking off and giving the shoe in redeeming and changing property, and in refusing to marry a childless brother's widow. Why were such transactions evil? What do they type for the three classes in Spiritual Israel? Why does an antitypical levirate marriage not apply to the Little Flock? To what other evils were they given over? What is typed by the nearer kinsman's taking off his shoe and giving it to Boaz? What antitypical wrong acts followed? 

(20) What did not Ruth do as required by Deut. 25:9? Why not? What in this case was done with the antitypical kinsman? What is typed by spittal? What is implied in real and symbolic spitting in the face? How was this done in this antitype? What is typed by Boaz' calling upon the elders and people to be witnesses of the transaction? Through what was this done in the antitype? What is typed by Boaz' calling upon all to witness that he had taken the other's shoe and that he had redeemed Ruth because of the other's failing to do so? To raise up seed to Mahlon? Whereby did our Lord do this? What is typed by the elders' and others' agreeing so to witness? By their three good wishes?

Ruth—Type and Antitype. 


(21) What is typed by Boaz' taking Ruth to wife and producing Obed by her? What are we not to conclude in the antitype from Boaz' and Ruth's marriage? Why not? What is typed by the women congratulating Naomi, praising Jehovah for the birth of Obed and lauding such a worthy one as Boaz? By their statement on Obed's being a help and stay for Naomi, even to old age? On Ruth, who loved her as being to her better than seven sons? By Naomi's putting Obed on her bosom and nursing him? By the women announcing the child a descendant of Naomi? Calling him Obed? Why is the genealogy not further discussed here? What may properly be said of the foregoing exposition of the book of Ruth in antitype? How does it stand in contrast with J.F. Rutherford's application of it? Until when was the foregoing understanding of the book of Ruth not made clear? Of what was the writer of the articles containing our Lord's statements antitypical of those of Boaz in chapters 3 and 4 unaware at the time of their writing? 

(22) What might cause some to wonder? Who is the originator of that thought expressed in the Berean Manual on Ruth 4:1? What does E 153 not give as to the comment? Where else has such a thought not been found? What typical relation did Naomi not have to our Lord, suggested in the comment? What typical relation did she not have to Eve as suggested in the comment? Why did Eve's real relation to Jesus forbid such a thought? Of what is the comment a fair example? How is Ruth 4:1-10 used in E 153? As such what does it not contradict? Why not? Who did not likely think of the Youthful Worthies while citing Ruth 4:1-10 in E 153? Why not? What thought thereby did he seem to have in mind? What does Is. 62:4, 5 also prove? 

(23) How many cogent reasons can be given for denying that Ruth is a type of the Church? How is this shown by the fact of Ruth's being a stranger in the land? By the Church as born in antitypical Canaan? By the gleaning of Ruth? By the Church's being completely purchased before the last stage of the gleaning commenced? By her being an unmarried virgin before marrying Jesus? By her not being capable of a levirate marriage with Jesus? By none having a right to her prior to Jesus'? 

The Epiphany's Elect. 



"Entreat me not. Let Orpah go, 

If Moab still has charms for her: 

No more my native land I know, 

Nor love the paths which cause to err. 

A hand she does not—cannot see, 

Still waves me on to follow thee. 

"Entreat me not. Whate'er the road 

Thou choosest, there I too shall tread; 

And wheresoe'er thou mak'st abode, 

There also shall I rest my head. 

For thee I henceforth all resign— 

Thy people and thy God are mine. 

"Entreat me not. When life shall fail, 

And thou, my mother, com'st to die, 

With thee I'll face the shadow'd vale, 

And, where thou'rt buried, I shall lie. 

My leading stars—thy God and thou— 

Not even death shall part us now!" 

Daughter of Moab, nobly done! 

On, onward to the promis'd land! 

There shines on righteousness the sun; 

There dwells for God the chosen band; 

On milk and honey shalt thou fare 

And Israel's God accept thee there. 

No more the widow's moan shall rend 

Thy bosom, wailing for the dead; 

New joys shall on thy steps attend, 

New virgins deck thy bridal-bed; 

A num'rous offspring round thee bloom, 

And monarchs issue from thy womb. 

More favour'd still, the promis'd seed 

Thy life-blood in His veins shall feel; 

He, who for sinful man shall bleed, 

And Satan crush beneath His heel. 

Such honour on thy name shall rest, 

And unborn millions call thee blest!